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Perinatal Hepatitis C Exposure

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1. Perinatal Hepatitis C Exposure

Perinatal Hepatitis C Exposure Perinatal Hepatitis C Exposure Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Perinatal Hepatitis C (...) Exposure Perinatal Hepatitis C Exposure Aka: Perinatal Hepatitis C Exposure , Infants born to Mothers with Hepatitis C , HCV Vertical Transmission II. Indications: Screening in pregnant women See for risk factors III. Pathophysiology Vertical transmission Risk Mother HCV Ab positive and HCV RNA negative: 1.7% vertical transmission rate of HCV Mother HCV Ab Positive and HCV RNA positive: 4.3% vertical transmission rate of HCV Mother HCV Ab Positive and Comorbid HIV positive: 19.4% vertical transmission

2018 FP Notebook

2. Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA

prevention interventions, such as behavioural advice, harm reduction services, HBV vaccination and HIV pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP). In addition, through partner notification and/or contact tracing, testing can be offered to a diagnosed individual’s sexual partners, injecting partners and, for HBV, household contacts (Section 4.5). SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA – An integrated approach 7 2.4 Diagnostics for HBV, HCV and HIV (...) Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA SCIENTIFIC AD VICE www.ecdc.europa.eu Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA An integrated approachECDC SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEA An integrated approach ii This guidance was commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), coordinated by Andrew J Amato-Gauci and Lara Tavoschi with the support of Helena

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

3. Impact of perinatal exposure to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS‐55) on adiposity and hepatic lipid composition in rat offspring (PubMed)

Impact of perinatal exposure to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS‐55) on adiposity and hepatic lipid composition in rat offspring Fructose-containing sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), have been implicated in the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Few studies have evaluated the impact of perinatal exposure to these sugars on metabolic and physiological outcomes in the offspring. Using a rat model, offspring exposed to a maternal sucrose or HFCS diet (...) ) during the prenatal and/or suckling periods on offspring at 3 and 12 weeks, utilising a cross-fostering approach in a rodent model. Perinatal sucrose exposure decreased plasma glucose concentrations in offspring at 3 weeks, but did not alter glucose tolerance. Increased adiposity was observed in 3-week-old offspring exposed to sucrose or HFCS-55 during suckling, with increased hepatic fat content in HFCS-55-exposed offspring. In terms of specific fatty acids, hepatic monounsaturated (omega-7 and -9

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2017 The Journal of physiology

4. Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Nrf2 Expression following Perinatal and Peripubertal Exposure to Bisphenol A in a Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Liver Disease (PubMed)

Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Nrf2 Expression following Perinatal and Peripubertal Exposure to Bisphenol A in a Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Liver Disease Exposure to chemicals during critical windows of development may re-program liver for increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Bisphenol A (BPA), a plastics component, has been described to impart adverse effects during gestational and lactational exposure. Our work has pointed to nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 (...) ) being a modulator of hepatic lipid accumulation in models of NAFLD.To determine if chemical exposure can prime liver for steatosis via modulation of NRF2 and epigenetic mechanisms.Utilizing BPA as a model exposure, pregnant CD-1 mice were administered 25μg/kg/day BPA via osmotic minipumps from gestational day 8 through postnatal day (PND)16. The offspring were weaned on PND21 and exposed to same dose of BPA via their drinking water through PND35. Tissues were collected from pups at week 5 (W5

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2017 Environmental health perspectives

5. AASLD-IDSA Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C Virus Infection

for recommended weight-based dosages. Table 6. Recommendations for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Testing of Perinatally Exposed Children and Siblings of HCV-infected Children Recommendation Rating All children born to HCV-infected women should be tested for HCV infection. Testing is recommended using an antibody-based test at or after 18 months of age. I, A Testing with an HCV RNA assay can be considered in the first year of life, but the optimal timing of such a test is unknown. IIa, C Repetitive testing by HCV (...) childhood activities without restrictions. I, B Parents should be informed that universal precautions should be followed at school and in the home of children with HCV infection. Educate family members and children about the risk and routes of HCV transmission and the techniques for avoiding blood exposure, such as avoiding the sharing of toothbrushes, razors, and nail clippers and the use of gloves and dilute bleach to clean up blood. I, B Abbreviation: HCV, hepatitis C virus. Table 8. Recommendations

2019 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases

6. Effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol on delivery outcomes of pregnant rats and inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats (PubMed)

Effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol on delivery outcomes of pregnant rats and inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP) on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil) and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth (...) or cholesterol between the groups. Perinatal exposure to NP can interfere with the in vivo estrogen and progesterone levels of pregnant rats, resulting in threatened abortion, dystocia and other adverse delivery outcomes. High liver and serum NP levels of the newborn rats led to alteration of liver tissue structure and function. The NP-induced hepatotoxicity is probably mediated by inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1α.

