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281. Use of Antibiotic Therapy for Pediatric Dental Patients

into the dentin, and defective restorations. If a child presents with acute symptoms of pulpitis, treatment (i.e., pulpotomy, pulpectomy, or extrac- tion) should be rendered. Antibiotic therapy usually is not indicated if the dental infection is contained within the pulpal tissue or the immediate surrounding tissue. In this case, the Review Council Council on Clinical Affairs Latest Revision 2014 Use of Antibiotic Therapy for Pediatric Dental Patients ABBREVIATION AAPD: American Academy Pediatric Dentistry (...) 2003;74:1696-704. 25. Schmidt JC, Wlater C, Rischewski JR, Weiger R. Treat- ment of periodontitis as a manifestation of neutropenia with or without systemic antibiotics: A systematic review. Pediatr Dent 2013;35(2):E54-E63. 26. American Academy of Pediatrics. Herpes simplex. In: Red Book: 2003 Report of the Committee on Infectious Dis- eases. 26th ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2003:344-53. 27. Carlson ER. Diagnosis and management of salivary gland infections. Oral

2014 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry

282. Cough - acute with chest signs in children

: Statement 2: Infants and children under 5 years who are seen in person by a healthcare professional have their temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and capillary refill time measured and recorded if fever is suspected. Statement 4: Parents and carers who are advised that they can care for an infant or child under 5 years with unexplained fever at home are given safety net advice, including information on when to seek further help. [ ] NICE have published quality standards on Bronchiolitis (...) be difficult to distinguish from viral-induced wheeze in a child of less than 5 years of age. In an infective exacerbation of asthma, wheezing occurs due to bronchoconstriction in response to a respiratory tract infection (most commonly viral), but may also have been observed in response to typical asthma triggers, such as exercise and exposure to allergens. Asthma is more common in children with atopy or a family history of atopy [ ; ]. Bronchiolitis is a condition which predominately affects infants

2017 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

283. Parent Training Interventions for Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children Aged 5 to 18 years Full Text available with Trip Pro

a diagnosis of ADHD. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA conducted a survey of 102,353 parents with children aged four to 17 years and found a lifetime childhood diagnosis of 7.8% (2.5 times as many boys as girls) of whom 4.3% had received medication as treatment (CDC 2005). A review of 50 prevalence studies (including 20 US and 30 non‐US sample populations) suggested that the prevalence is similar in US and non‐US populations ( ). However, the ‘administrative’ prevalence (...) problems appear to precede antisocial behaviour in later life. estimated that it is possible to predict over half of future recidivist delinquents based on their aggressive behaviour and a family's ineffective child rearing practices. The precise relationship between conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder and ADHD, especially the mechanism of development of antisocial behaviour in children with ADHD, is not, however, fully understood. 1.1.2 Aetiology It is thought that genetic

2012 Campbell Collaboration

284. Interventions in Developing Nations for Improving Primary and Secondary School Enrollment of Children: A Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

critical, as improvements in the infant mortality rate, child nutrition, and school enrollment are closely associated with higher education among mothers ( ; ; World Bank, 2008). Yet, more than 100 million primary school‐aged children are not in school and, of those that are, many—49 percent in Africa, for example—do not complete primary school ( ). These and other data indicate wide variation in enrollment rates across developing country regions and by level of school (primary versus secondary; see (...) on meeting conditions, the economic benefit serves as an incentive that spurs parents to ensure youth in their households are enrolled in and attend school; (2) the economic benefit removes the need for youth to work (at least during school hours) to provide household income, thereby eliminating a major barrier to child attendance; and (3) the benefit can also remove the costs of attending school such as fees or books, leading to parents being more willing to send their children to school. Note that six

2012 Campbell Collaboration

285. Antifungal agents for common paediatric infections

The Canadian Paediatric Society gives permission to print single copies of this document from our website. For permission to reprint or reproduce multiple copies, please see our . Principal author(s) Robert Bortolussi, Susanna Martin; Canadian Paediatric Society, Paediatr Child Health 2007;12(10):875-878 The most common fungal infections in infants and children are mucocutaneous candidiasis, pityriasis versicolor, tinea corporis, tinea pedis and tinea capitis . The objective of the present update (...) . Butler KM, Baker CJ. Candida: An increasingly important pathogen in the nursery. Pediatr Clin North Am 1988;35:543-63. Baley JE, Kliegman RM, Boxerbaum B, Fanaroff AA. Fungal colonization in the very low birth weight infant. Pediatrics 1986;78:225-32. Sio JO, Minwalla FK, George RH, Booth IW. Oral candida: Is dummy carriage the culprit? Arch Dis Child 1987;62:406-8. Faber HK, Dickey LB. The treatment of thrush with gentian violet. JAMA 1925;85:900-1. Huang NN, Sarria A, High RH. Therapeutic

