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221. Desk guide for diagnosis and management of TB in children - Africa

-resistant tuberculo- sis (MDR-TB) in children. Lead author Stephen M. Graham International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, France; and Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne Department of Paediatrics, Australia.7 Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of illness and death in children, especially in TB endemic countries The diagnosis of TB can be made in most children in an outpatient setting based on careful clinical assessment Contact history is a very (...) Extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) is also common and presentation varies with age Important to always consider Age and nutritional status Risk factors for TB infection: history of contact with a TB patient Risk factors for TB disease: young age, HIV-infected, malnourished, recent measles, recent contact Most TB cases occur in children less than 5 years of age The younger the child, the more likely to identify a close contact with TB disease TB disease can be more severe and of rapid onset in infants

2016 International Union Against TB and Lung Disease

222. Development and Assessment of an E-learning Course on Pediatric Cardiology Basics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development and Assessment of an E-learning Course on Pediatric Cardiology Basics Early detection of congenital heart disease is a worldwide problem. This is more critical in developing countries, where shortage of professional specialists and structural health care problems are a constant. E-learning has the potential to improve capacity, by overcoming distance barriers and by its ability to adapt to the reduced time of health professionals.The study aimed to develop an e-learning pediatric (...) cardiology basics course and evaluate its pedagogical impact and user satisfaction.The sample consisted of 62 health professionals, including doctors, nurses, and medical students, from 20 hospitals linked via a telemedicine network in Northeast Brazil. The course was developed using Moodle (Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment; Moodle Pty Ltd, Perth, Australia) and contents adapted from a book on this topic. Pedagogical impact evaluation used a pre and posttest approach. User

2017 JMIR medical education

223. NASPGHAN Clinical Report: Surveillance, Diagnosis, and Prevention of Infectious Diseases in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Receiving Tumor Necrosis Factor - alpha Inhibitors

of recommendation. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) is central to macrophage and phagosome activation, recruitment of neutrophils and macro- phages, differentiation of monocytes, formation and maintenance of granulomas, and modulation of the inflammatory process. It is Received July 31, 2015; accepted March 1, 2016. From the Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Host Defense Program, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, the y Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medical (...) Center, New York, NY, the z Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children’s Medical Center Dallas, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, the § Cohen Children’s Medical Center, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Lake Success, NY, the jj Pediatric Gastroenterology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and the # Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Address correspondence

2016 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

224. Brief Resolved Unexplained Events (Formerly Apparent Life-Threatening Events) and Evaluation of Lower-Risk Infants

for CNS imaging Exclusions None Strength Weak recommendation (based on low quality of evidence) Key references , 2B. Clinicians Should Obtain an Assessment of Social Risk Factors To Detect Child Abuse in Infants Presenting With a Lower-Risk BRUE (Grade C, Moderate Recommendation) Aggregate Evidence Quality Grade C Benefits Identification of child abuse May benefit the safety of other children in the home May identify other social risk factors and needs and help connect caregivers with appropriate (...) evaluations, include caregiver-fabricated illness (formally known as Münchausen by proxy), smothering, and poisoning. Children who have experienced child abuse, most notably abusive head trauma, may present with a BRUE. Four studies reported a low incidence (0.54%–2.5%) of abusive head trauma in infants presenting to the emergency department with an ALTE. , , , If only those patients meeting lower-risk BRUE criteria were included, the incidence of abusive head trauma would have been <0.3%. Although

2016 American Academy of Pediatrics

225. Teaching kids to assess goopy health claims

Teaching kids to assess goopy health claims Teaching kids to assess goopy health claims - Evidently Cochrane Search and hit Go By December 8, 2016 // In this blog for our #UnderstandingEvidence series, Matt Oxman talks about the Informed Health Choices project, which helps people sort the wheat from the chaff of evidence about treatment effects, starting with school children. Evidently Cochrane makes evidence accessible, but so does Gwyneth Paltrow on her blog Goop. The difference (...) version of the primary school resources. (Matt Oxman/Informed Health Choices project) In 2014, we began developing the first resources, targeting Ugandan 10-year-olds and their parents, respectively. For the kids, we have made a combination textbook and comic book, with supplemental materials including an exercise book and a guide for teachers using the materials in their classrooms. For the parents, we have produced a podcast, including a theme song. The resources cover concepts

