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Periodic Limb Movement

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2981. Use of sleep-promoting medications in nursing home residents : risks versus benefits. (Abstract)

Use of sleep-promoting medications in nursing home residents : risks versus benefits. This paper reviews the use of sleep-promoting medications in nursing home residents with reference to risks versus benefits. Up to two-thirds of elderly people living in institutions experience sleep disturbance. The aetiology of sleep disturbance includes poor sleep hygiene, medical and psychiatric disorders, sleep apnoea, periodic limb movements and restless leg syndrome. One key factor in the development (...) to avoid long-acting benzodiazepines and to use hypnotics for as brief a period as possible, in most cases not exceeding 2-3 weeks of treatment. Patients receiving benzodiazepines are at increased risk of daytime sedation, falls, and cognitive and psychomotor impairment. Zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone and eszopiclone may have some advantages over the benzodiazepines, particularly with respect to the development of tolerance and dependence. Ramelteon, a novel agent with high selectivity for melatonin

2006 Drugs & Aging

2982. Transdermal treatment options for neurological disorders: impact on the elderly. (Abstract)

severe adverse effects. Thus, parkinsonian patients with long-term levodopa syndrome or motor disorders during sleep could benefit from use of transdermal lisuride and apomorphine. Moreover, transdermal dopaminergic drugs, particularly rotigotine, seem the ideal treatment for patients experiencing restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder during sleep, disorders that are quite common in elderly people or in association with neurodegenerative diseases. Unlike dopaminergic drugs (...) administration of drugs during the day to maintain constant plasma medication levels, which in turn increases the likelihood of poor adherence. Consequently, several attempts have been made to develop pharmacological preparations that can achieve a constant rate of drug delivery. For example, transdermal lisuride and apomorphine have been shown to reduce motor fluctuations and duration of 'off' periods in advanced Parkinson's disease, while rotigotine allows significant down-titration of levodopa without

2006 Drugs & Aging

2983. Sleep disorders in end-stage renal disease: 'Markers of inadequate dialysis'? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sleep disorders in end-stage renal disease: 'Markers of inadequate dialysis'? Excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep disorders, including sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and periodic limb movement disorder, occur with increased frequency in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The detection and management of sleep disorders in ESRD patients is often challenging but may have significant clinical benefits. Some of the poor quality of life in ESRD may be attributed

2006 Kidney International

2984. Sleep disturbance in menopause. (Abstract)

-three percent of the women had apnea, restless legs, or both. The best predictors of objective sleep quality (laboratory sleep efficiency) were apneas, periodic limb movements, and arousals (R=0.44, P<0.0001). The best predictors of subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score) were the Hamilton anxiety score and the number of hot flashes in the first half of the night (R=0.19, P<0.001).Primary sleep disorders (apnea and restless legs syndrome) are common in this population

2007 Menopause

2985. Polysomnographic measures of nocturnal sleep in patients on chronic, intermittent daytime haemodialysis vs those with chronic kidney disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

was treatment with HD, and respiratory disturbance index (P = 0.061). Less total sleep time, increased wake after sleep onset, lower sleep efficiency, higher periodic limb movement index, and longer latencies to sleep onset and rapid eye movement sleep were also noted in the HD group. Quality of life scores did not predict sleep variables in this small sample.The results suggest that the sleep problems of patients with CKD and those receiving chronic, intermittent daytime HD may have different aetiologies (...) ; functional and psychological factors may play a more prominent role in the former group, while intrinsic sleep disruption (arousals, apnoeas and limb movements) secondary to the effects of chronic, intermittent daytime HD may play a more significant role in the latter. The findings suggest that further exploration is warranted and that population-specific sleep-promoting interventions may be indicated.

