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81. Vasculitis and Thrombophlebitis (Diagnosis)

hypocomplementemia or as part of a disease associated with low complement levels (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus). Other vasculitides involves vessels of all sizes. The diagnosis is made clinically in patients with recurrent oral ulcers who also have recurrent genital ulcers, uveitis, various skin lesions, and/or a positive pathergy test. /Goodpasture syndrome is a type of vasculitis caused by deposition of anti-GBM antibodies in small vessels of lungs and kidneys. Goodpasture syndrome clinically manifests

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

82. Demographic and clinical features of 521 Turkish patients with Behçet's disease. (PubMed)

) (0.2%). In 120 patients (23%), the onset manifestation compromised more than one symptom. During follow-up, in females and males respectively, oral ulceration was found in 100%, genital ulceration in 90.9% and in 82.5%, papulopustular lesions in 52.6% and in 71.4%, positive pathergy test in 45.3% and in 48.7%, ENLL in 43.6% and in 31.6%, ocular involvement in 36.9% and in 58.1%, gastrointestinal involvement in 6.6% and in 5.6%, joint involvement in 4.2% and in 6.4%, vascular involvement in 1.7

2013 International Journal of Dermatology

83. Pyoderma gangrenosum in a patient with common variable primary immunodeficiency (PubMed)

-reactive inflammatory response to various factors (presence of the so-called pathergy symptom). Common variable primary immunodeficiency (CVID) is a disease that is rather often recognized and affects about 1/10,000-100,000 individuals. It is a heterogeneous group of disorders of combined B-and T-cell dysfunction. The case is described of a 22-year-old man with pyoderma gangrenosum that coexisted with CVID.

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2013 Advances in Dermatology and Allergology/Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii

84. Pyoderma Gangrenosum

Aka: Pyoderma Gangrenosum , Pathergy II. Epidemiology Rare III. Pathophysiology ic dermatosis Also occurs in Behcet Disease and s release elastase and other enzymes that result in skin breakdown IV. Symptoms Painful s and ulcers that form on the legs, buttocks, and face in response to minor V. Signs Lesion characteristics Initial Hemorrhagic, red or painful, tender Next Lesion ulcerates Ulcer has irregular, raised, undermined border and advances peripherally Ulcer base with exudate (...) that is pustular and hemorrhagic Necrotic eschar may form Next Ulcer heals with thin, atrophic scar Distribution (in order of most common to least common) Legs Buttocks Face Pathergy See ing and ulceration in response to minor Also seen with Behcet Disease VI. Associated Conditions (e.g. , ) (e.g. , ) Hepatitis VII. Differential Diagnosis See VIII. References Fitzpatrick (1992) Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology Jhun and DeClerck in Herbert (2015) EM:Rap 15(8): 19-20 Images: Related links

2015 FP Notebook

85. Behçet Syndrome: Is It One Condition? (PubMed)

presentation is intestinal ulceration. There are distinct regional differences in disease expression of BS with fewer cases of intestinal disease in the Mediterranean basin and less severe eye disease and less frequent skin pathergy among patients reported from northern Europe or America. The clustering of symptoms, especially with the recently described increased frequency of the acne/arthritis cluster in familial cases, suggests that more than one pathological pathway is involved in what we call BS today (...) . Supportive evidence for this contention also comes from the observations that (a) the genetic component is very complex with perhaps different genetic modes of inheritance in the adult and in the pediatric patients; and (b) there are differing organ responses to one same drug. For example, the anti-TNF agents successfully control the oral ulcers while they have no effect on the pathergy reaction.

2012 Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology

86. Contribution of Hla-B51 in the susceptibility and specific clinical features of Behcet's disease in Tunisian patients. (PubMed)

for the BD classification recruited from the Department of Internal Medicine, Rabta Hospital in Tunis and compared with 125 native Tunisian healthy age and sex matching volunteers.According to our findings, the frequency of HLAB 51 was significantly higher in BD patients than in controls (p<0.001). Positive pathergy test (PPT) (p = 0.01) and retinal vasculitis (p = 0.045), were significantly more frequent in HLA B51(+) patients, while the frequency of arterial aneurysms (p = 0.009) and neurological

2012 European journal of internal medicine

87. Relationships of HLA-B51 or B5 genotype with Behcet's disease clinical characteristics: systematic review and meta-analyses of observational studies. (PubMed)

involvement 1.13 (1.06, 1.21); genital ulcers 1.07 (1.01, 1.14); skin involvement 1.10 (1.03, 1.16); erythema nodosum 1.11 (0.96, 1.29); pseudofolliculitis 1.07 (0.93, 1.23); positive pathergy test 1.05 (0.94, 1.17); joint involvement 0.94 (0.86, 1.04); neurological involvement 0.95 (0.71, 1.27); gastrointestinal involvement 0.70 (0.52, 0.94); thrombophlebitis 1.17 (0.77, 1.76); vascular involvement 1.00 (0.68, 1.47); chest involvement 1.55 (0.75, 3.20) and orchiepididymitis 1.13 (0.59, 2.15). For most