2012 Canadian Paediatric Society

286. Ensuring the Provision of General Paediatric Surgery in the District General Hospital

Ensuring the Provision of General Paediatric Surgery in the District General Hospital We can't find that page... — Royal College of Surgeons Menu Search Close Site Search Site Search Go Account login Welcome to the RCS website. If you do not know your login details, please reset your password using the link below. Username Password Show password Nav Please enter both an email address and a password. Welcome to the RCS website. If you do not know your login details, please reset your password (...) folder and add no-reply@rcseng.ac.uk to your address book. Site Search Search , or check your link again. If you still can't find it, please contact us using the details below. Website feedback Please remember to tell us the page address ('URL') where this is relevant to your enquiry or feedback. Email us You can email us at We always aim to respond as soon as possible during our working hours of 9am - 5pm, Monday - Friday. Connect with RCS © 2018 The Royal College of Surgeons of England 35-43

2012 Royal College of Surgeons of England

287. Smoking Cessation Interventions for Pregnant Women and Mothers of Infants: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines

ISSUES Smoking during pregnancy, despite being preventable, is among the leading causes of adverse effects on maternal and fetal health, such as infertility, complications during pregnancy, stillbirth, newborn death, preterm birth, infant low birth weight, infant small for gestational age, sudden infant death syndrome, and other child behavioral and cognitive function impairments. 1 A Canadian survey in 2006 on over 76,000 Canadian women = 15 years old found 22.0% of Canadian women smoked before (...) . Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2012 Feb 6];(3). Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001055.pub3/pdf Subscription required. 10. Rosen LJ, Noach MB, Winickoff JP, Hovell MF. Parental smoking cessation to protect young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2012 Jan [cited 2012 Feb 6];129(1):141-52. Available from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/1/141.full.pdf+html 11. Volpp KG, Troxel AB, Pauly MV

2012 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

288. Quadrivalent Meningococcal Vaccination Programs for Children and Adolescents: Clinical Evidence, Risks, and Cost-Effectiveness

from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6003a3.htm PubMed: PM21270745 7. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines policy update: booster dose recommendations. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2011 Dec [cited 2012 Mar 29];128(6):1213-8. Available from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/128/6/1213.full.pdf+html PubMed: PM22123893 8. Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Freed GL, Gall SA, Grogg SE, Poland GA, et al. Immunization programs for infants, children, adolescents (...) administration in infants 9. Klein NP, Reisinger KS, Johnston W, Odrljin T, Gill CJ, Bedell L, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal CRM-conjugate vaccine given concomitantly with routine vaccinations in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012 Jan;31(1):64- 71. PubMed: PM22094635 10. Snape MD, Perrett KP, Ford KJ, John TM, Pace D, Yu LM, et al. Immunogenicity of a tetravalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine in infants: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Jan 9;299(2

2012 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

289. Managing the Eating Habits of Autistic Children who are Resistant Eaters: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

. Available from: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aurt/2011/541926/ Case Studies 6. Kozlowski AM, Matson JL, Fodstad JC, Moree BN. Feeding therapy in a child with autistic disorder: Sequential food presentation. Clinical Case Studies. 2011;10(3):236- 46. 7. Tang B, Piazza CC, Dolezal D, Stein MT. Severe feeding disorder and malnutrition in 2 children with autism. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2011 Apr;32(3):264-7. PubMed: PM21358413 8. Tarbox J, Schiff A, Najdowski AC. Parent-implemented procedural modification (...) a routine to mealtimes Consider whether the child is more comfortable eating with others or unwatched Use seating that encourages staying at the table Consider the shape, colour, and material of the eating utensils Consider the addition of condiments and sauces to improve food intake The guideline 4 also describes the implementation of specific treatment methods to improve feeding in autistic children and emphasizes the importance of clear communication with the child and the setting of small attainable

2012 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

290. Just Google It: Young Children’s Preferences for Touchscreens versus Books in Hypothetical Learning Tasks Full Text available with Trip Pro

to learn about each topic. Some of this information was time-sensitive, like the current weather; we predicted that children would prefer a touchscreen for time-sensitive information. In addition, each child's parent was surveyed about the child's use of books and touchscreens for educational purposes, both at home and in school. Results indicated that younger children had no preference between books and touchscreen devices across learning tasks. However, 6-year-olds were significantly more likely (...) Just Google It: Young Children’s Preferences for Touchscreens versus Books in Hypothetical Learning Tasks Children today regularly interact with touchscreen devices (Rideout, 2013) and thousands of "educational" mobile applications are marketed to them (Shuler, 2012). Understanding children's own ideas about optimal learning has important implications for education, which is being transformed by electronic mobile devices, yet we know little about how children think about such devices

