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Parietal Lobe

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161. Biological Measures and Diagnostic Tools for Gulf War Illness: A Systematic Review

, neuronal damage; and abnormalities in central and peripheral systems regulating pain perception, fatigue, and sleep NR Case definition: NR Criteria not specified • Cerebral glucose metabolism in brain regions relevant to cognition (eg, medial temporal lobes) using fluorodeoxyglucose-PET • Structural and compositional structural integrity using MRI, diffusion MRI and MPF mapping • Brain regional connectivity among nodes of the ventral and dorsal attention networks on blood oxygen level dependent

2021 Veterans Affairs Evidence-based Synthesis Program Reports

162. Relationship between volume of services and quality of treatment outcome for lung cancer - rapid report

]. The standard surgical treatment of lung carcinoma is anatomic resection in the form of lobectomy (removal of a pulmonary lobe) or pneumonectomy (removal of one lung) with systematic lymphadenectomy. In central tumours, lobectomies can also be performed in the form of sleeve resection at the bronchus and/or pulmonary artery to avoid pneumonectomy in many cases. Smaller tumours can also be anatomically resected at the segment level, but due to a lack of study data, it is currently unclear whether segmental (...) involving the resection of the visceral and parietal pleura. Extrapleural pleuropneumectomy, in contrast, involves the radical resection of all contents of one side of the thorax, including the pleura, lung, diaphragm, and pericardium [16, 32]. Even in case of metastases within the lung, surgical procedures can be used with curative intent, provided that the metastases are limited to the lung. Likewise, in case of recurrent metastatic development isolated in the lung, repeat surgery can be performed [15

2019 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG)

163. Transbronchial Cryobiopsy for the Diagnosis of Interstitial Lung Diseases: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report

suggest biopsy of at least two different sites (either different segments in the same lobe or different lobes) (Weak Recommendation, Low-Quality Evidence). Remarks: TBC of two sites is associated with a substantiallyhigherriskofpneumothoraxcomparedwith TBC of one site (24.6% vs 15.2%). The risk of increased pneumothorax must be weighed against the bene?tof improved diagnostic yield, particularly in patients with advanced structural damage in the lung parenchyma. 3. In patients with suspected ILD (...) and retrospective cohort studies Case series/reports KQ 4: Comparative Safety of Transbronchial Cryobiopsy Procedural Characteristics Population Patients with suspected interstitialpneumoniaundergoing transbronchial lung cryobiopsy None Interventions Transbronchial cryobiopsy: a) of one lobe; b) of one segment; c) with a 1.9 mm probe; d) with a freeze time of#5seconds;e)ofadistance#1cmfromthepleura; f) using an endobronchial blocker; g) using ?uoroscopy None Comparators Transbronchialcryobiopsy:a

2020 American College of Chest Physicians

164. AIUM Practice Parameter for the Performance of Neurosonography in Neonates and Infants

horns of lateral ventricles. ? Posterior to occipital horns. Include parietal and occipital lobes and the posterior interhemispheric ?ssure. ? Extra-axial ?uid spaces: use high-frequency linear transducers to obtain a coronal magni?cation view AIUM Practice Parameter for the Performance of Neurosonography in Neonates and Infants 2 J Ultrasound Med 2020; 9999:1–5of the extra-axial ?uid space, including peripheral brain structures (superior sagittal sinus at the level of frontal horns; measure (...) the ultrasound evaluation if available. The coronal view, by convention, should have the patient’s right side on the left side of the image. Representative coronal views should be obtained by sweeping through the entire brain, from anterior to posterior, using the anterior fontanelle as a sonic window. Coronal views should include the following, sequentially: ? Frontal lobes anterior to the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles with orbits visualized deep to the skull base. ? Frontal horns or bodies

