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Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin

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1. Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin

Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Penicillinase (...) -Resistant Penicillin Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin Aka: Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin , Penicillinase-Resistant Semisynthetic Penicillin , Cloxacillin , Dicloxacillin , Methicillin , Nafcillin , Oxacillin From Related Chapters II. Indications Infection epidermidis Specific Infections Soft tissue infection Lymphatic infection Bone infection Joint infection III. Mechanism Same action to s Prevents ase hydrolysis of Beta lactam ring IV. Mechanism: Bacterial Resistance mechanisms Alteration of l

2018 FP Notebook

2. Delayed Administration of Recombinant Plasma Gelsolin Improves Survival in a Murine Model of Penicillin-Susceptible and Penicillin-Resistant Pneumococcal Pneumonia. (PubMed)

Delayed Administration of Recombinant Plasma Gelsolin Improves Survival in a Murine Model of Penicillin-Susceptible and Penicillin-Resistant Pneumococcal Pneumonia. Therapy to enhance host immune defenses may improve outcomes in serious infections, especially for antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Recombinant human plasma gelsolin (rhu-pGSN), a normally circulating protein, has beneficial effects in diverse preclinical models of inflammation and injury. We evaluated delayed therapy (24-48 hours (...) after challenge) with rhu-pGSN in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia. rhu-pGSN without antibiotics increased survival and reduced morbidity and weight loss after infection with either penicillin-susceptible or penicillin-resistant pneumococci (serotypes 3 and 14, respectively). rhu-pGSN improves outcomes in a highly lethal pneumococcal pneumonia model when given after a clinically relevant delay, even in the setting of antimicrobial resistance.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford

2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

3. Penicillin-binding protein typing, antibiotic resistance gene identification and molecular phylogenetic analysis of meropenem-resistant <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> serotype 19A-CC3111 strains in Japan. (PubMed)

Penicillin-binding protein typing, antibiotic resistance gene identification and molecular phylogenetic analysis of meropenem-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A-CC3111 strains in Japan. Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the prevalence of non-meropenem-susceptible pneumococci has been increasing in Japan. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that the multidrug-resistant serotype 15A-ST63 in Japan has a specific pbp1a sequence (pbp1a--13) that could (...) acquisition of pbp1a-13 seemed to cause only penicillin resistance and not multidrug resistance; a combination of PBP recombination in the pbp2b and/or pbp2x region(s) with acquisition of pbp1a-13 caused multidrug resistance. Conserved amino acid motif analysis suggested that the pbp1a 370SXXK, pbp2b 448SXN and pbp2x 337SXXN motifs were the candidates for amino acid substitutions increasing the MICs of meropenem, cefotaxime and penicillin. We identified a specific clone that was correlated with multidrug

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

4. Insights into the antibacterial mechanism of PEGylated nano-bacitracin A against Streptococcus pneumonia: both penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant strains (PubMed)

Insights into the antibacterial mechanism of PEGylated nano-bacitracin A against Streptococcus pneumonia: both penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant strains Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumonia constitute a major worldwide public health concern.In our preliminary study, PEGylated nano-self-assemblies of bacitracin A (PEGylated Nano-BA12K) showed strong antibacterial potency against reference S. pneumonia strain (ATCC 49619). In this study, the possibility of applying (...) PEGylated Nano-BA12K against penicillin-resistant S. pneumonia was further investigated. In addition, the underlying antibacterial mechanism of PEGylated Nano-BA12K against both sensitive and resistant S. pneumonia was also clarified systematically, since S. pneumonia was naturally resistant to its unassembled counterpart bacitracin A (BA).PEGylated Nano-BA12K showed strong antibacterial potency against 13 clinical isolates of S. pneumonia, including five penicillin-resistant strains. Structural changes

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2018 International journal of nanomedicine

5. Risk of meticillin resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> and <i>Clostridium difficile</i> in patients with a documented penicillin allergy: population based matched cohort study. (PubMed)

Risk of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in patients with a documented penicillin allergy: population based matched cohort study. To evaluate the relation between penicillin allergy and development of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and C difficile.Population based matched cohort study.United Kingdom general practice (1995-2015).301 399 adults without previous MRSA or C difficile enrolled in the Health Improvement Network (...) database: 64 141 had a penicillin allergy and 237 258 comparators matched on age, sex, and study entry time.The primary outcome was risk of incident MRSA and C difficile. Secondary outcomes were use of β lactam antibiotics and β lactam alternative antibiotics.Among 64 141 adults with penicillin allergy and 237 258 matched comparators, 1365 developed MRSA (442 participants with penicillin allergy and 923 comparators) and 1688 developed C difficile (442 participants with penicillin allergy and 1246