2016 Evidently Cochrane

226. Using Baby Books to Promote Maternal and Child Health

/Pediatric Anticipatory Guidance Behavioral: Book provision Not Applicable Detailed Description: This study tests the efficacy of embedding educational information (i.e., pediatric anticipatory guidance) into baby books that first-time mothers read to their infants. This 3-group longitudinal study recruited first-time mothers in their third trimester of pregnancy, randomly assigned them to conditions, and followed them until the child was 18 months of age. One group received educational baby books (...) , another group was given the same illustrated books with non-educational text, and the third group was not given any books. Thus, the effects of educational reading could be parsed from the effects of reading alone. The study aimed to test whether embedding pediatric anticipatory guidance in picture books is an effective method for increasing maternal knowledge of child development, parenting strategies, and safety practices, improving parenting beliefs and attitudes (e.g., parenting efficacy

2014 Clinical Trials

227. Clinical Handover in Acute and Children’s Hospital Services

of Primary Care Quality Improvement and Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, USA. Internatonal expert review feedback is included in Appendix 9. National feedback is included in Appendix 10. 1.9 Procedure for update of National Clinical Guideline This National Clinical Guideline is due for review in November 2018 or sooner, should compelling evidence arise. At that time a systematic search of the literature for new evidence will be conducted (...) Clinical Handover in Acute and Children’s Hospital Services Communication (Clinical Handover) in Acute and Children’s Hospital Services National Clinical Guideline No. 11 November 2015Guideline Development Group The National Communication (Clinical Handover) Guideline Development Group (GDG) was a work stream of the National Implementation Group – HSE/HIQA Maternity Services Investigations (HSE) under the governance of the Acute Hospitals Division, HSE. This group will be referred to as the GDG

2015 National Clinical Guidelines (Ireland)

228. Kinship Care for the Safety, Permanency, and Well?being of Children Removed from the Home for Maltreatment: A Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Care for the Safety, Permanency, and Well‐being of Children Removed from the Home for Maltreatment: A Systematic Review Corresponding Author E-mail address: Colorado State University, Social Work Research Center, School of Social Work, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA Social Work Research Center / School of Social Work Colorado State University E‐mail: UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Regional Centre for Child and Youth, Mental Health and Child Welfare (RKBU North), Faculty of Health Sciences (...) of harm, and drug addiction ( ). Abuse and neglect are the most prevalent causes of children being removed from the home in other countries as well (e.g., Wales) ( ). Internationally, child welfare systems are accountable for the safety, permanency, and well‐being of children in their care. For children removed from the home, child welfare professionals are responsible for placing them in out‐of‐home settings that will facilitate these outcomes. Specifically, the primary placement options

2014 Campbell Collaboration

229. Obesity: Behavioral Interventions that Aim to Reduce Recreational Sedentary Screen Time Among Children

-cognitive theory to reducing preschool TV viewing: A pilot randomized trial. Preventive Medicine 2012;54(3-4):212-8. Screen-Time-Plus Branscum PW. Designing and evaluating an after-school social cognitive theory based comic book intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity among elementary aged school children. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 2012;73(1-A):87. Campbell KJ, Lioret S, McNaughton SA, Crawford DA, Salmon J, Ball K, et al. A parent (...) J, Ekelund U. A 4-year, cluster-randomized, controlled childhood obesity prevention study: STOPP. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33(4):408-17. O'Connor T, Hilmers A, Watson K, Baranowski T, Giardino A. Feasibility of an obesity intervention for paediatric primary care targeting parenting and children: Helping HAND. Child: Care, Health and Development 2013;39(1):141-9. Patrick K, Calfas KJ, Norman GJ, Zabinski MF, Sallis JF, Rupp J, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a primary care

2014 Community Preventive Services Task Force

230. Prevention and Treatment of Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting due to Chemotherapy in Pediatric Cancer Patients

. 103-110. 41. Foot, A. and C. Hayes, Audit of guidelines for effective control of chemotherapy and radiotherapy induced emesis. Arch Dis Child, 1994. 71: p. 475-80. 42. Jacknow, D., et al., Hypnosis in the prevention of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting in children: a prospective study. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 1994. 15(4): p. 258-264. 43. Mokhtar, G., S. Shaaban, and N. Elbarbary, Gastrointestinal problems experienced during treatment among Egyptian pediatric cancer patients (...) CINV 50 Appendix H: Content expert reviewers’ survey 53 Appendix I: External stakeholder reviewers’ survey 55 TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 Version Date: April 23, 2014 Health Questions and Recommendations Strength of Recommendation & Level of Evidence* Health Question #1: What approaches are recommended to prevent the development of anticipatory chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children? Recommendation 1.1: Control of acute and delayed CINV should be optimized for each child in order

