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Parietal Lobe

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2701. Frontal Lobe syndrome

after lesions of the right hemisphere involving either the right parietal lobe or the right frontal lobe. Patients with right-sided brain lesions typically neglect the left hemispace. This can be assessed by asking the patient to draw or to read. Patients may neglect the left half of the drawing or leave off the left half of words (neglect ). Differential diagnosis Investigations Check B12 levels, thyroid function, serology for syphilis and antinuclear antibodies. Consider MRI/CT scanning (...) Frontal Lobe syndrome Frontal Lobe Syndrome. FLS information. Frontal Lobe Lesions | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Frontal Lobe Syndrome Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 6 Nov 2014 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK

2008 Mentor

2702. Spatiotemporal segregation in visual search: evidence from parietal lesions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

on the contralesional side). In Experiment 2, simplified displays yielded analogous results, ruling out search ease as a crucial factor in poor preview search. In Experiment 3, outlines around distractor groups (to aid segmentation) improved conjunction but not preview search, suggesting a specific deficit in spatiotemporal segmentation. Experiment 4 ruled out spatial disengagement problems as a factor. The data emphasize the role of spatiotemporal segmentation cues in preview search and the parietal lobe (...) Spatiotemporal segregation in visual search: evidence from parietal lesions. The mechanisms underlying segmentation and selection of visual stimuli over time were investigated in patients with posterior parietal damage. In a modified visual search task, a preview of old objects preceded search of a new set for a target while the old items remained. In Experiment 1, control participants ignored old and prioritized new items, but patients had severe difficulties finding the target (especially

2004 Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance

2703. Impaired Medial Temporal Repetition Suppression is Related to Failure of Parietal Deactivation in Alzheimer Disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impaired Medial Temporal Repetition Suppression is Related to Failure of Parietal Deactivation in Alzheimer Disease. Neural networks supporting encoding of new information are affected early in the course of Alzheimer disease (AD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in AD have reported decreased medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation when comparing novel versus repeated stimuli. It is, however, unclear whether this finding is related to a failure of normal suppression of MTL (...) and in prefrontal and superior parietal cortices, compared with OC. In contrast, OC showed greater parietal task-induced deactivation than AD. Increased MTL activity during Repeated was correlated with more impaired parietal deactivation and poorer performance of the postscan recognition memory test of encoding the face-name pairs.Reduction of MTL activity to repeated stimuli, which become highly familiarized to healthy OC, was impaired in AD. This abnormal increased MTL activation was related to disrupted

2008 The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

2704. Neuropsychological results in pediatric patients with epilepsy surgery in the parietal cortex. (Abstract)

Neuropsychological results in pediatric patients with epilepsy surgery in the parietal cortex. This study evaluated pre- and postoperatively cognitive functions in 15 pediatric patients with surgically treated parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE). Seizure outcome was very satisfying with 87% seizure-free patients 1 year after surgery, and 82% in the long-term follow-up. Preoperative intelligence was in the subaverage range. Impairments in specific cognitive functions (memory, attention, executive

2007 Epilepsia

2705. Parietal attentional system aberrations during target detection in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: event-related fMRI evidence. (Abstract)

made significantly more errors of commission than comparison subjects. Further, relative to comparison subjects, individuals with ADHD showed significantly less activation in the bilateral parietal lobes (including the superior parietal gyrus and supramarginal and angular gyri of the inferior parietal lobe), right precuneus, and thalamus.Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated significant impairments in their ability to direct and allocate attentional resources. These difficulties were associated (...) Parietal attentional system aberrations during target detection in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: event-related fMRI evidence. Directed attention, the ability to allocate and direct attention toward a salient stimulus, is impaired in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This construct is often assessed with target detection or oddball tasks, and individuals with ADHD perform poorly on such tasks. However, to date, the specific brain structures or neural

2006 American Journal of Psychiatry

2706. Reduced volume of parietal and frontal association areas in patients with schizophrenia characterized by passivity delusions. (Abstract)

