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Parietal Lobe

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2681. Neocortical morphometry and cholinergic neurochemistry in Pick's disease. (Full text)

and temporal lobes, but small neuron losses were greater in the PD midfrontal area. Only the AD cases showed loss of large neurons in the inferior parietal region. Levels of choline acetyltransferase were normal in PD and reduced in AD, whereas muscarinic receptor binding was decreased in both. (...) populations, compared with controls. Lesser reductions were seen in small neurons and thickness of the inferior parietal cortex. The authors found no relationship between age of onset or disease duration and either the degree of cortical thinning or neuron loss or the number of Pick bodies in the neocortex and hippocampus. PD specimens were more atrophic than AD brains, having lower brain weights and more fronto-temporal thinning. Large neurons were comparably reduced in the two conditions in the frontal

1988 The American journal of pathology PubMed abstract

2682. Influence of location and extent of surgical resection on survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme: results of three consecutive Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials. (Abstract)

patients with a diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme on central pathological review were analyzed for survival with respect to known prognostic factors, that is, age and Karnofsky Performance Status, as well as extent of surgery, site, and size. Surgical treatment consisted of biopsy only in 17%, partial resection in 64%, and total resection in 19%. Tumors were located in frontal lobe in 43%, temporal lobe in 28%, and parietal lobe in 25%. Maximum tumor diameter as determined on computed tomography (...) difference in median survival was also found for partial resection versus biopsy only treatment (10.4 vs. 6.6 months). There was no difference in survival for the different tumor sizes. Patients with frontal lobe tumors survived longer than those with temporal or parietal lobe lesions (11.4 months, 9.1 months, and 9.6 months, respectively) (p = 0.01). A Cox multivariate model confirmed a significant correlation of age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of surgery, and primary site with survival

1993 International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2683. Cognitive effects of nicotine in humans: an fMRI study. (Abstract)

%), and had a load-specific effect on latency (P = 0.004; 43.78% decrease at the highest memory load). Within a network of parietal and frontal areas activated by the task (P < 0.05, corrected at the voxel level), nicotine produced an increased response (P < 0.05; uncorrected within the regions of interest) in the anterior cingulate, superior frontal cortex, and superior parietal cortex. It also produced an increased response in the midbrain tectum in all active conditions and in the parahippocampal gyrus (...) , cerebellum, and medial occipital lobe during rest (P = 0.05; uncorrected). The present observations point to altered neuronal activity in a distributed neural network associated with on-line task monitoring and attention and arousal systems as underlying nicotine-related enhancement of attention and working memory in human subjects.

2003 NeuroImage Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2684. Donepezil HCl (E2020) maintains functional brain activity in patients with Alzheimer disease: results of a 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (Abstract)

patients during the 24-week period. Significant treatment differences at Week 24 favoring donepezil for the mean percentage change from baseline in regional brain glucose metabolism were observed in four predefined regions of interest: the right parietal lobe 1, left temporal lobe 2, right frontal lobe 2, and left frontal lobe 2.Placebo-treated patients with AD show a decline in functional brain activity, relative to the pons, in several regions, and treatment with donepezil may slow this decline.

2003 The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2685. A neuroanatomical construct for the amnesic effects of propofol. (Abstract)

+/- 6% decrement from baseline) groups differed in rCBF reductions primarily in right-sided prefrontal and parietal regions, close to areas activated in the baseline memory task, particularly R dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 46; x, y, z = 51, 38, 22). The medial temporal lobe region exhibited relative rCBF increases.As amnesia becomes maximal, rCBF reductions induced by propofol occur in brain regions identified with working memory processes. In contrast, medial temporal lobe (...) structures were resistant to the global CBF decrease associated with propofol sedation. The authors postulate that the episodic memory effect of propofol is produced by interference with distributed cortical processes necessary for normal memory function rather than specific effects on medial temporal lobe structures.

2002 Anesthesiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2686. [Influence of needling at yin-yang meridian points on cerebral glucose metabolism]. (Abstract)

, the 12 subjects in the Yang MP group treated by needling at Hegu (LI4), Quchi (LI11), Zusanli (St36) and Shangjuxu (St37), the 18 subjects in the Yin MP group treated by needling at Neiguan (Pc6), Chize (Lu5), Sanyinjiao (Sp6) and Yinlingquan (Sp9). All the needling was conducted at one side of body.After needling at Yang MP, the cerebral glucose metabolism was elevated in bilateral cross region of frontal lobe and temporal lobe, parietal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia, and in contralateral (...) cerebellum and hippocampus. After needling at Yin MP, the cerebral glucose metabolism was lowered in bilateral cross region of frontal and temporal lobe, contralateral temporal lobe, cerebellum and thalamus, and was elevated in homolateral hippocampus and caudate nucleus.Under physiological condition, the regulatory effects of acupuncture on central nervous system would be different when needling at different MP.