2014 SickKids Supportive Care Guidelines

231. Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Systematic Review Corresponding Author E-mail address: Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, USA Child Study Center Yale University School of Medicine 230 South Frontage Road, POBOX 207900 New Haven, CT, 06520–7900, USA. E-mail address: . School of Education and Human Development, University of Colorado Denver, USA Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Department of Allied (...) greatly in cognitive functioning level (for example, from severe intellectual disability to well above average intelligence) and their ability to function in real life situations (for example, from living in an institutional setting to full independent living with a spouse and children). International prevalence estimates of ASD suggest it affects 1% of children in the population ( ; ), making it more prevalent than childhood cancer or juvenile diabetes. Prevalence studies have consistently indicated

2014 Campbell Collaboration

232. Nurse led immunisation of school aged children

and documented on the consent form before the vaccination is given. (See Sheffield Children’s (NHS) Foundation Trust Consent Policy (CP80) and Immunisation against infectious diseases – the green book (2006) Chapter 2 – consent and Checklist for self consent – appendix C of this document.)12 nurse-led immunisation of school-aged children Return to contents 23. The Child Health Department will be responsible for ensuring that all GPs (general practitioners) are notified that their patients have received (...) information 32 Contents Nurse-led immunisation of school-aged children Guidance for nurses4 nurse-led immunisation of school-aged children Return to contents Introduction Part of the Healthy child programme (DH, 2009; and the Government strategy Getting it right for children, young people and families (DH, 2012), immunisation is a safe and highly effective method of preventing disease. Nurses working with school-aged children are best placed to provide good quality, evidence-based

2014 Royal College of Nursing

233. Policies to support practice areas caring for neonates, children and young people The Royal College of Nursing would like to thank Carol Williams, Independent Nursing and Healthcare Consultant, for revising this publication with contributions from: F Julie Flaherty, Children’s Emergency Care Consultant Nurse, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust F Dawn Giles-Ball, Sister, General Paediatrics, New Cross Hospital, Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust F Rosie Kelly, Clinical Manager, Acute Child Health, South East Trust, Northern Ireland F Orla McAlinden (...) , Lecturer (Education) School of Nursing & Midwifery, Queens University, Belfast, NI F Julie McKnight, Paediatric Nurse Practitioner, Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children F Sian Thomas, Nurse Consultant, Community Child Health, Aneurin Bevan Health Board, Wales F Mary Truen, Specialist Children’s Learning Disability and Development Nurse, Norfolk Community Health and Care F Mervyn Townley, Consultant Nurse for CAMHS, Gwent NHS Healthcare Trust; Acting Chair, RCN CYP Mental Health Community F Jason

2014 Royal College of Nursing

234. Peripheral venous cannulation of children

into a peripheral vein ( ). While the insertion of a cannula is a routine event for health care professionals (HCP), many children and families associate it with dramatic events and serious illness. Cannulation can be both traumatic and painful for the child and stressful for the family. They will require support and encouragement to deal with the procedure ( ). The implications of cannulation should not be underestimated. The introduction of a foreign body into the vein is an extraordinary intervention (...) products. Every HCP must undertake a yearly update to demonstrate competency and fulfill professional development requirements. This is assessed through an e-learning pack and practical assessment. M edical staff should have their competency assessed and documented during their general paediatric training. If no assessment was undertaken or they feel an update is required the practice educator in their clinical area can arrange this. Planning and preparation – child and family Explain the entire

2014 Publication 1593

235. Practitioner review: the effectiveness of solution focused brief therapy with children and families: a systematic and critical evaluation of the literature from 1990-2010 Full Text available with Trip Pro

for children and their families, and to identify the types of problem that might best be addressed by this therapy. Searching Forty-four databases, including PsycINFO and MEDLINE, were searched for peer-reviewed articles or book chapters published in English between 1990 and 2010. Search terms were reported. An advisory group was consulted for additional studies, and references of reviews and meta-analyses were checked. Study selection To be eligible for the review, studies needed to evaluate (...) showed potential, for example, in reducing child maltreatment and in supporting children with developmental difficulties. Authors' conclusions The evidence generally supported solution-focussed brief therapy, but most studies had limitations and further studies were needed. CRD commentary This review was underpinned by broad inclusion criteria for participants, interventions, outcomes and study design. Searching was thorough and encompassed a range of sources. Only English-language publications were