2005 Transplantation

2986. Sleep disorders and illness intrusiveness in patients on chronic dialysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sleep disorders and illness intrusiveness in patients on chronic dialysis. The prevalence of sleep problems (insomnia, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements in sleep and sleep apnoea) has been shown to be high in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and might contribute to impaired quality of life in this population.In a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires, we examined the prevalence of sleep disorders and assessed their effect on different aspects

2004 Transplantation

2987. Comparison of unreamed nailing and external fixation of tibial diastases--mechanical conditions during healing and biological outcome. (Abstract)

with either a locked unreamed tibial nail or a monolateral fixator in a sheep model. Interfragmentary movements and ground reaction parameters were monitored in vivo throughout the healing period. After sacrifice, the tibiae were examined mechanically and histologically. Bending angles and axial torsion at the fracture site were larger in the nail group within the first five weeks post-operatively. Unlike the fixator group, the operated limb in the nail group did not return to full weight bearing during (...) the treatment period. Mechanical and histomorphometrical observations showed significantly inferior bone healing in the nail group compared to the fixator group. In this study, unreamed nailing of a tibial diastasis did not provide rotational stability of the osteosynthesis and resulted in a significant delay in bone healing.

2004 Journal of Orthopaedic Research

2988. The two faces of Eve: dopamine's modulation of wakefulness and sleep. (Abstract)

The two faces of Eve: dopamine's modulation of wakefulness and sleep. In Parkinson's disease (PD), waking is frequently punctuated by sleep episodes, including rapid eye movement (REM) (i.e., dream) sleep, and sleep is interrupted by motor activities such as periodic limb movements and REM sleep behavior disorder. Because these pathologic behaviors are unaccounted for by contemporary models, this review summarizes the complex effects of dopamine (DA) on normal and pathological waking-sleeping (...) . Maintenance of wakefulness is probably promoted by mesocorticolimbic DA circuits, and suppression of nocturnal movement appears to be influenced by indirect pathways linking midbrain DA neurons with pre-motor structures in the mesopontine tegmentum and ventromedial medulla. A diencephalospinal DA system may have an additional important role in mediating state-specific sensorimotor activity that is relevant to periodic limb movements and restless legs syndrome.

2004 Neurology

2989. Myoclonus and generalized digestive dysmotility in triple A syndrome with AAAS gene mutation. (Abstract)

Myoclonus and generalized digestive dysmotility in triple A syndrome with AAAS gene mutation. We report on the case of a 25-year-old woman with triple A syndrome and gene mutation, who, during the long follow-up period of 23 years, developed myoclonus of the face and the upper limbs (with normal brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and widespread digestive dysmotility, involving small bowels and gall bladder. These features, not previously described, illustrate an extension of the cerebral (...) and digestive neurological involvement in this syndrome.Copyright 2003 Movement Disorder Society

2004 Movement Disorders

2990. An urge to move with L-thyroxine: clinical, biochemical, and polysomnographic correlation. (Abstract)

An urge to move with L-thyroxine: clinical, biochemical, and polysomnographic correlation. We report on the cause and effect relationship of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with L-thyroxine treatment in a hypothyroid patient with low serum ferritin. Upon challenge and withdrawal of L-thyroxine, there was a significant change in the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group severity score (26/40 to 6/40), the periodic limb movements (PMLS) index (20/hour to 10/hour), the number of arousals

2004 Movement Disorders

2991. Left hemibody myoclonus due to anomalous right vertebral artery. (Abstract)

Left hemibody myoclonus due to anomalous right vertebral artery. A 43-year-old man presented with sporadic, sudden, brief, and involuntary jerks of his left limbs and trunk muscles. The electromyographic recordings showed short-lasting highly synchronized bursts, compatible with myoclonus limited to the left hemibody. Blink reflex, masseter silent period, cortical and spinal magnetic stimulation, somatosensory cortical evoked potentials, and electroencephalogram (EEG) were normal; the EEG back (...) -averaging showed no spikes preceding the myoclonus. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography showed the presence of an anomalous nonectasic right vertebral artery compressing the right side of ventral medulla oblongata. We hypothesize that the aberrant right vertebral artery induced abnormal activation of descending motor tracts responsible for the myoclonus.(c) 2004 Movement Disorder Society.

