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Parietal Lobe

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2741. Different patterns of N-acetylaspartate loss in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and AD. Full Text available with Trip Pro

old) and 43 patients with AD of comparable age and dementia severity were studied using MRSI and MRI. Patients were compared to 52 cognitively normal subjects with and without lacunes.Compared to controls, patients with SIVD had lower NAA by 18% (p < 0.001) in frontal cortex and by 27% (p < 0.003) in parietal cortex, but no significant NAA reduction in white matter and medial temporal lobe. Compared to patients with AD, patients with SIVD had lower NAA by 13% (p < 0.02) in frontal cortex and by 20 (...) % (p < 0.002) in left parietal cortex. Cortical NAA decreased in SIVD with increasing white matter lesions (r = 0.54, p < 0.02) and number of lacunes (r = 0.59, p < 0.02). Thalamic lacunes were associated with greater NAA reduction in frontal cortex than were lacunes outside the thalamus (p < 0.02) across groups, after adjusting for cognitive impairments. Adding parietal NAA to MRI-derived hippocampal atrophy improved separation between SIVD and AD (p = 0.02) from 79 to 89%.These results emphasize

2003 Neurology

2742. Eye movements tell only half the story. (Abstract)

Eye movements tell only half the story. The dramatic improvements of neglect symptoms after prism adaptation (PA) have been interpreted as evidence that PA reorganizes higher levels of spatial representation. Here the authors demonstrate that while the exploratory eye movements of a patient with neglect were clearly shifted toward the left after PA, he still showed no awareness for the left side of the stimuli he was now actively exploring. PA modulates functions of the parietal lobe

2003 Neurology

2743. Myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis (Schilder's disease): report of a case and review of the literature. (Abstract)

-handed young man presenting with left hemiplegia, aphasia and behavioural changes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed two large lesions, irregular contrast-enhancing, in the subcortical white matter of the right frontal and parietal lobes, and increased intracranial pressure. Definitive diagnosis was made with biopsy. The characteristic pathological features are demyelinization of the white matter, lymphocytic perivascular infiltrates, microglial proliferation and immunohistochemical signs

2002 British Journal of Neurosurgery

2744. Posterior quadrantic dysplasia or hemi-hemimegalencephaly: a characteristic brain malformation. (Abstract)

Posterior quadrantic dysplasia or hemi-hemimegalencephaly: a characteristic brain malformation. Posterior quadrantic dysplasia (PQD), a developmental malformation involving the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes of one cerebral hemisphere, leads to intractable epilepsy.To characterize the clinical features of 19 patients with PQD and analyze the postsurgical outcome of those who underwent resection of dysplastic tissue.The extent and nature of the malformation were primarily assessed

2004 Neurology

2745. Can the Wada test evaluate mesial temporal function? A SPECT study. (Abstract)

and IAP-SPECT were realigned to obtain the perfusion change percentage (PCP), allowing a quantitative measurement. Wechsler Memory Scale Revised (WMS-R) before and during the first year of follow-up was used to assess memory impairment after surgery.A decrease between 10 and 12% of the mean PCP values was observed in the frontal, parietal, and lateral temporal lobes of the injected side and in the contralateral cerebellum. However, no significant PCP changes were observed in the occipital or mesial (...) temporal lobes. Thirty-eight passed the memory evaluation of the IAP and in 6 of those 38 patients a decline in memory was demonstrated 1 year after ATL. However, high preoperative neuropsychological score (in two patients) and IAP asymmetry scores (in other three patients) predicted postoperative memory risk in five of these six patients. Fourteen of the 38 patients (40%) had hypoperfusion of the hippocampus during the IAP-SPECT (i.e., the hippocampus was inactivated) and only 1 of these 14 patients

2004 Neurology

2746. Role of the healthy hemisphere in recovery after resection of the supplementary motor area. (Abstract)

hands, successively. Magnitude and volume of activation within regions of interest (primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, SMA, preSMA, and parietal lobes) were compared and tested for correlation with anatomic characteristics of the tumor and resection, and clinical data.Tumor growth induced preoperative underactivity in the adjacent SMA and overactivity in the opposite SMA. Postoperative recovery was associated with recruitment of a premotor network located in the healthy hemisphere

2004 Neurology

2747. Cinguloparietal atrophy distinguishes Alzheimer disease from semantic dementia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and on simple calculations. Consistent with these neuropsychological deficits, the most significant area of atrophy in the AD group was the left parietal cortex vs controls (z = 5.0; P =.04). Compared with SD, AD was associated with more atrophy in the left parietal lobe (z = 5.6; P =.04) and bilaterally in the posterior cingulate/precuneus (z = 5.1; P =.04). A discriminant function analysis demonstrated that the degree of atrophy of right posterior cingulate, left parietal lobe, right amygdala, and right (...) anterior temporal lobe structures correctly classified 96% of the patients.Alzheimer disease is associated with a specific pattern of cortical atrophy compared with SD.

