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Parietal Lobe

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2681. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow on 99mTc ECD brain SPECT in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome and normal findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to detect brain lesions showing hypoperfusion in 32 female patients with pSS and definite neuropsychiatric symptoms or signs. Seventeen female patients with pSS without neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs were included as a control group for comparison. All of the 49 patients with pSS had normal findings on brain MRI.99mTc ECD brain SPECT showed brain regions with hypoperfusion in 18 (56.3%) of the 32 patients, and parietal lobes were the most common areas with such lesions. By contrast, 99mTc ECD brain

2002 Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

2682. Corpus callosum and posterior fossa development in monozygotic females: a morphometric MRI study of Turner syndrome. (Abstract)

Corpus callosum and posterior fossa development in monozygotic females: a morphometric MRI study of Turner syndrome. Previous neuroimaging research in Turner syndrome (TS) has indicated parietal lobe anomalies, while anomalies in other brain loci have been less well-substantiated. This study focused on potential cerebellar abnormalities and possible disruptions of interhemispheric (parietal) callosal connections in individuals with TS. Twenty-seven female children and adolescents with TS (mean (...) . No group difference in intracranial area measurements was observed. The reduced area of the genu in TS may reflect compromised connectivity between inferior parietal regions. Further, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia associated with TS agrees with literature that suggests the posterior fossa as a region prone to structural alterations in the face of early developmental insult.

2003 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

2683. parietal lobe signs

parietal lobe signs parietal lobe signs - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search parietal lobe signs The parietal lobe is the principal sensory area of the cerebral cortex. The manifestations of damage may be specific to the dominant or non-dominant hemisphere, or it may be general: Disease of either dominant or non-dominant hemisphere post-central gyral sensory cortex produces contralateral disturbance of cortical (...) dimensional sense - dressing dyspraxia, constructional dyspraxia geographical agnosia - e.g. unable to find defined places Involving the optic radiation deep in the parietal lobe: lower homonymous quadrantanopia Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016

2010 GP Notebook

2684. Surgical treatment of occipital lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, MR imaging, and histopathology data were reviewed, and patients with additional temporal and/or parietal involvement were categorized separately. Seizure outcome was classified according to the Engel classification scheme (Classes I-IV). Two patients were excluded due to incomplete data sets. Fifty-two patients with intractable epilepsy involving predominantly the occipital lobe were included in the study, comprising 17.8% of 292 patients undergoing operations for extratemporal epilepsies.In (...) nearly all cases (50 [96.2%] of 52), a structural lesion was visible on preoperative MR imaging. Of these cases, 29 (55.8%) had "pure" OLE with no temporal or parietal lobe involvement. Most patients (83%) had complex partial seizures, and 60% also had generalized seizures. All patients underwent occipital lesionectomies or topectomies; 9 patients (17.3%) underwent additional multiple subpial transections. Histopathology results revealed 9 cortical dysplasias (17.3%), 9 gangliogliomas (17.3%), 6

2008 Journal of Neurosurgery

2685. Voxel-based morphometry of temporal lobe epilepsy: An introduction and review of the literature. (Abstract)

asymmetrical distribution of temporal lobe abnormalities preferentially observed ipsilateral to the seizure focus, particularly of the hippocampus (82.35% of all studies), parahippocampal gyrus (47.06%), and entorhinal (23.52%) cortex. The contralateral hippocampus was reported as abnormal in 17.65% of studies. There was a much more bilateral distribution of extratemporal lobe atrophy, preferentially affecting the thalamus (ipsilateral = 61.11%, contralateral = 50%) and parietal lobe (ipsilateral = 47.06 (...) Voxel-based morphometry of temporal lobe epilepsy: An introduction and review of the literature. We review the applications and results of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies that have reported brain changes associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). A PubMed search yielded 18 applications of VBM to study brain abnormalities in patients with TLE up to May 2007. Across studies, 26 brain regions were found to be significantly reduced in volume relative to healthy controls. There was a strong

2007 Epilepsia

2686. Normal neuroanatomical variation due to age: the major lobes and a parcellation of the temporal region. (Abstract)

Normal neuroanatomical variation due to age: the major lobes and a parcellation of the temporal region. We used high-resolution MRI to investigate gray and white matter aging in the major lobes of the cerebrum (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital) and the major sectors of the temporal lobe (temporal pole, superior temporal gyrus, infero-temporal region, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus). Subjects included 87 adults between the ages of 22 and 88 years. Regions of interest were