2020 American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

165. Diagnosis and Treatment of Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia

Techniques 64 Key Messages 64 Eligible Studies 65 Overall Study Characteristics 65 Harms 66 Amyloid PET 66 FDG-PET 69 SPECT: Cerebral Perfusion 72 MRI Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy (MTA) 74 Brain Imaging Combinations 77 CSF Biomarkers 77 Key Messages 77 Eligible Studies 78 Overall Study Characteristics 78 Harms 79 CSF Aß42 Levels 79 CSF t-tau Levels 82 CSF p-tau Levels 84 CSF Aß42/t-tau or t-tau/Aß42 Ratio 86 CSF Aß42/p-tau Ratio 88 Combinations of CSF Tests 88 Comparative Accuracy of CSF Biomarkers 89

2020 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

168. Assessment of pruritus

-92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24041961?tool=bestpractice.com Papoiu AD, Coghill RC, Kraft RA, et al. A tale of two itches. Common features and notable differences in brain activation evoked by cowhage and histamine induced itch. Neuroimage. 2012;59:3611-3623. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3288667/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22100770?tool=bestpractice.com Induced itch stimuli co-activate the anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and inferior parietal (...) lobe predominantly in the left hemisphere. Following itch induction, the multiple activated sites in the brain argue against the existence of a single itch centre and reflect the multidimensionality of pruritus. Steinhoff M, Bienenstock J, Schmelz M, et al. Neurophysiological, neuroimmunological, and neuroendocrine basis of pruritus. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:1705-1718. http://www.jidonline.org/article/S0022-202X(15)33013-X/fulltext http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16845410?tool

2018 BMJ Best Practice

169. Assessment of coma

of impaired awareness most commonly seen with lesions of the non-dominant parietal lobe or prefrontal cortex. Alerting/wakefulness is preserved to a large degree. Encephalopathy Diffuse disturbance of cerebral function in the absence of overt parenchymal inflammation or structural abnormality. There are numerous encephalopathies due to electrolyte disturbances, disturbances in thyroid function, inborn errors of metabolism (e.g., porphyria, mitochondrial disorders), organ failure (e.g., hepatic (...) discharges in the brain, either as absence/petit mal seizures (bifrontal or diffuse cortical and thalamic involvement), complex partial seizures (usually of temporal lobe origin, associated with diffuse limbic involvement and cerebral cortical inhibition), or generalised convulsive seizures (with seizure discharges involving both cerebral hemispheres and brainstem structures). Coma can be prolonged in status epilepticus (e.g., non-convulsive status epilepticus as diagnosed by EEG). Convulsive movements

2018 BMJ Best Practice

170. Assessment of pruritus

-92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24041961?tool=bestpractice.com Papoiu AD, Coghill RC, Kraft RA, et al. A tale of two itches. Common features and notable differences in brain activation evoked by cowhage and histamine induced itch. Neuroimage. 2012;59:3611-3623. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3288667/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22100770?tool=bestpractice.com Induced itch stimuli co-activate the anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and inferior parietal (...) lobe predominantly in the left hemisphere. Following itch induction, the multiple activated sites in the brain argue against the existence of a single itch centre and reflect the multidimensionality of pruritus. Steinhoff M, Bienenstock J, Schmelz M, et al. Neurophysiological, neuroimmunological, and neuroendocrine basis of pruritus. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:1705-1718. http://www.jidonline.org/article/S0022-202X(15)33013-X/fulltext http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16845410?tool

2018 BMJ Best Practice

172. ACR–ASNR Practice Parameter for Brain PET/CT Imaging Dementia Res. 17 – 2015 - 2019

degeneration or injury: elevated CSF tau protein (both total and phosphorylated tau); decreased F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on PET in a specific topographic pattern involving posterior cingulate/precuneus and temporoparietal cortex; and atrophy on structural magnetic resonance, again in a specific topographic pattern involving medial, basal, and lateral temporal lobes and medial and lateral parietal cortices [9]. Biomarkers of Aß amyloid are indicative of initiating upstream events that may