2003 Archives of Neurology

2748. Paroxysmal dysarthria and ataxia after midbrain infarction. (Abstract)

Paroxysmal dysarthria and ataxia after midbrain infarction. The authors describe a patient who showed paroxysmal dysarthria and right-limb ataxia after midbrain infarction. SPECT imaging showed marked hypoperfusion in the left parietal lobe while the patient was having frequent paroxysmal attacks. After treatment with phenytoin, the symptoms and hypoperfusion in SPECT imaging improved. The authors conclude that dysfunction of the cerebellothalamocortical pathway after midbrain infarction may

2004 Neurology

2749. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in epilepsies with continuous spikes and waves during sleep. (Abstract)

the parietal and frontal cortices.Cerebral metabolic patterns are heterogeneous among patients with CSWS. This metabolic heterogeneity could be related to the use of corticosteroid treatment before PET. The parietofrontal altered connectivity observed in patients with hypermetabolism is interpreted as a phenomenon of remote inhibition of the frontal lobes induced by highly epileptogenic and hypermetabolic posterior cortex.

2004 Neurology

2750. Clinical, genetic, and neuropathologic characteristics of posterior cortical atrophy. (Abstract)

Alzheimer disease (AD). Nine patients had died and underwent postmortem examination. Seven autopsied cases had AD pathology but when compared to typical AD, the neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) densities were significantly higher in Brodmann areas 17 and 18 (p < 0.05) and significantly lower in the hippocampus (p < 0.05). Two cases had corticobasal degeneration with maximal involvement of tau positive glial pathology in the posterior parietal lobe and Brodmann areas 17 and 18.PCA is a distinctive dementia

2004 Neurology

2751. MRS in relation to hippocampal volume in the oldest old. (Abstract)

MRS in relation to hippocampal volume in the oldest old. The MRS brain metabolite ratio N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/myo-inositol (mI) is reported to be decreased in AD. MRS was used to study medial temporal and parietal regions in 60 cognitively healthy subjects older than 85 years. Subjects with small hippocampal volumes, a putative risk factor for dementia, had significantly lower NAA/mI in parietal and temporal lobes compared with other subjects. Neuropsychological tests and APOE genotype did

2003 Neurology

2752. Regional distribution of white matter hyperintensities in vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease and healthy aging. Full Text available with Trip Pro

FLAIR sequences and surface reconstructions from a three-dimensional MRI sequence.The intraclass correlation coefficient for interrater reliability of WMH volume measurements ranged between 0.99 in the frontal and 0.72 in the occipital lobe. For each cerebral lobe, the WMH index, i.e. WMH volume divided by lobar volume, was highest in VaD and lowest in healthy controls. Within each group, the WMH index was higher in frontal and parietal lobes than in occipital and temporal lobes. Total WMH index (...) and WMH indices in the frontal lobe correlated significantly with the MMSE score in VaD. Category fluency correlated with the frontal lobe WMH index in AD, while drawing performance correlated with parietal and temporal lobe WMH indices in VaD.A similar regional distribution of WMH between the three groups suggests a common (vascular) pathogenic factor leading to WMH in patients and controls. Our findings underscore the potential of regional WMH volumetry to determine correlations between subcortical

2004 Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

2753. Synapse loss may be a minor contributor to decreased regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease. (Abstract)

in postmortem brain samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) that measures synaptophysin, with results expressed as picomoles synaptophysin/10 mg brain. Synaptophysin was expressed either as concentration (QS method) or as the ratio of the concentration to the combined results in frontal, temporal and parietal lobe (RS method). There was no correlation between synapse loss and rCBF using the QS method and only borderline significance between right SPECT and right temporal synaptophysin

