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Parietal Lobe

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101. Fusion and Fission of Cognitive Functions in the Human Parietal Cortex (PubMed)

Fusion and Fission of Cognitive Functions in the Human Parietal Cortex How is higher cognitive function organized in the human parietal cortex? A century of neuropsychology and 30 years of functional neuroimaging has implicated the parietal lobe in many different verbal and nonverbal cognitive domains. There is little clarity, however, on how these functions are organized, that is, where do these functions coalesce (implying a shared, underpinning neurocomputation) and where do they divide (...) (indicating different underlying neural functions). Until now, there has been no multi-domain synthesis in order to reveal where there is fusion or fission of functions in the parietal cortex. This aim was achieved through a large-scale activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 386 studies (3952 activation peaks) covering 8 cognitive domains. A tripartite, domain-general neuroanatomical division and 5 principles of cognitive organization were established, and these are discussed with respect

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2014 Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)

102. Decreased γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in the Parietal Region of Patients With Alzheimer’s disease (PubMed)

Decreased γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in the Parietal Region of Patients With Alzheimer’s disease To determine whether there are in vivo differences of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in frontal and parietal regions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS).Fifteen AD patients and fifteen age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent (1) H-MRS of the frontal and parietal lobes using the "MEGA-Point Resolved (...) GABA+/Cr and MMSE scores was also analyzed.Significant lower GABA+/Cr ratios were found in the parietal region of AD patients compared with controls (P = 0.041). In AD patients, no significant correlations between GABA+/Cr and MMSE scores were found in either the frontal (r = -0.164; P = 0.558) or parietal regions (r = 0.025; P = 0.929).Decreased GABA+/Cr levels were present in the parietal region of patients with AD in vivo, suggesting that abnormalities of the GABAergic system may be present

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2014 Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI

103. Increased suicide attempts in young depressed patients with abnormal temporal-parietal-limbic gray matter volume. (PubMed)

in depressive patients.Compared with controls, patients without suicide history showed significant decreased gray matter volume in the left insula lobe [-35 18 9], whereas patients with suicide history showed significantly decreased gray matter volume in the right middle temporal gyrus [60 -53 -8] and increased gray matter volume in the right parietal lobe [39 -39 60]. Compared with the non-suicidal depressed patient group, the suicidal group showed significant decreased gray matter volume in left limbic (...) Increased suicide attempts in young depressed patients with abnormal temporal-parietal-limbic gray matter volume. Suicide is a major cause of death throughout the world. Approximately 60% of all suicides have a history of depression. Previous studies of structural brain imaging have shown that suicide is often associated with abnormal fronto-limbic networks. However, the mechanism underlying suicide in depression remains poorly understood.Twenty sex- and age-matched suicidal unipolar patients

2014 Journal of Affective Disorders

104. Improving ideomotor limb apraxia by electrical stimulation of the left posterior parietal cortex. (PubMed)

, the amount of decrease of planning times brought about by left PPC transcranial direct current stimulation was influenced by the size of the parietal lobe damage, with a larger parietal damage being associated with a smaller improvement. Of interest from a clinical perspective, left PPC stimulation also ameliorated accuracy in imitating hand gestures in patients. Instead, transcranial direct current stimulation to the right M1 diminished execution, but not planning, times in both patients and healthy (...) Improving ideomotor limb apraxia by electrical stimulation of the left posterior parietal cortex. Limb apraxia, a deficit of planning voluntary gestures, is most frequently caused by damage to the left hemisphere, where, according to an influential neurofunctional model, gestures are planned, before being executed through the motor cortex of the hemisphere contralateral to the acting hand. We used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation delivered to the left posterior parietal cortex