2016 Frontiers in psychology

291. Impact of a chapter book and collectible cards describing the lives of seven veterinarians on third-grade students’ career aspirations and expectations Full Text available with Trip Pro

that they expected to be a veterinarian after exposure to the book and cards. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that young children's career aspirations and expectations can be influenced, at least in the short term, by exposure to educational materials about veterinary medicine when delivered as part of a classroom curriculum. (...) Impact of a chapter book and collectible cards describing the lives of seven veterinarians on third-grade students’ career aspirations and expectations OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of exposure to a chapter book and collectible cards describing the lives of 7 veterinarians on career aspirations and expectations of third-grade students. DESIGN Survey. SAMPLE 176 third-grade students from 6 schools in Indiana. PROCEDURES Students responded to a questionnaire by stating their career

2016 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

292. The prevalence and determinants of HIV seroconversion among booked ante natal clients in the University of Uyo teaching hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria Full Text available with Trip Pro

The prevalence and determinants of HIV seroconversion among booked ante natal clients in the University of Uyo teaching hospital, Uyo Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria The Prevention of Mother to Child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, an important intervention in the fight against HIV/AIDS can only be of benefit if the HIV status of the mother is known. Unfortunately, some women receive HIV counseling and testing (HCT) during the window period or prior to new infection in pregnancy and therefore, miss-out (...) ) and those with partners taking recreational drugs (OR: 0.05, 95%CI: 0.002-0.995).The study revealed a high seroconversion rate. Re-screening of pregnant women after the booking HCT is a very cost effective and beneficial strategy for the elimination of mother to child transmission of HIV.

2016 The Pan African medical journal

293. Factors associated with late antenatal care booking: population based observations from the 2007 Zambia demographic and health survey Full Text available with Trip Pro

% disaggregated as 56% and 19% at 4 to 5 months and 6 to 9 months respectively. Women who wanted their last child later were more likely to book late than those with wanted pregnancies then (AOR: 1.35 95% CI 1.10-1.66). Women with higher education were 55% less likely to book for ANC late compared to women with no education (AOR: 0.45 95%CI: 0.27-0.74). Women aged 20-34 years were 30% more likely to book earlier than women younger than 20 years (AOR: 0.69 95% CI 0.50-0.97).We found high proportion of late ANC (...) Factors associated with late antenatal care booking: population based observations from the 2007 Zambia demographic and health survey In spite of the extreme importance of an early antenatal care visit, more than 50% of Zambian pregnant women book for antenatal care late. We aimed to determine factors associated with late antenatal care booking in Zambia.Data stem from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey where information on socio-demographic, social-economic, obstetrical

2016 The Pan African medical journal

294. How Parents Can Help Babies Learn to Talk With Picture Books.

Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The aim of this project is to test whether giving parents advice about book reading is effective in promoting language learning for infants from a range of socio-economic backgrounds. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Language Development Behavioral: Contingent Reading Intervention Behavioral: Book Provision Control Not Applicable Detailed Description: Children from disadvantaged families tend to have limited language skills compared (...) to their advantaged peers. While many factors contribute to language ability, two aspects of the early caregiving environment are known to be correlated with child language outcomes 1) caregiver-child book reading and 2) caregiver contingent talk. Contingent talk refers to a style of communication whereby the caregiver talks about what is in their infant's current focus of attention. This style of talking can be facilitated when parents read books with their babies. The aim of this research is to establish

2016 Clinical Trials

295. The Accuracy of an Ambulatory Level III Sleep Study Compared to a Level I Sleep Study for the Diagnosis of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children With Neuromuscular Disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Accuracy of an Ambulatory Level III Sleep Study Compared to a Level I Sleep Study for the Diagnosis of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children With Neuromuscular Disease. Polysomnography (PSG) surveillance recommendations are not being met for children with neuromuscular disease (NMD) because of limited diagnostic facilities. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of an ambulatory level III device as compared to a level I PSG.A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary pediatric (...) institution. Eligibility criteria included: (1) children with NMD; (2) age 6 to 18 years; (3) booked for a clinically indicated overnight level I PSG. Participants were randomized to an overnight level I PSG followed by an ambulatory level III study with end tidal carbon dioxide (etCO2) or vice versa. Sensitivity and specificity of the ambulatory level III device to diagnose sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) at an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) cutoff of > 1.0 events/h was the primary outcome.Moderate

