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Parietal Lobe

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261. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy during optic flow with and without fixation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-parietal and occipital lobes using fNIRS.Cerebral activation was greater with visual motion than while viewing a stationary scene. Greater cerebral activation in the bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal lobes was observed when optic flow was viewed with fixation.Optic flow activates the bilateral fronto-temporo-parietal regions of the cerebral cortex. This activation is greater while viewing optic flow and a fixation target, providing preliminary evidence supporting the use of a fixation target during

2018 PLoS ONE

262. Disorder-Specific and Shared Brain Abnormalities During Vigilance in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Full Text available with Trip Pro

cortex/insula and left inferior parietal lobe/pre/post-central gyrus were progressively less activated in boys with OCD relative to the other two groups. In addition, boys with OCD showed progressively increased activation with increasing attention load in rostromedial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex relative to boys with ASD and control boys. Shared neurofunctional abnormalities between boys with ASD and boys with OCD included increased activation with increasing attention load in cerebellum (...) and occipital regions, possibly reflecting increased default mode network activation.This first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to compare boys with ASD and OCD showed shared abnormalities in posterior cerebellar-occipital brain regions. However, boys with OCD showed a disorder-specific pattern of reduced activation in left inferior frontal and temporo-parietal regions but increased activation of medial frontal regions, which may potentially be related to neurobiological mechanisms underlying

2017 Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging

264. SNMMI Procedure Standard-EANM Practice Guideline for Amyloid PET Imaging of the Brain

accumulation in Aß -positive subjects typically include lateral temporal and frontal lobes as well as posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, and the parietal lobes, whereas the sensorimotor cortex and the visual cortex can be relatively spared. Striatal radiotracer uptake most notable in the caudate head is also often found and may be decisive in subjects with major cortical atrophy. In patients with hereditary forms of AD particularly intense uptake in the striatum has been described 1 . The cerebellar (...) . Specific attention should be paid to the lateral temporal, frontal, posterior cingulate/precuneus, and parietal cortices, but SNMMI Procedure Standard-EANM Practice Guideline for Amyloid PET Imaging of the Brain 9 also the basal ganglia (see below). Note that the gray matter intensity of the cerebellar cortex is usually less than the gray matter intensity in cerebral cortical regions in a normal scan owing to closer proximity of white matter structures in the latter. If significant image quality

2016 Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

265. Effect of task difficulty on blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in a motion discrimination task. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of task difficulty on blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in a motion discrimination task. There is much evidence that neural activity in the human brain is modulated by task difficulty, particularly in visual, frontal, and parietal cortices. However, some basic psychophysical tasks in visual perception do not give rise to this expected effect, at least not in the visual cortex. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance (...) -of-interest (ROI) analyses, including in the visual cortex, the parietal cortex, in both designs, and in foveal and peripheral visual fields alike. Indeed, there was little difference between BOLD activity during the 3° and 80° conditions. Some suggestive evidence of difficulty modulation was revealed only in the superior and inferior frontal gyri for the blocked design. We conclude that, in motion discrimination, there is no systematic BOLD modulation that accompanies the standard psychometric function

2018 PLoS ONE

267. Prevention of stroke in patients with silent cerebrovascular disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

, atrophy may be minimal when the cortical infarct is small. Higher-field-strength (3 T) imaging at high spatial resolution (eg, ≤1.5-mm slice thickness), as is sometimes used clinically in dementia protocols, may reveal very small (<3 mm) infarcts in the cortical ribbon that are at the upper size limit of what have been called microinfarcts. Figure 4. Cortical silent brain infarct. On computed tomography ( A ), a silent cortical infarct is visible in the right parietal lobe ( arrow ). On magnetic (...) resonance imaging (different patient), a silent cortical infarct ( arrow ) is visible as a small region of T2 hyperintensity on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image ( B ) in the right parietal cortex and adjacent subcortical white matter. On T1-weighted inversion-recovery spoiled gradient-recalled echo imaging ( C ), the infarct appears hypointense, interrupting the cortical ribbon. White Matter Hyperintensities WMH is a descriptive term for areas of increased signal intensity of the cerebral