2005 Movement Disorders

2992. Recessive hyperekplexia due to a new mutation (R100H) in the GLRA1 gene. (Abstract)

Recessive hyperekplexia due to a new mutation (R100H) in the GLRA1 gene. Hyperekplexia is commonly familial and with dominant transmission. The gene involved, GLRA1, encodes the alpha1 subunit of the glycine receptor. We describe 3 affected children homozygous for a new mutation, R100H. Both parents were heterozygous carriers; while the father was healthy, the mother has periodic limb movements during sleep. This suggests that Hys-100 could exhibit incomplete penetrance, but was linked

2005 Movement Disorders

2993. Diffusion tensor imaging in presymptomatic and early Huntington's disease: Selective white matter pathology and its relationship to clinical measures. (Abstract)

imaging (DTI) to examine the regional nature of WM abnormalities in early HD, including the preclinical period, and to determine whether regional changes correlated with clinical features. We studied individuals in early stages (HD), presymptomatic individuals known to carry the genetic mutation that causes HD (Pre-HD), and matched healthy controls. DTI indices of tissue integrity were obtained from several regions of interest, including the corpus callosum (CC), internal capsule (IC), and basal (...) ganglia, were compared across groups by t tests, and were correlated to cognitive and clinical measures. WM alterations were found throughout the CC, in the anterior and posterior limbs of the IC, and in frontal subcortical WM in HD subjects, supporting the selective involvement of the pyramidal tracts in HD; a similar distribution of changes was seen in Pre-HD subjects, supporting presymptomatic alterations. There was a significant relationship between select DTI measures and cognitive performance

2006 Movement Disorders

2994. Sleep-related stridor due to dystonic vocal cord motion and neurogenic tachypnea/tachycardia in multiple system atrophy. (Abstract)

patients had tachycardia and tachypnea and paradoxical breathing during sleep, erratic intercostalis and diaphragmatic EMG activity and Rem sleep behavior disorder. One of the patients had restless legs syndrome with periodic limb movement during sleep and excessive fragmentary hypnic myoclonus. In conclusion, our patients with MSA had nocturnal stridor due to sleep-related laryngeal dystonia. Stridor was associated with other abnormal sleep-related respiratory and motor disorders, suggesting

2007 Movement Disorders

2995. Assessment of restless legs syndrome-Methodological approaches for use in practice and clinical trials. (Abstract)

activity monitoring by actigraphy) to evaluate sleep and periodic leg movements (including the "suggested immobilization test"); and (5) severity of augmentation (Augmentation Severity Rating Scale, ASRS). It is concluded that several validated methods are available to investigate the main features of RLS in practice and in clinical trials; however, further developments are needed to address new questions like the consequences of RLS on life functioning in areas such as ability to travel, days missed (...) overview on validated methods to assess (1) severity of RLS symptoms [International RLS Rating Scale (IRLS), John Hopkins RLS Severity Scale (JHRLSSS), the RLS-6 scales, and the investigator-based Clincial Global Impressions (CGI)]; (2) quality of life [RLS Quality of Life Instrument (RLS-QLI), Hopkins RLS Quality of Life Questionnaire (RLSQoL), and the RLS Quality of Life Questionnaire (QoL-RLS)]; (3) sleep disturbances and sudden onset of sleep; (4) sleep laboratory methods (polysomnography, limb