2018 Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

296. Distraction-Based Interventions for Children Undergoing Venipuncture Procedures: A Randomized Controlled Study. (Abstract)

a picture book ( n = 92), or animated cartoon ( n = 92) compared with routine oral instructions ( n = 92), when being injected with an intravenous cannula. Two trained observers independently scored the responses of each child using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised before, during, and after the procedure. All children experienced distress during needle insertion, but distress was less in the distraction-based intervention groups. Moreover, distraction interventions were more (...) Distraction-Based Interventions for Children Undergoing Venipuncture Procedures: A Randomized Controlled Study. Little is known about the effects of distraction techniques when undertaking medical procedures with hospitalized pediatric patients in Asian countries. This study examined the effects of distraction interventions on behavioral distress related to venipuncture procedures in Taiwanese children aged 3 to 7 years. Using concealed randomization, eligible children were allocated to receive

2018 Clinical nursing research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

297. Stationary cycling exergame use among inactive children in the family home: a randomized trial. (Abstract)

Stationary cycling exergame use among inactive children in the family home: a randomized trial. Exergames may be one way to increase child physical activity, but long term adherence has seen little research attention. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the usage of an exergame bike in comparison to a stationary bike in front of a TV across 3-months within a family home environment among children aged 10-14 years old. Seventy-three inactive children were recruited through (...) advertisements and randomized to either the exergame condition (n = 39) or the standard bike condition (n = 34). Weekly bike use was recorded in a log-book. Both groups declined in bike use over time (t = 3.921, p < .01). Although the exergame group reported higher use (t = 2.0045, p < .05), this was most prominent during the first week. Overall, these results do not support exergames as a standalone physical activity intervention, and suggest that short duration examinations of exergames may be misleading.

2018 Journal of behavioral medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

298. Enhancing Social-Emotional Health and Wellbeing in the Early Years (E-SEE): a study protocol of a community-based randomised controlled trial with process and economic evaluations of the incredible years infant and toddler parenting programmes, delivered (Abstract)

. Parents of children aged 8 weeks or less, identified by health visitors, children's centre staff or self-referral, are eligible for participation in the trial. The randomisation allocation ratio is 5:1 (intervention to control). All intervention parents will receive an Incredible Years Infant book (universal level), and may be offered the Infant and/or Toddler group-based programme/s-based on parent depression scores on the Patient Health Questionnaire or child social emotional well-being scores (...) -being and development, IY Infant and IY Toddler, will be delivered and evaluated in a proportionate universal intervention model called Enhancing Social-Emotional Health and Wellbeing in the Early Years (E-SEE) Steps. The main research question is: Does E-SEE Steps enhance child social emotional well-being at 20 months when compared with services as usual?E-SEE Steps will be delivered in community settings by Early Years Children's Services and/or Public Health staff across local authorities

2018 BMJ open Controlled trial quality: predicted high

299. Factors influencing developmental delay among young children in poor rural China: a latent variable approach. Full Text available with Trip Pro

caregivers.Suspected child developmental delay was evaluated using the Ages & Stages Questionnaires-Chinese version. Caregivers' education and age, wealth index, child feeding index, parent-child interaction, number of books and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were reported by the primary caregivers. Haemoglobin levels were measured using a calibrated, automated analyser. Birth weight was obtained from medical records.Overall, 35.7% of the surveyed children aged 6-35 months demonstrated suspected developmental (...) Factors influencing developmental delay among young children in poor rural China: a latent variable approach. The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of suspected developmental delay in children living in poor areas of rural China and to investigate factors influencing child developmental delay.A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted.Eighty-three villages in Shanxi and Guizhou Provinces, China.A total of 2514 children aged 6-35 months and their primary

2018 BMJ open

300. Sexual and physical abuse and its determinants among street children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2016. Full Text available with Trip Pro

city of Ethiopia.A phenomenological qualitative method was conducted from March to June 2016 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected from street children by focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interview. Open code was used to analyze data. The transcribed note was translated. Following this coding was done. Based on a coding book, major themes and main categories were developed and analyzed.The study has explored the life experience of street children in the city. Deaths of parents (...) Sexual and physical abuse and its determinants among street children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2016. The life and health of street children is becoming a global concern. Street children are vulnerable to a variety of problems including physical, psychological and sexual exploitations as well as social isolation. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to point out the experience of sexual and physical exploitation and its determinant factors among street children in Addis Ababa, the capital

2018 BMC Pediatrics

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