Reduced volume of parietal and frontal association areas in patients with schizophrenia characterized by passivity delusions. In patients with schizophrenia, passivity delusions are characterized by a difficulty in determining the agency of purposive actions. Neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging data suggest that passivity delusions are associated with dysfunction of the parietal lobe association cortex.Cortical volume calculated from magnetic resonance imaging data in a group of 12 (...) patients with schizophrenia characterized by motor passivity delusions was compared statistically with the cortical volume of 11 patients without passivity delusions.Reduced cortical volume was observed in parietal and frontal association cortices in the passivity group.These data provide direct evidence for the involvement of the parietal lobe in the pathophysiology of passivity delusions in schizophrenia.

2005 Psychological Medicine

2707. Effect of chronic exposure to antipsychotic medication on cell numbers in the parietal cortex of macaque monkeys. Full Text available with Trip Pro

or olanzapine, at doses producing plasma levels in the therapeutic range in schizophrenia subjects, was associated with significantly smaller total brain weight and volume, including an 11.8-15.2% smaller gray matter volume in the left parietal lobe. Consequently, in this study we sought to determine whether these smaller volumes were associated with lower numbers of the gray matter's constituent cellular elements. The use of point counting and Cavalieri's principle on Nissl-stained sections confirmed (...) a 14.6% smaller gray matter volume in the left parietal lobe from antipsychotic-exposed monkeys. Use of the optical fractionator method to estimate the number of each cell type in the gray matter revealed a significant 14.2% lower glial cell number with a concomitant 10.2% higher neuron density. The numbers of neurons and endothelial cells did not differ between groups. Together, the findings of smaller gray matter volume, lower glial cell number, and higher neuron density without a difference

2007 Neuropsychopharmacology

2708. Evidence for superior parietal impairment in Williams syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence for superior parietal impairment in Williams syndrome. Parietal lobe impairment is hypothesized to contribute to the dramatic visual-spatial deficits in Williams syndrome (WS). The authors examined the superior and inferior parietal lobule in 17 patients with WS and 17 control female adults (CNLs). The right and left superior parietal lobule gray matter volumes were significantly smaller in patients with WS than in CNLs, even after controlling for total cerebral gray matter. Impaired (...) superior parietal function could explain WS visual-spatial and visual-motor problems.

2005 Neurology

2709. Focal dystonia after removal of a parietal meningioma. (Abstract)

Focal dystonia after removal of a parietal meningioma. A patient presented at the age of 50 years with a right-sided, writing-specific dystonia which settled without treatment. Ten years later she developed focal seizures affecting the right leg and occasionally spreading to the right arm. A left parietal meningioma was removed and 2 years later she developed dystonic movements of her right hand. Gliotic changes were seen on magnetic resonance imaging in the superficial left parietal lobe

2004 Movement Disorders

2710. Progression from frontal-parietal to mesial-temporal epilepsy after fluid percussion injury in the rat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and duration of bilateral seizures. These results demonstrate that FPI-induced frontal-parietal epilepsy (FPE) progresses to mesial-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with dual pathology. These observations establish numerous similarities between FPI-induced and human PTE and further validate it as a clinically relevant model of PTE. (...) Progression from frontal-parietal to mesial-temporal epilepsy after fluid percussion injury in the rat. We recently described an in vivo model of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) in the rat where chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures appear following a single episode of fluid percussion injury (FPI). PTE, studied during the first 2 months post-injury, was focal and seizures originated predominantly from the frontal-parietal neocortex at or around the injury site. However, rarer bilateral seizures