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2012 Rheumatology (Oxford, England)

88. Neonatal vesiculopustular eruption associated with transient myeloproliferative disorder: report of four cases. (PubMed)

also had vesicles. In one patient, lesions resembled bullous impetigo. In all, the lesions involved the face, followed by the extremities in three and the trunk in two patients. Pathergy phenomena was present in one patient. Hepatomegaly and a leukemoid reaction were present in all patients. Bone marrow showed an M7 immunophenotype in three patients and normal cellularity in one. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 11 months, during which the patients were healthy.Recognition of the cutaneous eruptions

2012 International Journal of Dermatology

89. Behçet's syndrome and micro-organisms. (PubMed)

pathergy reaction with surgical cleaning of the skin before the procedure, the acne-arthritis association carrying similar features to acne-associated reactive arthritis, a higher rate of tonsillectomy, cold sores, late birth order, higher number of siblings, history of travel to countries with a high incidence of BS and earlier age at first sexual intercourse. Moreover, basic research on both viruses and bacteria suggests that micro-organisms may be playing a role, possibly through heat shock proteins

2011 Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology

90. Associations between the HLA-A polymorphism and the clinical manifestations of Behcet's disease. (PubMed)

), with uveitis (OR = 3.01, P < 0.0005, Pc < 0.012), and with vascular lesions (OR = 9.80, P < 0.0005, Pc < 0.012) and a positive pathergy test (OR = 4.10, P = 0.002, Pc = 0.048), respectively, than in controls. In HLA-B*51 non-carriers, these associations were also significant, being much stronger between HLA-A*26:01 and uveitis (OR = 4.19, P < 0.0005, Pc < 0.012) and between HLA-A*30:04 and vascular lesions (OR = 13.97, P < 0.00005, Pc < 0.0012). In addition, HLA-A*30:04 was associated with genital ulcers (...) in HLA-B*51 non-carriers (OR = 3.89, P = 0.002, Pc = 0.048).HLA-A*02:07, A*26:01, and A*30:04 were associated with increased risk for BD, while HLA-A*33:03 with decreased risk. HLA-A*02:07, A*26:01, and A*30:04 were associated with skin lesions and arthritis, with uveitis, and with vascular lesions, genital ulcers, and a positive pathergy test, respectively.

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2011 Arthritis research & therapy

91. Staged correction of an equinovarus deformity due to pyoderma gangrenosum using a Taylor spatial frame and tibiotalar calcaneal fusion with an intramedullary device (PubMed)

Staged correction of an equinovarus deformity due to pyoderma gangrenosum using a Taylor spatial frame and tibiotalar calcaneal fusion with an intramedullary device Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare autoinflammatory syndrome manifested by skin lesions eventually creating ulcers. Surgical management can lead to scarring and contracture at the site of the lesion due to the pathergy phenomenon. A 43-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of severe equinovarus deformity due to chronic pyoderma

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2011 Strategies in trauma and limb reconstruction

92. Grand Rounds: Behcet's Disease: What It Is, and Isn't

, genital ulcers and uveitis. This was originally characterized by the Turkish physician Hulusi Behcet in 1937. While these symptoms are the most common of Behcet’s, other tissues may be affected as Behcet’s is a systemic vasculitic disorder. GI symptoms, neurological sequelae, the pathergy reaction, erythema nodosum, papulopustular acne, and arthritides are all manifestations of Behcet’s Syndrome. There are no pathognomonic laboratory tests or imaging for Behcet’s; the diagnosis is made clinically (...) thrombosis and pulmonary arterial aneurysm with hemoptysis can easily be mistaken as manifestations of pulmonary embolism; however, anticoagulation of pulmonary arterial aneurysm is potentially disastrous, creating a serious diagnostic dilemma. The final clinical expression of Behcet’s described by Dr. Yazici was the pathergy reaction whereby one makes multiple intradermal skin breaks with a 20 gauge needle. Importantly, this test should not break a blood vessel. A positive reaction consists