2007 Movement Disorders

2996. RLS, PLM, and their differential diagnosis-A video guide. (Abstract)

RLS, PLM, and their differential diagnosis-A video guide. This video guide has been designed as an introduction to the full spectrum of nocturnal presentations of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movements (PLM), and to their differential diagnoses. The DVD consists of four sections: In the first part, clinical presentations of RLS are covered (videos 1-3). In the second part, the variety of typical and less frequent presentations of PLM are demonstrated (videos 4-14). The third (...) part shows the clinical presentation of augmentation (videos 15-19). The last section is dedicated to the differential diagnosis of RLS and PLM and demonstrates nocturnal manifestations of other motor disorders during sleep, which must be distinguished: Epilepsy, parasomnias, and other movement disorders (of sleep) (videos 20-33). After viewing this DVD, the reader should be able to: (1) appreciate the spectrum of voluntary and unvoluntary movements seen in patients with RLS during wakefulness; (2

2007 Movement Disorders

2997. The syndrome of combined polar and paramedian thalamic infarction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(4 with right-sided lesions, 3 with bilateral lesions) and persistent eye movement dysfunction in 5 patients (2 with right-sided lesions, 1 with left-sided lesions, 2 with bilateral lesions). The most common etiology appeared to be cardioembolism, followed by artery-to-artery embolism and presumed small-artery disease.Key features of this syndrome included amnesia preceded by a period of altered consciousness, and vertical eye movement disturbances. The severe and persistent amnesia may be due (...) combined polar-paramedian thalamic infarction in 12 patients (6 right-sided lesions, 3 left-sided lesions, and 3 bilateral lesions) who were selected from 208 consecutively registered patients with thalamic strokes in the Lausanne Stroke Registry.The clinical manifestation included executive dysfunction, apathy, and memory impairment in all patients, with eye movement disturbances in 10 patients (5 with right-sided lesions, 2 with left-sided lesions, 3 with bilateral lesions); acutely impaired

2005 Archives of Neurology

2998. Risk factors for excessive sleepiness in older adults. (Abstract)

beverages per week) reduced the risk for sleepiness. Multiple risk factors were more commonly present in those with complaints of sleepiness. The presence of periodic limb movements, which are common in older adults, was not associated with sleepiness.There is a distinct differential diagnosis of excessive daytime sleepiness in older adults. Many of the risk factors that we identified are treatable.Ann Neurol 2006;59:893-904. (...) . Multivariable modeling identified the following as simultaneously significant risk factors for excessive sleepiness: severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, >30 episodes/hr), self-report of poor sleep quality, increased percentage of time in rapid eye movement sleep, pain at night at least three times per week, wheezing or whistling from chest at night, and medications with sleepiness as a side effect. Male sex also was associated with increased risk, whereas alcohol use (more than seven

2006 Annals of Neurology

2999. Performance of locomotion and foot grasping following a unilateral thoracic corticospinal tract lesion in monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Full Text available with Trip Pro

the distal foot musculature, fine foot grasping remained significantly impaired at the end of the testing period. These findings demonstrate that the CST pathway from the brain normally makes an important contribution to interlimb and intralimb coordination during basic locomotion, and to muscle activation to produce dexterous foot digit movements in the monkey. Furthermore, the present study indicates that the primate has the ability to rapidly accommodate locomotor performance, and to a lesser degree (...) a period of 12 weeks after the CST lesion. After 1 week of recovery, all monkeys were able to walk unaided quadrupedally on the treadmill. The animals, however, dragged the hindpaw ipsilateral to the lesion along the treadmill belt during the swing phase and showed a significant reorganization of the spatiotemporal pattern of hindlimb (HL) and forelimb (FL) displacements. The inability to appropriately trigger the swing phase resulted in an increase in the cycle duration and stride length of both HLs

2005 Brain

3000. Less is more: pathophysiology of dopaminergic-therapy-related augmentation in restless legs syndrome. (Abstract)

is a syndrome characterised by a severely increased dopamine concentration in the CNS; overstimulation of the dopamine D1 receptors compared with D2 receptors in the spinal cord may lead to D1-related pain and generate periodic limb movements; iron deficiency may be a main predisposing factor of augmentation, probably caused by a reduced function of the dopamine transporter; therapy with levodopa or dopamine agonists should remain at low doses and; iron supplementation and opiates are the therapy of choice

2006 Lancet Neurology

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