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2016 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

7. Epigenome-wide DNA Methylation Analysis Implicates Neuronal and Inflammatory Signaling Pathways in Adult Murine Hepatic Tumorigenesis following Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A (PubMed)

Epigenome-wide DNA Methylation Analysis Implicates Neuronal and Inflammatory Signaling Pathways in Adult Murine Hepatic Tumorigenesis following Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A Developmental exposure to the endocrine-active compound bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to epigenotoxic and potential carcinogenic effects in rodent liver, prostate, and mammary glands. A dose-dependent increase in hepatic tumors in 10-month mice perinatally exposed to one of three doses of BPA (50 ng, 50 µg, or 50 mg (...) BPA/kg chow) was previously reported. These tumors represent early-onset disease and lack classical sexual dimorphism in incidence. Here, adult epigenome-wide liver DNA methylation profiles to identify gene promoters associated with perinatal BPA exposure and disease in 10-month mice with and without liver tumors were investigated. Mice with hepatic tumors showed 12,822 (1.8%) probes with differential methylation as compared with non-tumor animals, of which 8,656 (67.5%) were hypomethylated

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2016 Environmental and molecular mutagenesis

8. Hepatitis C in pregnancy: screening, treatment, and management

-coinfected women.J Pediatr Infect Dis Soc2013;2:126-35. 26.Snijdewind IJM, Smit C, Schutten M, et al. Low mother-to-child- transmission rate of hepatitis C virus in cART treated HIV-1 infected mothers. J Clin Virol2015;68:11-5. 27.European Pediatric Hepatitis C Virus Network. A signi?cant sexebut not elective cesarean sectioneeffect on mother-to-child transmission of hepatitisC virus infection. J Infect Dis 2005;192:1872-9. 28.Mast EE, Hwang LY, Seto DS, et al. Risk factors for perinatal trans- missionof (...) Hepatitis C in pregnancy: screening, treatment, and management Hepatitis C in pregnancy: screening, treatment, and management Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM); Brenna L. Hughes, MD, MSc; Charlotte M. Page, MD; Jeffrey A. Kuller, MD TheAmerican College ofObstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) endorses this document. In the United States, 1-2.5% of pregnant women are infected with hepatitis C virus, which carries an approximately5

2017 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

9. Hepatitis C Screening

Guideline | Hepatitis C Screening Household contacts of a person with HCV infection Recommendation 4 Where a household contact is a child who was born to an infected mother or a sexual contact of a HCV-infected person please refer to Recommendation 2 and Recommendation 13, respectively. 4.1 In general, HCV screening of household contacts (with no sexual or vertical exposure to the HCV positive household member) is not necessary due to the low risk of horizontal household transmission. However, there may (...) indicated, e.g. an unexplained rise in ALT, a diagnosis of a new STI, or if a risk exposure has occurred such as contact with a known case of HCV, or other risk behaviours including chemsex. Quality/level of evidence: moderate for HIV positive MSM; low for HIV negative MSM Strength of recommendation: strong ____________________________ 3 The use of recreational drugs for or during sex. 12 | Hepatitis C Screening | A National Clinical Guideline People attending for a sexual health screen Recommendation

2017 Publication 4890888

10. Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Perinatal Health

Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Perinatal Health APRIL 2014 Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Perinatal Health T Jason Curran 1 Summary • The period between conception and early childhood when vital organs are forming and rapidly developing is the most vulnerable of life stages to the effects of toxic environment exposures, including traffic-related air pollution (TRAP). • Epidemiologic studies on preterm birth have consistently shown elevated risks with a number (...) of measures of TRAP, including distance of residence from traffic corridors, traffic volume, air pollution surrogates, particularly PM 2.5 , and modeled estimates. • Fetal exposure to traffic-related pollutants is not consistently associated with indicators of fetal growth, including low birth weight, small for gestational age, and intrauterine growth restriction. • There is very limited evidence of weak associations between TRAP and perinatal mortality and congenital abnormalities. • Further research

2014 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

11. Perinatal Pb2+ exposure alters the expression of genes related to the neurodevelopmental GABA-shift in postnatal rats (PubMed)