2002 Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine / Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he xue hui, Zhongguo Zhong yi yan jiu yuan zhu ban Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2687. Effect of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist buspirone on regional brain electrical activity in man: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). (Abstract)

). At the pharmacodynamic peak (1st hour), buspirone increased theta and decreased fast alpha and beta sources. Areas of theta increase were mainly the left temporo-occipito-parietal and left prefrontal cortices, which is consistent with PET studies on buspirone-induced decreases in regional cerebral blood flow and fenfluramine-induced serotonin activation demonstrated by changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism. In later hours (8th hour) with lower buspirone plasma levels, delta, theta, slow alpha and fast beta (...) decreased, predominantly in the prefrontal and anterior limbic lobe. Whereas the results of the 1st hour speak for a slight CNS sedation (more in the sense of relaxation), those obtained in the 8th hour indicate activation. Thus, LORETA may provide useful and direct information on drug-induced changes in central nervous system function in man.

2000 Psychiatry research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2688. Saccadic and smooth-pursuit eye movements in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. (Abstract)

was found in the antisaccade paradigm. Smooth pursuit impairment does not seem to depend on the primary enduring negative symptoms.In deficit schizophrenics, the abnormalities observed in the antisaccadic task are consistent with prefrontal dysfunction, and may suggest parietal lobe dysfunction as well.

2001 Schizophrenia research

2689. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: a case report. (Abstract)

was a maintenance worker. An extrapleural pneumonectomy was performed, and specimens of parietal and visceral pleura were sent for pathological, which revealed a definitive diagnosis of spindle cell mesothelioma.The patient was diagnosed with MPM, and a surgical therapy option was considered because of the aggressive nature of the lesion and her advanced age. An extrapleural pneumonectomy was performed with removal of parietal and visceral pleura, right lower lobe, and right hemidiaphragm.This is an unusual (...) were decreased on the right in the posterior and lower lobes, with dull percussion and increased tactile fremitus. A significant collection of pleural effusion was seen on the right side on plain film radiographs. A chest computed tomography with contrast showed a large right-sided pleural effusion with small consolidation at the right lung base suggestive of pleural or pulmonary malignancy and highly suspicious for MPM. Further questioning about asbestos exposure revealed that her husband

2005 Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

2690. Sleep deprivation-induced reduction in cortical functional response to serial subtraction. (Abstract)

Sleep deprivation-induced reduction in cortical functional response to serial subtraction. Thirteen normal volunteers were studied with fMRI during arithmetic performance after a normal night of sleep and following sleep deprivation (SD). Aims included determining whether the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the parietal lobe arithmetic areas are vulnerable to the effects of SD. After a normal night of sleep, activation localized to the bilateral PFC, parietal lobes and premotor areas. Following SD

1999 Neuroreport Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2691. Dose-dependent regional cerebral blood flow changes during remifentanil infusion in humans: a positron emission tomography study. (Abstract)

, corrected for multiple comparisons) using statistical parametric mapping.Cardiorespiratory parameters were maintained constant over time. At the low remifentanil dose, significant increases in relative rCBF were noted in the lateral prefrontal cortices, inferior parietal cortices, and supplementary motor area. Relative rCBF decreases were observed in the basal mediofrontal cortex, cerebellum, superior temporal lobe, and midbrain gray matter. Moderate doses further increased rCBF in mediofrontal (...) and anterior cingulate cortices, occipital lobe transition, and caudal periventricular grey. Significant decreases were detected in the inferior parietal lobes. These dose-dependent effects of remifentanil on rCBF were confirmed by a correlation analysis.Remifentanil induced dose-dependent changes in relative rCBF in areas involved in pain processing. At moderate doses, rCBF responses were additionally detected in structures known to participate in modulation of vigilance and alertness. Insight

2001 Anesthesiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2692. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during pantomiming tool-use gestures. (Abstract)

, right-hand praxis exhibited additional activation in the left putamen and posterior part of the left inferior temporal region. Our findings concur with neuropsychological observations that the left hemisphere in right-handers mediates programming and executing skilled movements and that, within the left hemisphere, praxis is predominantly subserved by the parietal lobe, supplementary motor area, and premotor area. However, unlike previous lesion studies, the results of our fMRI study suggested (...) , oppositional movements between thumb and index finger. Activated cortical regions were highly lateralized to the left hemisphere during pantomiming of tool use regardless of hand used. Praxis with either hand commonly activated the superior parietal lobule, supplementary motor area, premotor area of the left hemisphere, and cerebellar vermis. However, minimal activation occurred in the inferior parietal lobule, which has been known to be a critical area for praxis generation. Compared with left-hand praxis