2005 Brain

2711. Space and the parietal cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

Space and the parietal cortex Current views of the parietal cortex have difficulty accommodating the human inferior parietal lobe (IPL) within a simple dorsal versus ventral stream dichotomy. In humans, lesions of the right IPL often lead to syndromes such as hemispatial neglect that are seemingly in accord with the proposal that this region has a crucial role in spatial processing. However, recent imaging and lesion studies have revealed that inferior parietal regions have non-spatial (...) functions, such as in sustaining attention, detecting salient events embedded in a sequence of events and controlling attention over time. Here, we review these findings and show that spatial processes and the visual guidance of action are only part of the repertoire of parietal functions. Although sub-regions in the human superior parietal lobe and intraparietal sulcus contribute to vision-for-action and spatial functions, more inferior parietal regions have distinctly non-spatial attributes

2007 Trends in cognitive sciences

2712. Neuronal population coding of continuous and discrete quantity in the primate posterior parietal cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

information that predicted the monkeys' quantity judgments. Thus, different information-carrying processes of partly intermingled neuronal networks in the parietal lobe seem to encode various forms of abstract quantity. (...) Neuronal population coding of continuous and discrete quantity in the primate posterior parietal cortex Quantitative knowledge guides vital decisions in the life of animals and humans alike. The posterior parietal cortex in primates has been implicated in representing abstract quantity, both continuous (extent) and discrete (number of items), supporting the idea of a putative generalized magnitude system in this brain area. Whether or not single neurons encode different types of quantity

2007 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

2713. Dissociated Pathways for Successful Memory Retrieval from the Human Parietal Cortex: Anatomical and Functional Connectivity Analyses Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the medial parietal cortex. However, little is known about the functional differences between lateral and medial parietal cortices in the memory retrieval process. In this study, we examined whether the human lateral and medial parietal lobes have differential anatomical and functional connectivity with the temporal lobe. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to constrain the analysis of anatomical connectivity obtained by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Both DTI tractography (...) and functional connectivity analysis showed that the lateral parietal region has anatomical and functional connections with the lateral temporal lobe, and the medial parietal region has connections with the medial temporal lobe. These results suggest the existence of segregated lateral and medial parieto-temporal pathways in successful memory retrieval.

2007 Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)

2714. Temporal lobe stimulation reveals anatomic distinction between auditory naming processes. (Abstract)

Temporal lobe stimulation reveals anatomic distinction between auditory naming processes. Language errors induced by cortical stimulation can provide insight into function(s) supported by the area stimulated. The authors observed that some stimulation-induced errors during auditory description naming were characterized by tip-of-the-tongue responses or paraphasic errors, suggesting expressive difficulty, whereas others were qualitatively different, suggesting receptive difficulty (...) . They hypothesized that these two response types reflected disruption at different stages of auditory verbal processing and that these "subprocesses" might be supported by anatomically distinct cortical areas.To explore the topographic distribution of error types in auditory verbal processing.Twenty-one patients requiring left temporal lobe surgery underwent preresection language mapping using direct cortical stimulation. Auditory naming was tested at temporal sites extending from 1 cm from the anterior tip

2003 Neurology

2715. Intracranial ictal onset zone in nonlesional lateral temporal lobe epilepsy on scalp ictal EEG. (Abstract)

Intracranial ictal onset zone in nonlesional lateral temporal lobe epilepsy on scalp ictal EEG. To determine the ictal focus and the role of seizure characteristics, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, and subtraction ictal SPECT in patients diagnosed as having nonlesional lateral temporal lobe epilepsy by long-term scalp video-EEG monitoring.The authors studied 33 consecutive patients with nonlesional neocortical epilepsy who had a scalp ictal onset zone localized in the temporal lobe and good (...) surgical outcome after focal neocortical resection. All patients were evaluated using intracranial recordings prior to resection. Semiology, FDG-PET, and ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT were used to verify the diagnostic role of these methods in the localization of epileptic foci.The ictal onset zones, confirmed by intracranial study, were the lateral temporal (22 patients), parietal (5), frontal (3), temporoparietal (2), and occipital (1) areas. FDG-PET analyzed by statistical parametric mapping

2003 Neurology

2716. Progressive loss of speech output and orofacial dyspraxia associated with frontal lobe hypometabolism. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Progressive loss of speech output and orofacial dyspraxia associated with frontal lobe hypometabolism. Three patients are described with slowly progressive loss of speech and dysarthria associated with orofacial dyspraxia, initially with intact written language, who subsequently developed more widespread cognitive abnormalities. Positron emission tomography (PET) revealed bifrontal hypometabolism in all of the patients, most marked in the inferior and lateral portions of both frontal lobes (...) , with some extension into the parietal and temporal cortices in one case. These patients may represent a further example of focal progressive cortical degeneration.