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2018 BMJ

6. New aspects of the interplay between penicillin binding proteins, <i>murM</i> and the two component system CiaRH of penicillin-resistant <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> serotype 19A isolates from Hungary. (PubMed)

New aspects of the interplay between penicillin binding proteins, murM and the two component system CiaRH of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A isolates from Hungary. The Streptococcus pneumoniae clone Hungary19A-6 expresses unusually high levels of β-lactam resistance, which is in part due to mutations in the MurM gene, encoding a transferase involved in the synthesis of branched peptidoglycan. Moreover, it contains the allele ciaH232, encoding (...) the histidine kinase CiaH (M. Müller, P. Marx, R. Hakenbeck, and R. Brückner, Microbiology 157:3104-3112, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.053157-0). High-level penicillin resistance primarily requires the presence of low-affinity (mosaic) penicillin binding protein (PBP) genes, as, for example, in strain Hu17, a closely related member of the Hungary19A-6 lineage. Interestingly, strain Hu15 is β-lactam sensitive due to the absence of mosaic PBPs. This unique situation prompted us to investigate

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2017 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

7. Ceftaroline resistance by clone-specific polymorphism in penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. (PubMed)

Ceftaroline resistance by clone-specific polymorphism in penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 281 nonduplicated Staphylococcus aureus blood isolates were collected from January to May 2017 from eight hospitals in South Korea to investigate the epidemiological traits of ceftaroline resistance in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Cefoxitin-disk diffusion tests and the mecA gene PCR revealed that 56.6% (159/281) of the S. aureus (...) isolates were MRSA, and most belonged to ST5 (50.3%, 80/281) and ST72 (41.5%, 66/281). Of the MRSA isolates, 44.0% (70/159) were nonsusceptible to ceftaroline (MIC ≥ 2 mg/liter), whereas all of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates were susceptible to the drug. Eight amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), including four (L357I, E447K, I563T, and S649A) in the penicillin-binding domain (PBD) and four (N104K, V117I, N146K, and A228V) in the non-PBD (nPBD) of PBP2a

2018 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

8. Clinical prognoses of patients with a bloodstream infection caused by ampicillin-susceptible but penicillin-resistant <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i>: prospective observational study. (PubMed)

Clinical prognoses of patients with a bloodstream infection caused by ampicillin-susceptible but penicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis: prospective observational study. Introduction: To evaluate the clinical impacts of ampicillin-susceptible but penicillin-resistant (ASPR) phenotypes of Enterococcus faecalis on clinical outcomes in patients with a bloodstream infection (BSI).Methods: A total of 295 patients with an E. faecalis BSI from six sentinel hospitals during a two-year period (...) difference in survival was identified in a group of patients treated with ampicillin- and/or piperacillin-based regimens who were stratified according to the penicillin susceptibility of the causative pathogen (log-rank test, P = 0.011).Conclusions: ASPR E. faecalis BSIs resulted in a >2-fold higher 30-day mortality rate (26.9%, 18/67) than the BSIs caused by penicillin-susceptible strains (12.3%, 28/228). The differences in mortality rates of patients stratified by penicillin susceptibility were likely

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

9. Endocarditis Caused by Highly Penicillin-Resistant Viridans Group Streptococci: Still Room for Vancomycin-Based Regimens. (PubMed)

Endocarditis Caused by Highly Penicillin-Resistant Viridans Group Streptococci: Still Room for Vancomycin-Based Regimens. Introduction: Optimal treatment options remain unknown for infective endocarditis (IE) caused by penicillin (PEN)-resistant viridans group streptococcal (VGS) strains. The aims of this study were to report two cases of highly-PEN-resistant-VGS-IE, perform a literature review, and to evaluate various antibiotic combinations in vitro and in vivoMaterials and Methods (...) and relapse-free after ≥6mos follow-up. In vitro studies: Except for daptomycin-ampicillin, all combinations demonstrated both synergy and bactericidal activity against the S.parasanguinis isolate. Only PEN-gentamicin; daptomycin-gentamicin and daptomycin-ampicillin demonstrated both synergy and bactericidal activity against the S.mitis strain. Both strains developed high-level daptomycin-resistance (HLDR) during daptomycin in vitro passage.EE studies: PEN alone failed to clear S.mitis from vegetations

2019 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

10. Analysis of multidrug resistant group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility forming small, less hemolytic colonies. (PubMed)