2005 Neurobiology of Aging

2687. Limbic reductions of 5-HT1A receptor binding in human temporal lobe epilepsy. (Abstract)

Limbic reductions of 5-HT1A receptor binding in human temporal lobe epilepsy. To test the hypothesis that in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) there is involvement outside of mesial structures and that this involvement affects serotonin systems, thus suggesting a mechanism for affective symptoms in this population.Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding was studied with PET and [Carbonyl-11C]WAY-100 635 in 14 patients (6 with left-, 8 with right-sided mesial temporal lobe focus) and 14 controls (...) . The 5-HT1A receptor binding potential was calculated for hippocampus, amygdala, orbitofrontal, insular, lateral temporal, and anterior cingulate cortex, in raphe nuclei, and in two regions presumably uninvolved in the epileptogenic process (parietal, and dorsolateral frontal neocortex).The binding potential was reduced in the epileptogenic hippocampus (p = 0.0001) and amygdala (p = 0.0001) in all patients, including the six with normal [18F]FDG PET and MRI. It was also reduced in the anterior

2004 Neurology

2688. Ictal neocortical slowing in temporal lobe epilepsy. (Abstract)

frontal and ipsilateral parietal cortex exhibited large amplitude irregular slow waves during seizures. This frontoparietal slowing persisted into the postictal period. Perirolandic and occipital cortex were relatively spared. These EEG patterns were accompanied by bland staring, minor automatisms, and unresponsiveness or amnesia in the majority of patients studied.Prominent irregular slowing occurs in bilateral frontal and ipsilateral parietal association cortex during and after temporal lobe (...) Ictal neocortical slowing in temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may affect brain regions outside the temporal lobe, causing impaired neocortical function during seizures.The authors selected 11 consecutive patients with mesial TLE and hippocampal sclerosis who underwent intracranial EEG monitoring and had no seizures during a follow-up period of at least 1 year after temporal lobe resection. Secondarily generalized seizures were excluded, and up to three seizures were analyzed

2004 Neurology

2689. White matter lesions impair frontal lobe function regardless of their location. Full Text available with Trip Pro

White matter lesions impair frontal lobe function regardless of their location. To analyze the effect of white matter lesions in different brain regions on regional cortical glucose metabolism, regional cortical atrophy, and cognitive function in a sample with a broad range of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive function.Subjects (n = 78) were recruited for a study of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) contributions to dementia. A new method was developed (...) frontal and parietal WMH were associated with reduced frontal rCMRglc, whereas occipitotemporal WMH was only marginally associated with frontal rCMRglc. These associations were stronger and more widely distributed in nondemented subjects where reduced frontal rCMRglc was correlated with WMH for all regions measured. In contrast, there was no relationship between WMH in any brain region and rCMRglc in either parietal or occipitotemporal regions. WMHs in all brain regions were associated with low

2004 Neurology

2690. Reduced medial temporal lobe N-acetylaspartate in cognitively impaired but nondemented patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reduced medial temporal lobe N-acetylaspartate in cognitively impaired but nondemented patients. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal lobe gray matter (GM) is diminished in Alzheimer disease (AD). Because NAA is considered a marker of neuronal integrity, reduced medial temporal and parietal lobe NAA could be an early indication of dementia-related pathology in elderly individuals.1) To determine whether cognitively impaired but nondemented (CIND) elderly (...) individuals exhibit a similar pattern of reduced medial temporal and parietal lobe NAA as AD patients. 2) To compare regional NAA patterns, hippocampal and neocortical gray matter (GM) volumes in CIND patients who remained cognitively stable and those who became demented over 3.6 years of follow-up. 3) To examine the relationship between memory performance, medial temporal lobe NAA, and hippocampal volume.Seventeen CIND, 24 AD, and 24 cognitively normal subjects were studied using MRSI and MRI.Relative