2001 Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation cerebrale Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2693. Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in Alzheimer disease: changes after treatment with xanomeline. (Abstract)

Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in Alzheimer disease: changes after treatment with xanomeline. Patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease received transdermal xanomeline, an M1-selective cholinergic agonist, or placebo for 4 months. Clinical assessments and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging examinations were carried out at baseline, and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. There was a positive correlation between change from baseline in parietal lobe gray-matter

2002 The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2694. Analysis of fMRI and finger tracking training in subjects with chronic stroke. (Abstract)

on a computer screen with extension and flexion movements of the paretic index finger. Functional brain images were collected from the frontal and parietal lobes of the subject with a 4 tesla magnet. Areas of interest included the sensorimotor cortex (SMC), primary motor area (M1), primary sensory area (S1), premotor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Comparison between all subjects with stroke and all well elderly subjects at pre-test was analysed with two-sample t-tests. Change from pre-test

2002 Brain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2695. Evidence for widespread movement-associated functional MRI changes in patients with PPMS. (Abstract)

in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. In patients, the extent of the fMRI activations was strongly correlated with MR lesion burden (r ranging from 0.70 to 0.86, p < 0.001).This study shows that movement-associated cortical activation in patients with PPMS is widely distributed and also involves multimodal "nonmotor" cortical networks. It also suggests that adaptive cortical reorganization might be one of the mechanisms limiting the clinical impact of MS in the progressive phases of the disease.

2002 Neurology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2696. Patterns of brain activity during visual imagery of letters. (Abstract)

and to examine its visuospatial properties: The associated brain activity was compared with activity evoked by the same stimuli when the subjects just detected the intervening tones. All subjects produced broad imagery-related responses over multiple cortical regions. After initial activation of the auditory cortices, the earliest imagery-related responses originated in the left prerolandic area 320 msec after the voice onset. They were followed within 70 msec by signals originating in the posterior parietal (...) lobe close to midline (precuneus) and, 100 msec later, in the posterior superior temporal areas, predominantly in the left hemisphere. The activations were sustained and partially overlapping in time. Imagery-related activity in the left lateral occipital cortex was observed in two subjects, and weak late activity in the calcarine cortex in one subject. Real audiovisually presented letters activated multiple brain regions, and task-induced visuospatial processing of these stimuli further increased

1999 Journal of cognitive neuroscience Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2697. Cerebral perfusion in hypertensive patients: effects of lacidipine and hydrochlorothiazide. (Abstract)

Cerebral perfusion in hypertensive patients: effects of lacidipine and hydrochlorothiazide. Previous studies have shown areas of cerebral hypoperfusion in the frontal and parietal lobes of asymptomatic hypertensives, in the absence of extracranial carotid artery stenosis. The aims of the present study were: (a) to correlate the presence of focal cortical hypoperfusion with the presence of white matter lesions (WML), lacunae and extracranial carotid artery stenosis; and (b) to compare

2000 Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2698. Brain volumes and surface morphology in monozygotic twins. (Abstract)

to evaluate total brain volume, gray matter, white matter, ventricles and volumes of the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. An artificial neural network algorithm was used to measure the cerebellum, thalamus, caudate and putamen. Measures of surface morphology included an index of gyral and sulcal curvature, surface area and cortical depth. The cerebral volume regions, including the gray matter, white matter and lobar volumes, were highly correlated within monozygotic twin pairs, with nearly

2002 Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

2699. Human brain region response to distention or cold stimulation of the bladder: a positron emission tomography study. (Abstract)

by the statistical parametric mapping procedure.Significant brain activation during maximum urine storage (bladder distention) were found in the pons, midbrain periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, putamen, thalamus and anterior cingulate gyrus. On the other hand, intravesical ice water instillation significantly activated several regions in frontal and parietal lobes, amygdala-hippocampus area and crus cerebri ventral border. Distribution of the activated regions after intravesical instillation of ice water

2002 Journal of Urology

2700. Alterations of rCBF and mitochondrial dysfunction in major depressive disorder: a case report. (Abstract)

syndrome including diabetes mellitus was investigated.99mTc-HMPAO rCBF SPECT and muscle biopsy to assess mitochondrial functions were performed in the patient.Alterations of rCBF were found in the patient, with the most pronounced decreases in the left dorsolateral frontal and inferior parietal lobes, and the most pronounced increases in the bilateral superior parietal lobes. Muscle biopsy revealed myopathy and decrease of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production rates (MAPRs).The MAPRs

2003 Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

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