2008 Clinical Correlations

93. Behçet Disease

and erythema nodosum and pathergy lesions, but no histologic changes are pathognomonic. Symptoms and Signs Mucocutaneous Behçet Disease (Oral Lesions) © Springer Science+Business Media Almost all patients have recurrent, painful oral ulcers resembling those of aphthous stomatitis; in most, these ulcers are the first manifestations. The ulcers are round or oval, 2 to 10 mm in diameter, and shallow or deep with a central yellowish necrotic center; they can occur anywhere in the oral cavity, often in clusters (...) . Ulcers last 1 to 2 wk. Similar ulcers occur on the penis and scrotum, on the vulva where they are painful, or in the vagina where they may cause little or no pain. Oral and Genital Lesions in Behçet Disease © Springer Science+Business Media Cutaneous lesions are common and may include acneiform lesions, nodules, , superficial thrombophlebitis, pyoderma gangrenosum–type lesions, and palpable purpura. Erythema Nodosum in Behçet Disease © Springer Science+Business Media Pathergy (an erythematous papular

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

94. Pyoderma Gangrenosum

25 to 55. It can manifest in various subtypes. Pathophysiology Pathophysiology of pyoderma gangrenosum is poorly understood but may involve problems with neutrophil chemotaxis. IL-8 is overexpressed in lesions. Ulcerations of pyoderma gangrenosum occur after trauma or injury to the skin in about 30% of patients; this process is termed pathergy. General reference Pyoderma gangrenosum: An update on pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Am J Clin Dermatol 1-18, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s40257-017-0251

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

95. Behþet's disease

on clinical findings including oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions such as erythema nodosum, acne, or folliculitis, ocular inflammatory findings and a pathergy reaction. Inflammatory markers such ESR, and CRP may be elevated. A complete ophthalmic examination may include a slit lamp examination, to detect nerve loss, visual field examinations, fundoscopic examination to assess optic disc atrophy and retinal disease, fundoscopic angiography, and visual evoked potentials, which may demonstrate increased (...) or more after needle-prick). The pathergy test has a specificity of 95 percent to 100 percent, but the results are often negative in American and European patients (papulo-pustules, , , in post-adolescents not on corticosteroids) Despite the inclusive criteria set forth by the International Study Group, there are cases where not all the criteria can be met and therefore a diagnosis cannot readily be made. There is however a set of clinical findings that a physician can rely upon in making a tentative

2012 Wikipedia

96. Evaluation of application of multiple needle pricks on the pathergy reaction. (PubMed)

Evaluation of application of multiple needle pricks on the pathergy reaction. The pathergy reaction (PR) to a needle prick is a well-known feature of Behçet's disease (BD). Although PR is accepted as a major criterion in this disease, there is a lack of a standardized method to measure PR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the positive rate of PR of the application of numerous (one to six) needle pricks.Six needle pricks were performed on 105 patients with BD. The results

2008 International Journal of Dermatology

97. The functional role of nuclear factor kappa-kappaB1 -94 ins/del ATTG promotor gene polymorphism in Behçet's disease: an exploratory study. (PubMed)

frequencies of II, ID and DD were 40.7%, 41.9%, and 17.4% in the patient group and 30%, 58% and 12% in the control group (P: 0.08). The II genotype was significantly higher in patients with ocular involvement, genital ulcers or papulopustular lesions. The frequency of the II, ID and DD genotypes showed no marked difference in patients with erythema nodosum, pathergy positivity, arthritis or vascular involvement. No difference was found for gender, positive family history or age at disease onset

2008 Clinical & Experimental Dermatology

98. Pyoderma gangrenosum associated with subcorneal pustular dermatosis and IgA myeloma. (PubMed)

Pyoderma gangrenosum associated with subcorneal pustular dermatosis and IgA myeloma. We report a 57-year-old woman with a 12-year history of ulcerative pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). Five years after the onset of PG, she developed subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SPD) and biclonal IgA and IgG gammopathy. She developed PG at two bone-marrow biopsy sites, showing pathergy. Finally, she developed multiple myeloma. Although PG and SPD may occur without associated underlying malignancy, these patients

2008 Clinical & Experimental Dermatology

99. Behçet's disease. (PubMed)

T helper type 1 immune reaction was reconfirmed in recent studies, especially during active phases, but T helper type 2 reaction may also play a role. Interleukin-12B heterozygosity is associated with Behçet's disease susceptibility and plays an important role in mediating T helper type 1 antistreptococcal immune response. Selenium binding protein may be a target antigen in Behçet's uveitis. Pathergy reaction is most frequently positive in the forearm; multiple needle pricks increase positive

2008 Current Opinion in Rheumatology

100. Pyoderma gangrenosum of the penis: a potentially dramatic skin disease. (PubMed)

Pyoderma gangrenosum of the penis: a potentially dramatic skin disease. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with penile ulceration and a urethral fistula that had failed to heal after plastic reconstructions with skin grafts. The patient had a history of pathergy, because the initial lesion was an ulcer that deteriorated and led to the development of the fistula after surgical interventions for its repair. On the basis of the patient's history and normal laboratory evaluation

2008 Urology

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