Analysis of multidrug resistant group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility forming small, less hemolytic colonies. Group B streptococci (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) are the leading cause of neonatal invasive diseases and are also important pathogens for elderly adults. Until now, nearly all GBS with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) have shown β-hemolytic activity and grow on sheep blood agar. However, we have previously reported three PRGBS clinical isolates

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2017 PLoS ONE

11. Involvement of the Eukaryote-Like Kinase-Phosphatase System and a Protein That Interacts with Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 in Emergence of Cephalosporin Resistance in Cephalosporin-Sensitive Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein Mutants in Enterococcus faeci (PubMed)

Involvement of the Eukaryote-Like Kinase-Phosphatase System and a Protein That Interacts with Penicillin-Binding Protein 5 in Emergence of Cephalosporin Resistance in Cephalosporin-Sensitive Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein Mutants in Enterococcus faeci The intrinsic resistance of Enterococcus faecium to ceftriaxone and cefepime (here referred to as "cephalosporins") is reliant on the presence of class A penicillin-binding proteins (Pbps) PbpF and PonA. Mutants lacking these Pbps exhibit (...) cephalosporin susceptibility that is reversible by exposure to penicillin and by selection on cephalosporin-containing medium. We selected two cephalosporin-resistant mutants (Cro1 and Cro2) of class A Pbp-deficient E. faecium CV598. Genome analysis revealed changes in the serine-threonine kinase Stk in Cro1 and a truncation in the associated phosphatase StpA in Cro2 whose respective involvements in resistance were confirmed in separate complementation experiments. In an additional effort to identify

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2016 mBio

12. Penicillin dust exposure and penicillin resistance among pharmaceutical workers in Tehran, Iran (PubMed)

Penicillin dust exposure and penicillin resistance among pharmaceutical workers in Tehran, Iran Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) adversely impacts the prevention and treatment of a wide range of infections and is considered as a serious threat to global public health. Occupational-related AMR is a neglected area of research.To assess exposure to penicillin dust, penicillin active materials, and to report the frequency of penicillin resistance among pharmaceutical workers in Tehran, Iran.A quasi (...) penicillin resistance. Resistance was significantly higher among workers in penicillin production line (p = 0.014).High level of AMR among workers in penicillin production line is a health risk for the workers as well as society as a whole through the spread of drug resistant micro-organisms.

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2016 International journal of occupational and environmental health

13. Penicillin

section [Cochrane Protocol]. PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015020474 Available from Review question(s) To provide the best available evidence of different regimens (including different drugs, different doses, different intervals between doses, and different 2015 18. Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures (...) Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Penicillinase (...) -Resistant Penicillin Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin Aka: Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin , Penicillinase-Resistant Semisynthetic Penicillin , Cloxacillin , Dicloxacillin , Methicillin , Nafcillin , Oxacillin From Related Chapters II

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

14. Effect of Periodontal Therapy With Amoxicillin-Metronidazole on Pharyngeal Carriage of Penicillin- and Erythromycin-Resistant Viridans Streptococci. (PubMed)

Effect of Periodontal Therapy With Amoxicillin-Metronidazole on Pharyngeal Carriage of Penicillin- and Erythromycin-Resistant Viridans Streptococci. Previous studies have focused on antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative bacteria before and after periodontal therapy. The purpose of this analysis is to assess changes in resistance patterns of the commensal Gram-positive microbiota. The viridans group streptococci (VGS) have been suggested to serve as reservoirs of resistance genes for more (...) pathogenic streptococci and may be implicated in some non-oral infections.In this randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with periodontitis are distributed randomly into two groups. In group A, patients received 375 mg amoxicillin and 500 mg metronidazole three times per day for 7 days during the non-surgical treatment phase (T1). In group B, the antibiotics were administered during the surgical phase (T2). Resistance of VGS to penicillin and erythromycin was determined by the epsilometer test.At

2018 Journal of periodontology

15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins in β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in Japan (PubMed)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins in β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in Japan β-Lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae is a common opportunistic pathogen of hospital- and community-acquired infections, harboring multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ftsI gene, which codes for penicillin-binding protein-3. The objectives of this study were to perform comprehensive genetic analyses (...) of whole regions of the penicillin-binding proteins in H. influenzae and to identify additional single nucleotide polymorphisms related to antibiotic resistance, especially to ampicillin and other cephalosporins.In this genome analysis of the ftsI gene in 27 strains of H. influenzae, 10 of 23 (43.5%) specimens of group III genotype β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae were paradoxically classified as ampicillin-sensitive phenotypes. Unfortunately, we could not identify any novel