2005 Neurology

2691. Ipsilateral and contralateral MRI volumetric abnormalities in chronic unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and their clinical correlates. (Abstract)

of interest included the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus as well as temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital lobe gray and white matter. Clinical markers of neurodevelopmental insult (initial precipitating insult, early age of recurrent seizures) and chronicity of epilepsy (epilepsy duration, estimated number of lifetime generalized seizures) were related to magnetic resonance (MR) volume abnormalities.Quantitative MR abnormalities extend beyond the ipsilateral hippocampus and temporal lobe (...) with extratemporal (frontal and parietal lobe) reductions in cerebral white matter, especially ipsilateral but also contralateral to the side of seizure onset. Volumetric abnormalities in ipsilateral hippocampus and bilateral cerebral white matter are associated with factors related to both the onset and the chronicity of the patients' epilepsy.These cross-sectional findings support the view that volumetric abnormalities in chronic TLE are associated with a combination of neurodevelopmental and progressive

2005 Epilepsia

2692. Somatosensory processing is impaired in temporal lobe epilepsy. (Abstract)

Somatosensory processing is impaired in temporal lobe epilepsy. Growing evidence suggests that temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a network disease. In this view, the seizure focus may produce measurable deficits in specific cortical functions.A tactile grating orientation (GrOr) discrimination task associated with parietal lobe function was administered at the index fingertip to 15 subjects with medically intractable TLE and to 19 neurologically normal controls. TLE subjects were tested

2005 Epilepsia

2693. The BOLD effect of interictal spike activity in childhood occipital lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The BOLD effect of interictal spike activity in childhood occipital lobe epilepsy. Occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) presents in childhood with different manifestations, age of onset and EEG features that form distinct syndromes. The ictal clinical symptoms are difficult to correlate with onset in particular areas in the occipital lobes, and the EEG recordings have not been able to overcome this limitation. The mapping of epileptogenic cortical regions in OLE remains therefore an important goal (...) in our understanding of these syndromes.In this work, three patients with two types of idiopathic childhood OLE were studied with EEG source analysis and also with mapping of the BOLD effect associated with spikes in simultaneous EEG/fMRI recordings.Two patients with late onset OLE provided EEG source localizations in the lateral parietal cortex and in the medial occipital areas. The BOLD activations were more consistent and restricted to the medial parietal-occipital cortex in both cases. One

2006 Epilepsia

2694. Voxel-based T2 relaxation rate measurements in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with and without mesial temporal sclerosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the ipsilateral hippocampus but also in other ipsilateral temporal regions, orbitofrontal, and parietal regions and to a lesser degree in contralateral frontal regions. The relaxation rate decreases in TLE-no were confined to small regions in the ipsilateral anterior inferior and medial temporal lobe in the SPM analysis while ROI analysis showed additional regions in the ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate.TLE-MTS showed extensive, widespread but predominantly ipsilateral temporal (...) Voxel-based T2 relaxation rate measurements in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with and without mesial temporal sclerosis. Quantitative measurements of T(2) relaxation in the hippocampus for focus lateralization in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are well established. Less is known to what degree such relaxation abnormalities also affect regions beyond the ipsilateral hippocampus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize extent and distribution pattern of extrahippocampal

2007 Epilepsia

2695. Identification of abnormal neuronal metabolism outside the seizure focus in temporal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with a higher percentage of pathological voxels than those in controls.Reduced NAA/(Cr+Cho) was found in ipsilateral temporal and parietal lobes and bilaterally in insula and frontal lobes. Temporal abnormalities identified the epileptogenic focus in 70% in TLE-MTS and 83% of TLE-no. Extratemporal abnormalities identified the epileptogenic focus in 78% of TLE-MTS but in only 17% of TLE-no.TLE is associated with extrahippocampal reductions of NAA/(Cr+Cho) in several lobes consistent with those brain areas (...) Identification of abnormal neuronal metabolism outside the seizure focus in temporal lobe epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify metabolically abnormal extrahippocampal brain regions in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with (TLE-MTS) and without (TLE-no) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence for mesial-temporal sclerosis (MTS) and to assess their value for focus lateralization by using multislice 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI).MRSI in combination with tissue