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2014 Brain

105. Parcellation of left parietal tool representations by functional connectivity (PubMed)

. A third cluster in the superior parietal lobe expressed privileged functional connectivity with dorsal occipital cortex. Control analyses using Monte Carlo style permutation tests demonstrated that the clustering solutions were outside the range of what would be observed based on chance 'lumpiness' in random data, or mere anatomical proximity. Finally, hierarchical clustering analyses were used to formally relate the resulting parcellation scheme of left parietal tool representations to previous work (...) Parcellation of left parietal tool representations by functional connectivity Manipulating a tool according to its function requires the integration of visual, conceptual, and motor information, a process subserved in part by left parietal cortex. How these different types of information are integrated and how their integration is reflected in neural responses in the parietal lobule remains an open question. Here, participants viewed images of tools and animals during functional magnetic

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2014 Neuropsychologia

106. Commonalities for numerical and continuous quantity skills at temporo-parietal junction. (PubMed)

of numerical and continuous quantity processing in the right TPJ; in contrast, individual differences in number proficiency were associated with gray matter volume in number-specific cortical regions in the right parietal lobe. Together, our new converging evidence of selective numerical impairment and of number-specific brain areas at least partially distinct from common magnitude areas suggests that the human brain is equipped with different ways of quantifying the outside world. (...) Commonalities for numerical and continuous quantity skills at temporo-parietal junction. How do our abilities to process number and other continuous quantities such as time and space relate to each other? Recent evidence suggests that these abilities share common magnitude processing and neural resources, although other findings also highlight the role of dimension-specific processes. To further characterize the relation between number, time, and space, we first examined them in a population

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2014 Journal of cognitive neuroscience

107. Fronto-parietal connectivity changes following noxious stimulation during anesthesia (PubMed)

Fronto-parietal connectivity changes following noxious stimulation during anesthesia The aim of our study was to assess the changes in the fronto-parietal connectivity estimated by the cross approximate entropy (XAppEn) during noxious stimulation while under chloral hydrate anaesthesia, in rats.A group of 11 Wistar rats chronically implanted with Ni-Cr electrodes, which were placed on the dura mater of the right hemisphere (over the olfactory cortex, the frontal and the parietal lobes), were (...) used in the present study. Noxious stimuli of a mechanical and thermal nature were applied on the left hindpaw during chloral hydrate anesthesia. The anesthetic depth was estimated through median frequency computation, which in that instance was of 2-3 Hz. Fronto-parietal functional cortical connectivity was assessed by using XAppEn.After data processing and analysis we observed an increase of fronto-parietal functional connectivity during mechanical and thermal noxious stimulation. In addition

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2014 Journal of medicine and life

108. Epileptic kinetopsia localizes to superior parietal lobule and intraparietal sulcus (PubMed)

, Queen Square, London, UK. Wehner Tim T From the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK. Diehl Beate B From the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK. b.diehl@ucl.ac.uk. eng Case Reports Journal Article 2014 07 16 United States Neurology 0401060 0028-3878 AIM IM Adult Brain Neoplasms complications diagnosis physiopathology Electroencephalography methods Female Humans Neural Pathways physiopathology Parietal Lobe physiopathology (...) Epileptic kinetopsia localizes to superior parietal lobule and intraparietal sulcus 25031283 2014 12 22 2018 11 13 1526-632X 83 8 2014 Aug 19 Neurology Neurology Epileptic kinetopsia localizes to superior parietal lobule and intraparietal sulcus. 768-70 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000709 Perumal Madhusoothanan Bhagavathi MB From the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK. Chinnasami Suganthi S From the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square

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2014 Neurology

109. Functional connectivity changes between parietal and prefrontal cortices in primary insomnia patients: evidence from resting-state fMRI (PubMed)

of cortical pathways by measuring local and regional correlations in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signs independent of specific task demands.We compared the R-fMRI activity patterns of 15 healthy controls to 15 primary insomnia patients (all 30 participants were right-handed) using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The SPM8 and REST1.7 software packages were used for preprocessing and analysis. Activity was expressed relative to the superior parietal lobe (SPL, the seed region) to reveal differences (...) , while connectivity was weaker between the SPL and right superior frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex).Primary insomnia appears to alter the functional connectivity between the parietal and frontal lobes, cortical structures critical for spatial and verbal working memory.