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2018 BMC research notes

16. Novel case of penicillin resistant E. rhusiopathiae septicemia: Case report with review of the literature (PubMed)

Novel case of penicillin resistant E. rhusiopathiae septicemia: Case report with review of the literature 29619324 2019 02 13 2214-2509 11 2018 IDCases IDCases Novel case of penicillin resistant E. rhusiopathiae septicemia: Case report with review of the literature. 67-69 10.1016/j.idcr.2018.01.005 Rihana Nancy N USF, 4202 East Fowler Ave, Tampa, FL 33620, United States. Hemminger Adam A USF, Health Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa FL. Green Shikerria S USF, Health Morsani College of Medicine

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2018 IDCases

17. Brain-targeted delivery of PEGylated nano-bacitracin A against Penicillin-sensitive and -resistant Pneumococcal meningitis: formulated with RVG29 and Pluronic® P85 unimers (PubMed)

Brain-targeted delivery of PEGylated nano-bacitracin A against Penicillin-sensitive and -resistant Pneumococcal meningitis: formulated with RVG29 and Pluronic® P85 unimers Pneumococcal meningitis (PM), caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, remains a high-burden disease in developing countries. Antibiotic therapy has been limited due to the inefficiency of drug transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the emergence of drug-resistant strains. In our preliminary study, PEGylated nano-self (...) -assemblies of bacitracin A (PEGylated Nano-BA12K) demonstrated a strong antibacterial potency against S. pneumonia. In this study, the potential application of this micelle for the treatment of both Penicillin-sensitive and -resistant PM was studied. To address BBB-targeting and -crossing issues, PEGylated Nano-BA12K was formulated with a specific brain-targeting peptide (rabies virus glycopeptide-29, RVG29) and a P-glycoprotein inhibitor (Pluronic® P85 unimers) to construct a mixed micellar system

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2018 Drug delivery

18. WGS analysis of a penicillin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis strain containing a chromosomal ROB-1 β-lactamase gene. (PubMed)

WGS analysis of a penicillin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis strain containing a chromosomal ROB-1 β-lactamase gene. Neisseria meningitidis is rarely penicillin resistant. We describe WGS analysis of a penicillin-resistant N. meningitidis collected from a case of invasive meningococcal disease.Serogrouping, serotyping and serosubtyping were performed with specific antibodies. β-Lactamase was detected by nitrocefin. MICs were determined by Etest and agar dilution. Sequencing of N. meningitidis (...) with the blaROB-1 gene conferred β-lactamase activity and penicillin resistance.N. meningitidis serogroup Y, ST3587 can carry and express the blaROB-1 gene, leading to penicillin resistance. It is highly likely that the N. meningitidis isolate acquired the blaROB-1 gene from H. influenzae.

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2018 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

19. Inaccurate penicillin allergies worsens antimicrobial resistance

Inaccurate penicillin allergies worsens antimicrobial resistance Inaccurate penicillin allergies worsens antimicrobial resistance Inaccurate penicillin allergies worsens antimicrobial resistance | | September 28, 2018 14 Shares September 28, 2018 marks 90 years since Sir Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin as an effective antimicrobial which would soon save millions of lives. He warned soon afterwards that unless we used penicillin judiciously, we would see antibiotic resistance, and he (...) was right. With decades of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, we have dug ourselves a deep hole of antimicrobial resistance, and inaccurate penicillin allergies is but one shovel used to put us in this mess. How? Simple if/and/then construct: IF unverified penicillin allergies lead to unnecessary/inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics which contributes to antimicrobial resistance, AND antimicrobial resistance is a public health problem, THEN unverified penicillin allergies are a public

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2018 KevinMD blog

20. Effects of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Genotypic Penicillin Resistance and Serotype Changes, Japan, 2010-2017. (PubMed)

Effects of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Genotypic Penicillin Resistance and Serotype Changes, Japan, 2010-2017. To clarify year-to-year changes in capsular serotypes, resistance genotypes, and multilocus sequence types of Streptococcus pneumoniae, we compared isolates collected from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease before and after introductions of 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PVC13, respectively). From April 2010 through March 2017, we collected (...) 2,856 isolates from children and adults throughout Japan. Proportions of PCV13 serotypes among children decreased from 89.0% in fiscal year 2010 to 12.1% in fiscal year 2016 and among adults from 74.1% to 36.2%. Although nonvaccine serotypes increased after introduction of PCV13, genotypic penicillin resistance decreased from 54.3% in 2010 to 11.2% in 2016 among children and from 32.4% to 15.5% among adults. However, genotypic penicillin resistance emerged in 9 nonvaccine serotypes, but not 15A

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2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

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