2016 American Academy of Neurology

268. CRACKCast E041 – Head Injury

with a serious TBI Principles of disease ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Scalp and cranium : “SCALP MAP” Scalp components: Dermis: thick layer of skin (skin) Subcutaneous tissue : hair follicles, and BLOOD supply (cutaneous) Galea : tough fascia (aponeurosis) Loose areolar tissue : loose tissue, where subgaleal hematomas form Pericranium : firmly attached to the skull Skull: Frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, and TWO parietal + temporal bones Temporal bones are the thinnest Must consider contrecoup injuries (...) Post-seizure Post-intoxicating drugs Brain or brainstem compression due to swelling or a mass Bleed Hypotension 2) List four herniation syndromes. Uncal herniation Most common type: due to traumatic extra-axial hematomas in the lateral middle fossa or temporal lobe. Central transtentorial herniation Due to an expanding lesion at the vertex, frontal, or occipital brain Upward transtentorial herniation Expanding posterior fossa tumour Signs: Rapid decline of LOC, downward conjugate gaze, pinpoint

2016 CandiEM

270. Neuraceq - florbetaben (18F)

FAS full analysis set FDA Food and Drug Administration FDG fludeoxyglucose (18F) FN false negative FP false positive FTD fronto-temporal dementia FTD Frontotemporal Dementia FTLD fronto-temporal lobe degeneration (dementia) GCP Good Clinical Practice HC(s) healthy control (s) HR Heart Rate HREC Human Research Ethics Committee HV Healthy Volunteer IASAP integrated analysis statistical analysis plan ICH International Conference on Harmonization IEC Independent Ethics Committee IMPACT International (...) frontal cortex > parietal cortex > temporal cortex. No difference in binding between AD patients and control group was detected in the cerebellum, indicating that the cerebellum could be used as a reference region for PET image analysis. The ApoE e4 status of the AD patients did not impact 3 H-florbetaben binding to AD brain homogenates. Florbetaben binding to ß-amyloid deposits correlated with ß-amyloid specific IHC and Bielchowsky stain (silver staining). Florbetaben did not bind to tau NFT

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

273. Dementia and Movement Disorders

without pathologic verification was suggested to include typical clinical presentation with a progressive episodic memory defect for 6 months but also at least one abnormal imaging finding or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker [10,11]. Imaging biomarkers include hippocampal and other areas of atrophy on volumetric MRI , parietal and temporal glucose hypometabolism on PET using fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) imaging, and abnormal amyloid PET imaging [10-12]. CSF biomarkers include (...) , which uses agents that bind to amyloid deposits within the brain. Metabolic PET imaging has been shown to provide greater diagnostic accuracy when compared with clinical evaluations without functional neuroimaging [7]. Hypometabolism on FDG-PET is thought to be related to decreased synaptic activity and is a biomarker of neurodegeration or neuronal injury [11]. FDG-PET shows characteristic reductions of regional glucose metabolic rates in patients with probable and definite AD in the parietal

2015 American College of Radiology

274. The association of psychosocial risk factors for mental health with a brain marker altered by inflammation: A translocator protein (TSPO) PET imaging study. (Abstract)

= 12). The [11C]-PBR28 volume of distribution (VT) and Distribution Volume Ratio (DVR) were measured in the total gray matter, and frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobes. Levels of childhood trauma, anxiety and depression were measured using respectively the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, State-anxiety questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory. Compared to the low-risk group, the high-risk group did not exhibit significant differences in the mean [11C]-PBR28 VT (F(1,20) = 1.619, p = 0.218 (...) ) or DVR (F(1,22) = 0.952, p = 0.340) on any region. There were no significant correlations between the [11C]-PBR28 VT and DVRs in total gray matter and frontal lobe and measures of childhood trauma, anxiety and depression. Psychosocial risk factors for depression and/or psychosis are unlikely to be associated with alterations in [11C]-PBR28 binding, indicating that alterations in TSPO expression reported in these disorders is unlikely to be caused by psychosocial risk factors alone.Copyright © 2019