Perinatal Pb2+ exposure alters the expression of genes related to the neurodevelopmental GABA-shift in postnatal rats Lead (Pb2+) is an environmental neurotoxicant that disrupts neurodevelopment, communication, and organization through competition with Ca2+ signaling. How perinatal Pb2+ exposure affects Ca2+-related gene regulation remains unclear. However, Ca2+ activates the L-Type voltage sensitive calcium channel β-3 subunit (Ca-β3), which autoregulates neuronal excitability and plays a role (...) (qRT-PCR). The effects of perinatal Pb2+ exposure on genes related to early neuronal development and the GABA-shift were evaluated through the expression of: Ca-β3, GABAAR-β3, NKCC1, KCC2, and GAD 80, 86, 65, and 67 isoforms.Perinatal Pb2+ exposure significantly altered the GABA-shift neurodevelopmental GOI expression as a function of Pb2+ exposure and age across postnatal development. Dramatic changes were observed with Ca-β3 expression consistent with a Pb2+ competition with L-type calcium

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2018 Journal of biomedical science

12. Learning and Memory in Children and Adolescents with Perinatal HIV Infection and Perinatal HIV Exposure. (PubMed)

Learning and Memory in Children and Adolescents with Perinatal HIV Infection and Perinatal HIV Exposure. Learning and memory in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) are poorly understood, despite their importance for academic, healthcare and daily functioning.PHIV (n = 173) and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU, n = 85) participants (aged 9-19 years) in a substudy of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study completed age-standardized tests of verbal and visual learning and delayed (...) memory. Linear regression models implemented via generalized estimating equations were used to compare memory measures in PHEU participants versus PHIV youth with and without Centers for Disease Control and Prevention class C diagnosis (PHIV-C, n = 45 and PHIV-non-C, n = 128, respectively), adjusting for sociodemographic covariates.Participants (mean age = 14.10 years) were 54% female, 75% Black and 18% Hispanic. Although unadjusted analyses showed significantly lower visual recognition memory

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2016 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

13. Executive Functioning in Children and Adolescents With Perinatal HIV Infection and Perinatal HIV Exposure (PubMed)

Executive Functioning in Children and Adolescents With Perinatal HIV Infection and Perinatal HIV Exposure Executive functions (EFs) are critical for management of life activities, but few studies have evaluated EFs in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV), who are at risk for problems in academics, behavior, and medication adherence. We compared EFs in youth with PHIV and in perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth.Four Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (...) (D-KEFS) subtests were administered to 173 youth with PHIV and 85 PHEU youth, aged 9 to <19 years, who were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) Memory and Executive Functioning Study. Youth with PHIV, with or without history of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Class C (AIDS-defining) condition (PHIV/C [n = 45] and PHIV/non-C [n = 128], respectively), were compared with each other and with PHEU youth. Among youth with PHIV, associations with measures of current

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2016 Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

14. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring. (PubMed)

of endocannabinoid-related behaviors, b) the metabolic profile of adult offspring and c) the mRNA expression of the signaling machinery of the ECS in the hypothalamus, the liver and the adipose tissue of adult offspring of both sexes. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in a) sex-dimorphic and perinatal diet specific feeding behaviors, including the differential response to the inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid receptor inverse agonist AM251, b) features of metabolic syndrome including increased adiposity (...) Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet during the Perinatal Period Affects the Expression of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System in the Brain, Liver and Adipose Tissue of Adult Rat Offspring. Recent studies have linked gestational exposure to highly caloric diets with a disrupted endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS). In the present study, we have extended these studies by analyzing the impact of the exposure to a palatable diet during gestation and lactation on a) the adult expression

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2016 PLoS ONE

15. Cocaine Self-Administration in Male and Female Rats Perinatally Exposed to PCBs: Evaluating Drug Use in an Animal Model of Environmental Contaminant Exposure (PubMed)

Cocaine Self-Administration in Male and Female Rats Perinatally Exposed to PCBs: Evaluating Drug Use in an Animal Model of Environmental Contaminant Exposure Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants known to adversely impact human health. Ortho-substituted PCBs affect the nervous system, including the brain dopaminergic system. The reinforcing effects of psychostimulants are typically modulated via the dopaminergic system, so this study used a preclinical (i.e (...) ., rodent) model to evaluate whether developmental contaminant exposure altered intravenous self-administration (IV SA) for the psychostimulant cocaine. Long-Evans rats were perinatally exposed to 6 or 3 mg/kg/day of PCBs throughout gestation and lactation and compared with nonexposed controls. Rats were trained to lever press for a food reinforcer in an operant chamber under a fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) schedule and later underwent jugular catheterization. Food reinforcers were switched for infusions of 250

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2017 Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology

16. GENO PROTECTIVE AND ANTI-APOPTOTIC EFFECT OF GREEN TEA AGAINST PERINATAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-EXPOSURE INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN RAT NEWBORNS (PubMed)