2014 DARE.

236. Sweet solutions for procedural pain in infants

The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne has produced . has information for kids, parents and health professionals about minimising pain and distress during routine procedures. Grading NHMRC Level 1 Evidence. References Harrison D, Stevens B, Bueno M, Yamada J, Adams-Webber T, Beyene J, et al. Archives of Disease in Childhood.2010; 95(6):406–13. Stevens B, Yamada J, Lee GY, Ohlsson A. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;1:CD001069 Consumer resources . Provided under licence This resource is provided under (...) pregnancy may have altered endogenous opioid systems. Sweet solutions may have no analgesic effect for the first days to weeks of life. Availability A pharmacist may be able to supply a ready mixed bottled product, which can be stored in the fridge. Pre-packed products are available: which can be purchased through The Royal Children’s Hospital Comfort Kids program. Description Either sucrose or glucose can be given, as long as they have sufficient sweetness: 24% sucrose 30% glucose. The recommended

2013 Handbook of Non-Drug interventions (HANDI)

237. Paediatric Urology

evaluation 45 3M.2.1 Infants presenting because of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis 46 3M.2.2 Siblings and offspring of reflux patients 46 3M.2.3 Recommendations for paediatric screening of VUR 46 3M.2.4 Children with febrile urinary tract infections 46 3M.2.5 Children with lower urinary tract symptoms and vesicoureteric reflux 47 3M.3 Disease management 47 3M.3.1 Non-surgical therapy 47 3M.3.1.1 Follow-up 47 3M.3.1.2 Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis 47 3M.3.2 Surgical treatment 47 3M.3.2.1 (...) systems 34 3J.3 Diagnostic evaluation 34 3J.4 Disease management 34 3J.4.1 Supportive treatment measures 34 3J.4.2 Alarm treatment 34 3J.4.3 Medication 34 3K MANAGEMENT OF NEUROGENIC BLADDER IN CHILDREN 36 3K.1 Epidemiology, aetiology and pathophysiology 36 3K.2 Classification systems 36 3K.3 Diagnostic evaluation 37 3K.3.1 Urodynamic studies 37 3K.3.1.1 Method of urodynamic study 374 PAEDIATRIC UROLOGY - LIMITED UPDATE MARCH 2015 3K.3.1.2 Uroflowmetry 37 3K.3.2 Cystometry 37 3K.4 Disease management

2015 European Association of Urology

238. Task Force 6: Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Training in Adult Congenital Heart Disease

is considered current until the SPCTPD revises or withdraws it. 1.2. Background and Scope It is estimated that there are currently more adults than children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Despite this, most adult cardiologists are not familiar with CHD, and to date, pediatric cardiology training has not focused on typical adult diseases or on the social issues that impact adults. Pediatric cardiology training will provide a sound basis for the diagnosis and man- agement of CHD that spans all ages (...) ; however, the manifesta- tions, diagnosis, treatments, and outcomes of CHD in adults have important differences from those diseases in children. The goal of Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) train- ing for pediatric cardiology fellows is to expose them to the common sequelae of both repaired and unrepaired CHD in the adult. This presupposes that the trainee has a solid foundation in the principles of CHD diagnosis and management gained through his or her pediatric cardiology training. Additional

2015 American Heart Association

239. A cost-effectiveness analysis of maternal genotyping to guide treatment for postpartum pain and avert infant adverse events

A cost-effectiveness analysis of maternal genotyping to guide treatment for postpartum pain and avert infant adverse events The Hospital for Sick Children Technology Assessment at SickKids (TASK) FULL REPORT A COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF MATERNAL GENOTYPING TO GUIDE TREATMENT FOR POSTPARTUM PAIN AND AVERT INFANT ADVERSE EVENTS Authors: Myla E. Moretti, PhD Research Associate, Clinical Trials Support Unit, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto Daniella F. Lato, BSc Research Assistant (...) , Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto Wendy J. Ungar. MSc, PhD Senior Scientist, Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto Professor, Health Policy, Management & Evaluation, University of Toronto Howard Berger, MD Head, Maternal Fetal Medicine, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto Adjunct Scientist, Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute Assistant Professor, Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto Gideon Koren

2015 SickKids Reports

240. Recombinant growth hormone therapy for cystic fibrosis in children and young adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in improving lung function, quality of life and clinical status of children and young adults with cystic fibrosis.We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Date of latest search: 15 May 2013.We conducted a search of relevant endocrine journals and proceedings (...) Recombinant growth hormone therapy for cystic fibrosis in children and young adults. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition causing disease most noticeably in the lungs, digestive tract and pancreas. People with cystic fibrosis often have malnutrition and growth delay. Adequate nutritional supplementation does not improve growth optimally and hence an anabolic agent, recombinant growth hormone, has been proposed as a potential intervention.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety

2013 Cochrane

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