2003 Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

2754. A volumetric study of MRI signal hyperintensities in late-life depression. (Abstract)

hyperintensities from MR brain scans of older people with depression (N=29; mean age: 76 years) and normal subjects of similar age (N=32).Overall, subjects with depression had a significantly greater frontal-lobe white-matter lesion volume than normal subjects (0.35% versus 0.22%). However, after excluding subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or ischemic heart disease (leaving 14 depressed and 15 normal subjects), we found even greater differences between groups, with a larger volume of MR signal (...) hyperintensities in the frontal region of the depressed group, but no difference in the basal ganglia or parietal and occipital lobes.The results support the "vascular depression" hypothesis and suggest that those with depression but without traditional vascular risk factors may be much more susceptible to cerebrovascular disease than normal subjects. The mechanisms for this increased susceptibility remain to be determined.

2004 The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

2755. Fetal intracranial injuries in a preterm infant after maternal motor vehicle accident: a case report. (Abstract)

infant sustained subdural, subarachnoid, and intracerebral hemorrhages in the left parietal and temporal lobes most likely attributable to direct fetal trauma. Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage may have led additionally to hypoxia-ischemia contributing indirectly to the injury. At the last follow-up visit (chronological age, 20 months; corrected age, 18 months), there was evidence of a persistent right-sided hemiparesis in an otherwise normally developed infant.Motor vehicle accidents during pregnancy

2004 Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

2756. Balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis: the first case in southeast Asia. (Abstract)

Balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis: the first case in southeast Asia. We present a case of 23-year-old man with acute meningoencephalitis, accompanied by inflammation of a nasal ulcer. He had been healthy until six months prior to admission to the hospital when he had a motorcycle accident. A star-shaped wound at his nose was incurred after falling into a swamp. A computed tomogram of the brain showed two nonenhancing hypodense lesions at the left caudate nucleus and the right parietal (...) lobe, ependymitis and leptomeningeal enhancement. A skin biopsy showed chronic noncaseous granulomatous inflammation without demonstrated microorganisms. The patient did not respond to the empirical treatment with cloxacillin, ceftriaxone, and amphotericin B, and eventually died on the thirteenth day of hospitalization. At autopsy, hematoxylin and eosin-stained brain sections showed a chronic necrotizing inflammation with numerous amebic trophozoites and rare cysts. Definitive identification

2004 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

2757. Lightning: an unusual cause of cerebellar infarction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Ataxia was recorded on the fourth day. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed ischaemia predominantly in the cerebellar hemispheres bilaterally and in the parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes on the right. Anti-oedema treatment was started. The patient was discharged after seven days. After one month the patient was re-examined and found to have minimal ataxia and dysarthria. Lightning injury should not be overlooked in the aetiology and differential diagnosis of acute cerebellar ischaemic

2004 Emergency Medicine Journal

2758. Emergency department presentation of bilateral carotid artery dissections in a postpartum patient. (Abstract)

of descent after 3 hours of pushing. Symptoms were later attributed to a parietal lobe cerebral vascular accident and bilateral internal carotid artery dissection. Physicians should consider the possibility of arterial dissection in any postpartum patient with unremitting headache when evaluation of typical causes fails to lead to a diagnosis. Appropriate diagnostic evaluation and treatment should be actively pursued in this population.

2004 Annals of Emergency Medicine

2759. Postpartum blindness: two cases. (Abstract)

leukoencephalopathy syndrome can be triggered by numerous conditions, including preeclampsia-eclampsia, and can be seen in the postpartum period. It is characterized predominately by white matter vasogenic edema of the occipital and posterior parietal lobes. This condition can be difficult to differentiate clinically from cerebral ischemia, and magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient are needed to do so. In most cases of posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

2004 Annals of Emergency Medicine

2760. Supratentorial arachnoid cyst mimicking a Ménière's disease attack. (Abstract)

male, who suddenly began to feel dizzy while sitting at his workplace, complaining of left tinnitus and aural fullness, in a classic clinical picture of Ménière's disease. The anomalous findings at otoneurological examination (markedly the left deviation at the Fukuda test) made a magnetic resonance image (MRI) scan mandatory and a huge AC was found in the left fronto-parietal lobe. The mass provoked an evident clockwise rotation of the brainstem that we suppose to be the cause of acoustico-facial

2003 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

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