GENO PROTECTIVE AND ANTI-APOPTOTIC EFFECT OF GREEN TEA AGAINST PERINATAL LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-EXPOSURE INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN RAT NEWBORNS This study aims to examine the protective effect of green tea on the disturbances in oxidative stress and apoptosis related factors, mostly produced due to perinatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure, that subsequently induces liver cell damage.Anti-free radical, Antioxidant, scavenging, geno-protective, and antiapoptotic activity of aqueous green tea (...) extract (AGTE) were assessed against LPS-induced hepatic dysfunction in newborn-rats. AGTE at doses of 100 & 200 mg/kg was orally administered daily to rat dams, during gestation and lactation.AGTE was observed to exhibit protective effects by significantly attenuating LPS-induced alterations in serum AST, ALT, bilirubin, and albumin levels. Significant increase in the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), DNA contents, and reduction in nitric oxide (NO) levels were observed in AGTE treated rats comparing

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2017 African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines

17. Impact of Early-Life Exposures to Infections, Antibiotics, and Vaccines on Perinatal and Long-term Health and Disease (PubMed)

Impact of Early-Life Exposures to Infections, Antibiotics, and Vaccines on Perinatal and Long-term Health and Disease Essentially, all neonates are exposed to infections, antibiotics, or vaccines early in their lives. This is especially true for those neonates born underweight or premature. In contrast to septic adults and children who are at an increased risk for subsequent infections, exposure to infection during the neonatal period is not associated with an increased risk of subsequent (...) infection and may be paradoxically associated with reductions in late-onset sepsis (LOS) in the most premature infants. Perinatal inflammation is also associated with a decreased incidence of asthma and atopy later in life. Conversely, septic neonates are at increased risk of impaired long-term neurodevelopment. While the positive effects of antibiotics in the setting of infection are irrefutable, prolonged administration of broad-spectrum, empiric antibiotics in neonates without documented infection

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2017 Frontiers in immunology

18. Incorporating Recognition and Management of Perinatal Depression Into Pediatric Practice

, and family dysfunction. In a retrospective 1998 study of a large adult population, it was found that ACEs were common, which may point to high levels of resiliency present in childhood. Those with high levels of risk behaviors and disease as adults (eg, obesity, smoking, depression, suicidality) reported being exposed to multiple ACEs as children. Childhood exposure to household mental illness, such as perinatal depression, was 1 of the more common ACEs reported, and it was often associated with other (...) Incorporating Recognition and Management of Perinatal Depression Into Pediatric Practice Incorporating Recognition and Management of Perinatal Depression Into Pediatric Practice | From the American Academy of Pediatrics | Pediatrics '); document.write(''); } function OAS_AD(pos) { if (OAS_version >= 11 && typeof(OAS_RICH)!='undefined') { OAS_RICH(pos); } else { OAS_NORMAL(pos); } } //--> Search for this keyword Source User menu Sections Sign up for highlighting editor-chosen studies

2019 American Academy of Pediatrics

19. Hepatitis B and C testing: people at risk of infection

infectious disease and the Hepatitis B antenatal screening and newborn immunisation programme, both published by the Department of Health, and in the NICE guidance on Reducing the differences in the uptake of immunisations. Whose health will benefit? In the UK, the majority (95%) of new chronic hepatitis B infections occur in migrant populations, having been acquired perinatally in the country of birth. In contrast, approximately 90% of chronic hepatitis C infections are seen in people who inject drugs (...) and alcohol services, prisons) exposure category, if provided the number of people testing positive: for hepatitis B, this should include acute, chronic and past infection for hepatitis C, this should include PCR positive/current and PCR negative/ resolved. [1] NICE has accredited the process used by the British HIV Association to produce UK national guidelines. Accreditation is valid for 5 years from 12 July 2012 and is applicable to guidance produced since 2011. The NICE Accreditation Scheme recognises

2012 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

20. Fetal Overnutrition and Adolescent Hepatic Fat Fraction: the Exploring Perinatal Outcomes in Children Study. (PubMed)

Fetal Overnutrition and Adolescent Hepatic Fat Fraction: the Exploring Perinatal Outcomes in Children Study. To determine if fetal overnutrition resulting from maternal obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased liver fat during adolescence, adjusting for past and current metabolic risk factors.Data come from a historical prospective cohort study (Exploring Perinatal Outcomes in Children) of 254 mother-child pairs in Colorado who participated in 2 research (...) visits at T1 (mean age 10.4, SD = 1.5 years) and at T2 (mean age 16.4, SD = 1.5 years), and had complete exposure and outcome data. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and GDM on hepatic fat fraction (HFF) by magnetic resonance imaging at T2.Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (BMI 30+) was significantly associated (β = 1.59, CI = 0.66, 2.52) with increased HFF relative to mothers with normal pre-pregnancy weight (BMI <25) independent

2017 Journal of Pediatrics

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