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2014 European Journal Of Medical Research

110. Connectome Reorganization Associated With Surgical Outcome in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. (PubMed)

Connectome Reorganization Associated With Surgical Outcome in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. To identify the distinct pattern of anatomical network reorganization in surgically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients using a longitudinal design. We collected longitudinal diffusion-weighted images of 19 MTLE patients before and after anterior temporal lobectomy. Patients were classified as seizure-free (SF) or nonseizure-free (NSF) at least 1 year after surgery. We constructed whole (...) before surgery and then converge after surgery, suggesting that surgery remodeled these structures into a similar status. Conversly, contralateral amygdala-planum-temporale and thalamic-parietal tracts showed higher connectivity strength in NSF than in SF patients after surgery, indicating maladaptive neuroplastic responses to surgery in NSF patients. Our findings suggest that surgical outcomes are associated not only with the preoperative pattern of anatomical connectivity, but also with connectome

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2015 Medicine

111. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection (PubMed)

The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards

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2015 Behavioural neurology

112. Reorganization of Language Areas in Patient with a Frontal Lobe Low Grade Glioma – fMRI Case Study (PubMed)

a pathological mass in the left frontal lobe, in close topographical relationship to the Broca's area. A left fronto-parietal craniotomy was performed, with an intraoperative awake language mapping procedure. A total resection of the pathological mass was achieved. The tumor was examined histologically as LGG. In the follow-up MRI exam 32 months after the operation a tumor recurrence was suggested. The fMRI exams performed preoperative and 3, 32 and 41 months after the operation showed changes in language (...) Reorganization of Language Areas in Patient with a Frontal Lobe Low Grade Glioma – fMRI Case Study Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) studies results in case of an adult patient with low grade glioma (LGG) in dominant hemisphere suggest brain plasticity process with acquisition of language functions by the non-dominant hemisphere speech regions.A 36-years old right-handed woman was admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery for surgical treatment of brain tumor. An MRI examination revealed

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2015 Polish Journal of Radiology

113. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study (PubMed)

lobe (BFL), left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral (...) Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) after normal sleep (NS) and after sleep deprivation (SD).A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight

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2015 Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment

114. Microsurgical anatomy of the central lobe. (PubMed)

is closer to the precentral gyrus and central sulcus at its lower rather than at its upper end, but they are closest at a point near where the superior temporal line crosses the coronal suture. The arterial supply of the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the central lobe was from the central, precentral, and anterior parietal branches that arose predominantly from the superior trunk of the middle cerebral artery. The medial surface and the superior third of the lateral surface were supplied (...) by the posterior interior frontal, paracentral, and superior parietal branches of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. The venous drainage of the superior two-thirds of the lateral surface and the central lobe on the medial surface was predominantly through the superior sagittal sinus, and the inferior third of the lateral surface was predominantly through the superficial sylvian veins to the sphenoparietal sinus or the vein of Labbé to the transverse sinus.The pre- and postcentral gyri

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2015 Journal of Neurosurgery

115. Reduced thalamocortical functional connectivity in temporal lobe epilepsy. (PubMed)

and compared across groups using analyses of variance (ANOVAs).Compared to healthy controls, patients with TLE displayed decreased thalamocortical FC in multiple posterior and ventromedial thalamic segments of both the ictal and nonictal hemispheres. Our parcellation analysis revealed that these thalamic regions were functionally connected to the parietal/occipital and temporal lobes. In patients with TLE with focal seizures these regional thalamocortical FC decreases were limited to the ictal hemisphere (...) Reduced thalamocortical functional connectivity in temporal lobe epilepsy. In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the thalamus is well known for its role in the propagation and spread of epileptiform activity. However, the integrity of thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) in TLE and its relation to specific seizure patterns have not yet been determined. We address these issues with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Resting-state fMRI was performed on two groups