1991 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

2717. Regional Distribution of Interictal 31P Metabolic Changes in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

of inorganic phosphate (Pi), pH, or phosphomonoesters (PME) between regions in the left and right hemispheres of controls. In patients with TLE, Pi and pH were higher and PME was lower throughout the entire ipsilateral temporal lobe as compared with the contralateral side and there were no significant asymmetries outside the temporal lobe. The degree of ipsilateral/contralateral asymmetry for all three metabolites was substantially greater for the temporal lobe than for the frontal, occipital, and parietal (...) Regional Distribution of Interictal 31P Metabolic Changes in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy We compared the 31P metabolites in different brain regions of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with those from controls.Ten control subjects and 11 patients with TLE were investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [31P]MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). [31P]MR spectra were selected from a variety of brain regions inside and outside the temporal lobe.There were no asymmetries

1998 Epilepsia

2718. Neurogenic pain and abnormal movements contralateral to an anterior parietal artery stroke. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with hemiballismus may result from disconnection of the parietal lobe from deeper structures. In contrast with isolated hemiballismus, we suggest that the simultaneous occurrence of this movement disorder with ipsilateral pain is specific for an anterior parietal artery stroke. (...) Neurogenic pain and abnormal movements contralateral to an anterior parietal artery stroke. Unlike delayed pain syndrome, acute central pain is a very rare symptom in acute stroke. In addition, the incidence of hemiballismus in acute cerebrovascular diseases is less than 1%. To our knowledge, the association of these 2 clinical conditions has not been previously described.After observing one patient with hemiballismus accompanied by ipsilateral acute limb pain at stroke onset, we

2003 Archives of Neurology

2719. Rejection behaviour: a human homologue of the abnormal behaviour of Denny-Brown and Chambers' monkey with bilateral parietal ablation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rejection behaviour: a human homologue of the abnormal behaviour of Denny-Brown and Chambers' monkey with bilateral parietal ablation. A unique behavioural syndrome in humans followed two separate strokes involving both parietotemporal regions. The behavioural alterations resemble those of Denny-Brown and Chambers' monkey with bilateral ablation of the parietal lobe which were characterised by strong withdrawal or refusal to be touched on the limbs and head. In both humans and animals, touch (...) on the limbs or head elicited exaggerated withdrawal movements and refusal to be touched on the lips and tongue resulted in difficulty in feeding. These behavioural alterations can be interpreted as loss of exploratory activities towards extrapersonal space, or more positively, as rejection of contact with the environment. This rejection behaviour in which tactile, visual, and/or gustatory exploration tendencies are altered, is a counterpart of human frontal lobe syndrome and human Klüver-Bucy syndrome.

1989 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

2720. Loss of unilateral eye closure and right parietal lesion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

innervation Glioma physiopathology Humans Male Parietal Lobe physiopathology 1988 7 1 1988 7 1 0 1 1988 7 1 0 0 ppublish 3204392 PMC1033219 J Nerv Ment Dis. 1956 Mar;123(3):201-18 13367832 AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1955 Jun;73(6):597-601 14375424 (...) Loss of unilateral eye closure and right parietal lesion. 3204392 1989 01 30 2018 11 13 0022-3050 51 7 1988 Jul Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Loss of unilateral eye closure and right parietal lesion. 1008 Belin C C Larmande J J Gaymard B B Larmande P P eng Case Reports Letter England J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2985191R 0022-3050 IM Aged Apraxias physiopathology Brain Neoplasms physiopathology Dominance, Cerebral physiology Eyelids

1988 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

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