2019 Brain, behavior, and immunity

275. Progressive Cortical Thinning in Patients With Focal Epilepsy. (Abstract)

magnetic resonance imaging scans) were compared with 141 healthy volunteers (76 women and 65 men; mean [SD] age, 35 [17] years; 282 magnetic resonance imaging scans). Widespread highly significant progressive cortical thinning exceeding normal aging effects, mainly involving the bilateral temporal lobes, medial parietal and occipital cortices, pericentral gyri, and opercula, was seen in 146 individuals with epilepsy (76.8%; 95% CI, 58%-95%). The mean (SD) annualized rate of global cortical thinning (...) , or antiepileptic drug load and did not differ between patients with or without ongoing seizures. Progressive atrophy in temporal (n = 101) and frontal (n = 28) lobe epilepsy was most pronounced ipsilaterally to the epileptic focus but also affected a widespread area extending beyond the focus and commonly affected the contralateral hemisphere. For patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, accelerated cortical thinning was observed within areas structurally connected with the ipsilateral hippocampus.Widespread

2019 JAMA neurology

276. Echo-planar FLAIR Sequence Improves Subplate Visualization in Fetal MRI of the Brain. (Abstract)

images was superior to that on T2-weighted SSFSE images (subplate visualization [complete + partial]: frontal lobe, n = 243 vs n = 117; temporal lobe, n = 244 vs n = 137; parietal lobe n = 240 vs n = 93; and occipital lobe, n = 241 vs n = 97, respectively; P < .001), with higher interrater reliability (κ = 0.91-0.95 for EPI-FLAIR images and 0.80-0.87 for T2-weighted SSFSE images). SI ratios between the IZ and subplate were significantly higher on EPI-FLAIR images in all lobes (EPI-FLAIR images: 1.6

2019 Radiology

277. Contact sport participation and chronic traumatic encephalopathy are associated with altered severity and distribution of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. (Abstract)

 = 251) had more prevalent (p < 0.001) and severe (p = 0.010) CAA within the frontal leptomeningeal vessels compared to intracortical vessels. Compared to those with AD, participants with CTE had more severe CAA in frontal than parietal lobes (p < 0.001) and more severe CAA in leptomeningeal than intracortical vessels (p = 0.002). The overall frequency of CAA in participants with CTE was low, and there was no significant association between contact sport participation and the presence of CAA. However

2019 Acta neuropathologica

278. Three-dimensional pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling and susceptibility-weighted imaging associated with clinical progression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

respectively were recruited in the study, and 40 healthy subjects were taken as controls. Data were recorded using 3T MR scanner. We assessed the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 11 different regions of interest, and counted number of microhemorrhages (MB) in 3 regions of brain lobes, bilateral basal ganglia/thalamus, and brain stem/cerebellum, and then investigated correlations between Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores, CBF, and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) features in these 3 groups.The (...) results revealed that for AD patients, the MoCA scores and CBF values in frontal gray matter (FGM), occipital gray matter (OGM), temporal gray matter (TGM), parietal gray matter (PGM), hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, basal ganglia and thalamus decreased compared with aMCI patients and control group, and significant difference was revealed among the 3 groups. While in cerebellum, statistical significance was only found between AD

2019 Medicine

279. White matter hyperintensities: relationship to amyloid and tau burden. (Abstract)

hyperintense regions associated with Alzheimer's biomarkers (global amyloid from amyloid-PET and meta-regions of interest tau uptake from tau-PET) after adjusting for age, sex and hypertension. For amyloid associations, we additionally adjusted for tau and vice versa. Topographic patterns of amyloid-associated white matter hyperintensities included periventricular white matter hyperintensities (frontal and parietal lobes). White matter hyperintense volumes in the detected topographic pattern correlated

2019 Brain

280. Structural connectivity-based topography of the human globus pallidus: Implications for therapeutic targeting in movement disorders. Full Text available with Trip Pro

parcellation revealed the presence in the external globus pallidus of dissociable clusters for each cortical lobe (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital), whereas in internal globus pallidus only frontal and parietal clusters were found out.We mapped the topographical organization of both internal and external globus pallidus according to cortical and cerebellar connections. These anatomical data could be useful in DBS, radiosurgery and MR-guided focused ultrasound targeting for treating motor (...) parcellation was performed with a hypothesis-driven approach at three different levels: functional regions (limbic, associative, sensorimotor, and other), lobes, and gyral subareas.External globus pallidus segregated into a ventral associative cluster, a dorsal sensorimotor cluster, and a caudal "other" cluster on the base of its cortical connectivity. Dento-pallidal connections clustered only in the internal globus pallidus, where also associative and sensorimotor clusters were identified. Lobar

2019 Movement Disorders

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