2019 American Society of Neuroradiology

173. Movement Disorder and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

restriction in gray matter structures. This includes the cortex (particularly throughout the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes—though often asymmetric—with occipital and cerebellar involvement in less common variants of sporadic CJD, the Heidenhain, and Brownell-Oppenheimer variants, respectively), the basal ganglia (60%, predominantly the anterior caudate and putamen), and the thalami (13%; including the posterior thalamus [pulvinar sign] or the posteromedial thalamus [hockey stick sign]) [6-8,10-15 (...) of these findings remain unclear. ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® 9 Movement Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases In patients with CBD, MRI shows asymmetric atrophy of the frontal and parietal lobes, typically contralateral to the more affected side, as well as the striatum [42,57-60]. Faint T2/FLAIR hyperintensity can also be seen in the subcortical white matter in the atrophic regions, likely related to neuronal loss and gliosis [42,57,59,60]. In patients with PSP, MRI generally shows midbrain atrophy

2019 American College of Radiology

174. Dementia

) elevated CSF tau, total tau, and phosphorylated tau; 2) decreased fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake on PET in temporoparietal cortex; and 3) disproportionate atrophy on structural MRI in medial, basal, and lateral temporal lobe and medial parietal cortex. In persons who meet the core clinical criteria for probable AD dementia, biomarker evidence may increase the certainty that the basis of the clinical dementia syndrome is the AD pathophysiological process. The recommendations (...) on the frontal cortex in early FTD [46]. MR spectroscopy could be a helpful secondary test in patients who have clinical findings of FTD, but it is not a first-line imaging test. MRI Functional (fMRI) Head Brain activation has been shown to be significantly decreased in FTD in the frontal and parietal lobes compared with AD [47]. Resting state fMRI demonstrates alterations in structural and functional connectivity in presymptomatic FTD [48]. However, fMRI remains in the realm of research

2019 American College of Radiology

178. EANM guideline for ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and beyond Full Text available with Trip Pro

[ ]. Pathophysiology When unperfused regions are ventilated, there is an increase in the dead space [ ]. This is one of the reasons for dyspnoea. Hypoxia, frequently present in major PE, is caused by several mechanisms. The emboli occluding pulmonary end arteries alter the local equilibrium and, therefore, can lead to haemorrhage, atelectasis, pleural effusion and pleuritic pain. The lung has no pain fibres; thus, pain in PE is a symptom consequence of the involvement of the parietal pleura. Moreover (...) for further research on this topic is underlined [ ]. Basic principles of PE diagnosis PE leads to loss of perfusion to the area corresponding to the volume supplied by the occluded end artery that may be a whole lung, a lobe, a lung segment or a subsegment. In general, the bronchial circulation maintains viability of the embolised volume, and ventilation remains largely intact. Accordingly, V/P SPECT exploits the unique pulmonary arterial segmental anatomy. Figure presents a segmental map, and a case

2019 European Association of Nuclear Medicine

180. EANM-EAN recommendations for the use of brain 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) in neurodegenerative cognitive impairment and dementia: Delphi consensus Full Text available with Trip Pro

parietal, AUC = 0.69, P = 0.045) . A trend was also observed for AD‐memory dominant cases, with AUC = 0.65 ( P = 0.062) for hypometabolism in bilateral inferior frontal, cuneus and inferior temporal, and right inferior parietal. The logopenic variant of PPA and typical AD dementia could be discriminated (AUC = 0.89) based on the right medial temporal and posterior cingulate gyri, the left inferior, middle and superior temporal lobes, and left supramarginal gyrus . Patients with posterior cortical (...) or in the infrequent DLB cases with a normal pre‐synaptic dopaminergic imaging. The inclusion of FDG‐PET in the new criteria for DLB as a supportive biomarker (a scan not showing hypometabolism in the occipital lobes does not exclude DLB) also contributed to the panellists’ decision. FDG‐PET to differentiate AD from FTLD (PICO 9) Critical outcomes were available in five of the examined papers . These papers found 80%–99% sensitivity range, 63%–98% specificity range, 87%–89.2% accuracy range , - , 0.91–0.97 AUC

2018 European Academy of Neurology

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