2004 Epilepsia

2696. Consequences of hippocampal damage across the autobiographical memory network in left temporal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Consequences of hippocampal damage across the autobiographical memory network in left temporal lobe epilepsy. Lesion and neuroimaging evidence suggests the hippocampus (HC) is a crucial node in the neural network supporting autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval, and thus focal damage to the HC may have functional consequences for structures throughout the network. Using fMRI, we examined the impact of hippocampal damage on the engagement and connectivity of the AM network in 11 patients (...) with left temporal lobe epilepsy (mean age of onset of seizures, 24 years) with significant left hippocampal atrophy and a mild AM deficit. All investigations were completed pre-surgically. The fMRI paradigm comprised three conditions: (i) retrieving specific AMs in response to personalized cues obtained during a pre-scan interview; (ii) a sentence completion control task; and (iii) a size discrimination control task. AM-related activity (relative to the control tasks) was significantly reduced

2007 Brain

2697. Ictal clinical and scalp-EEG findings differentiating temporal lobe epilepsies from temporal 'plus' epilepsies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ictal clinical and scalp-EEG findings differentiating temporal lobe epilepsies from temporal 'plus' epilepsies. Temporal 'plus' epilepsies are characterized by seizures involving a complex epileptogenic network including the temporal lobe and the closed neighboured structures such as the orbito-frontal cortex, the insula, the frontal and parietal operculum and the temporo-parieto-occipital junction. Temporal 'plus' epilepsies are currently identified by means of intracerebral electrodes (...) but whether their diagnosis can be suspected non-invasively has not been evaluated yet. The aim of this retrospective study was to address this issue in 80 consecutive patients who were thought to suffer from non-lesional temporal lobe seizures which finally proved, on the basis of stereotactic intracerebral EEG (SEEG) recordings, to be 'purely' temporal (TL group, n = 58) or temporal 'plus' (T+ group, n = 22). Our results showed that the two groups of patients were difficult to differentiate on the basis

2007 Brain

2698. Visual disturbances representing occipital lobe epilepsy in patients with cerebral calcifications and coeliac disease: a case series. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Visual disturbances representing occipital lobe epilepsy in patients with cerebral calcifications and coeliac disease: a case series. Paroxysmal visual manifestations may represent epileptic seizures arising from the occipital lobe. In coeliac disease (CD) bilateral occipital calcifications and seizure semiology consistent with an occipital origin have been described, primarily in Mediterranean countries. By reporting three adult patients from an Australian outpatient clinic with visual (...) of malabsorption were not always present. Neurological examination was unremarkable in two patients, impaired dexterity and mild hemiatrophy on the left was noted in one. Routine electroencephalography was unremarkable. In all cases, computed tomography demonstrated bilateral cortical calcification of the occipital-parietal regions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no additional lesion. All patients had biopsy confirmed CD. Seizure control improved after treatment with gluten free diet and anticonvulsants

2004 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

2699. Asymmetrical extra-hippocampal grey matter loss related to hippocampal atrophy in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Asymmetrical extra-hippocampal grey matter loss related to hippocampal atrophy in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Structural neuroimaging studies have consistently shown a pattern of extra-hippocampal atrophy in patients with left and right drug-refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, it is not yet completely understood how extra-hippocampal atrophy is related to hippocampal atrophy. Moreover, patients with left MTLE often exhibit more intense cognitive impairment (...) grey matter volume. The results from 36 patients with right and left MTLE were compared, and results from the two groups were compared with those from 49 healthy controls.Compared with controls, patients with MTLE showed a more intense correlation between hippocampal grey matter volume and regional grey matter volume in locations such as the contralateral hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal gyri and frontal and parietal areas. Compared with right MTLE, patients with left MTLE exhibited a wider

2007 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

2700. Improved cerebral function in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy after subtemporal amygdalohippocampectomy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and the dorsomedial and ventromedial frontal cortices. Glucose metabolism also increased in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules and in the remaining temporal lobe regions remote from the resected mesial temporal region, such as the superior temporal gyrus and the temporal pole. By contrast, postoperative glucose metabolism decreased only in the mesial temporal area adjacent to the resected region. Postoperative verbal memory, delayed recall and attention/concentration scores were significantly better than (...) Improved cerebral function in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy after subtemporal amygdalohippocampectomy. The functional changes that occur throughout the human brain after the selective removal of an epileptogenic lesion remain unclear. Subtemporal selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) has been advocated as a minimally invasive surgical procedure for patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We evaluated the effects of subtemporal SAH on cerebral glucose

2008 Brain

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