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2015 Epilepsia

116. Frontal lobe connectivity and cognitive impairment in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy. (PubMed)

patterns in children with FLE remained relatively intact. Children with FLE complicated by cognitive impairment typically showed a decrease in frontal lobe connectivity. This decreased frontal lobe connectivity comprised both connections within the frontal lobe as well as connections from the frontal lobe to the parietal lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and basal ganglia.Decreased functional frontal lobe connectivity is associated with cognitive impairment in pediatric FLE. The importance of impairment (...) Frontal lobe connectivity and cognitive impairment in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy. Cognitive impairment is frequent in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), but its etiology is unknown. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have explored the relationship between brain activation, functional connectivity, and cognitive functioning in a cohort of pediatric patients with FLE and healthy controls.Thirty-two children aged 8-13 years with FLE of unknown cause and 41 healthy

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2012 Epilepsia

117. Thalamotemporal impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy: A combined MRI analysis of structure, integrity, and connectivity. (PubMed)

Thalamotemporal impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy: A combined MRI analysis of structure, integrity, and connectivity. Thalamic abnormality in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is well known from imaging studies, but evidence is lacking regarding connectivity profiles of the thalamus and their involvement in the disease process. We used a novel multisequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol to elucidate the relationship between mesial temporal and thalamic pathology in TLE.For 23 patients (...) with TLE and 23 healthy controls, we performed T1 -weighted (for analysis of tissue structure), diffusion tensor imaging (tissue connectivity), and T1 and T2 relaxation (tissue integrity) MRI across the whole brain. We used connectivity-based segmentation to determine connectivity patterns of thalamus to ipsilateral cortical regions (occipital, parietal, prefrontal, postcentral, precentral, and temporal). We subsequently determined volumes, mean tractography streamlines, and mean T1 and T2 relaxometry

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2014 Epilepsia

118. Neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants with a periventricular haemorrhagic infarction located in the temporal or frontal lobe. (PubMed)

Neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants with a periventricular haemorrhagic infarction located in the temporal or frontal lobe. The aim of the study was to compare clinical and neuroimaging characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants with a periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) located in the temporal or frontal periventricular white matter.The study was a retrospective hospital-based study of preterm infants with a frontal PVHI (n=21; 11 (...) impairment, and/or atypical cognitive development (Griffiths Mental Development Scales developmental quotient or Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence <85).Unfavourable outcome was observed in 12 out of 13 children with a temporal PVHI compared with six out of 21 children with a frontal PVHI (p=0.002). Only one of the included infants with a PVHI in the temporal white matter developed cerebral palsy, which was due to a parietal PVHI in the contralateral hemisphere. Cognitive impairment

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2014 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

119. Temporal lobe epilepsy and affective disorders: the role of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. (PubMed)

Temporal lobe epilepsy and affective disorders: the role of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. Reduced deactivation within the default mode network (DMN) is common in individuals with primary affective disorders relative to healthy volunteers (HVs). It is unknown whether similar network abnormalities are present in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with a history of affective psychopathology.17 TLE patients with a lifetime affective diagnosis, 31 TLE patients with no formal (...) psychiatric history and 30 HVs were included. We used a visuo-spatial 'n-back' paradigm to compare working memory (WM) network activation between these groups. Post hoc analyses included voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. The Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen and Beck Anxiety Inventory were completed on the day of scanning.Each group activated the fronto-parietal WM networks and deactivated the typical DMN in response to increasing task demands. Group comparison revealed that TLE

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2014 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

120. Working memory network plasticity after anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study. (PubMed)

subjects, which had normalized 12 months after surgery. Following right anterior temporal lobe resection there was a progressive increase of activation in the right superior parietal lobe at 3 and 12 months after surgery. There was greater deactivation of the right hippocampal remnant compared to controls between 3 and 12 months after right anterior temporal lobe resection that was associated with lesser improvement in task performance. Working memory improved after anterior temporal lobe resection (...) Working memory network plasticity after anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Working memory is a crucial cognitive function that is disrupted in temporal lobe epilepsy. It is unclear whether this impairment is a consequence of temporal lobe involvement in working memory processes or due to seizure spread to extratemporal eloquent cortex. Anterior temporal lobe resection controls seizures in 50-80% of patients with drug-resistant temporal

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2014 Brain

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