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Parietal Lobe

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2661. CBF and cognitive evaluation of Alzheimer type patients before and after IMAO-B treatment: a pilot study. (Abstract)

, attention, and language efficiency measures and by SPECT-99TcHMPAO procedure. Reduced CBF on the parietal lobes was demonstrated in the patients at baseline together with a reduction of memory and cognitive efficiency. At the end of the treatment patients who received L-deprenyl showed an improvement in cognitive efficiency and no changes in CBF, while patients treated with placebo showed a worsening of cognitive efficiency and further reduction of parietal lobe CBF.

1992 European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2662. Influence of location and extent of surgical resection on survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme: results of three consecutive Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials. (Abstract)

patients with a diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme on central pathological review were analyzed for survival with respect to known prognostic factors, that is, age and Karnofsky Performance Status, as well as extent of surgery, site, and size. Surgical treatment consisted of biopsy only in 17%, partial resection in 64%, and total resection in 19%. Tumors were located in frontal lobe in 43%, temporal lobe in 28%, and parietal lobe in 25%. Maximum tumor diameter as determined on computed tomography (...) difference in median survival was also found for partial resection versus biopsy only treatment (10.4 vs. 6.6 months). There was no difference in survival for the different tumor sizes. Patients with frontal lobe tumors survived longer than those with temporal or parietal lobe lesions (11.4 months, 9.1 months, and 9.6 months, respectively) (p = 0.01). A Cox multivariate model confirmed a significant correlation of age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of surgery, and primary site with survival

1993 International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2663. Fluoxetine effects on cerebral glucose metabolism. (Abstract)

(8.93 +/- 0.96 mg 100 g-1 min-1) was compared to fluoxetine (8.22 +/- 0.86 mg 100 g-1 min-1; paired t-test = 0.82, df = 3, p < 0.48). However, statistical parametric mapping of differences in CMRglu between placebo and fluoxetine conditions revealed regional effects of fluoxetine shown by decreased metabolism in the amygdaloid complex, hippocampal formation and ventral striatum, and by increased metabolism centered in the right superior parietal lobe (Brodmann area 7). Parametric mapping for use

1994 Neuroreport Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2664. Brain activation induced by the perceptual maze test: a PET study of cognitive performance. (Abstract)

, a motor control (SHAM), and a rest condition were examined twice in a randomized order. Solving the PMT caused extensive bilateral activations in the occipital lobe extending rostrally into the parietal lobe and caudally to the posterior part of the temporal lobe. Bilateral activations were also seen in the prefrontal, medial premotor, and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The premotor and primary sensory motor cortices contralateral to the performing hand were also activated. Marked activations (...) were noted in the visual system, including areas pertaining to visuospatial decoding. The previously defined functional network (ACC, prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex) for the maintenance of visuospatial attention was activated during the PMT. Extensive bilateral deactivations were seen in frontomedial, temporal, parietal, and posterior cingulate regions. This pattern may represent relatively decreased blood flow in cortical areas pertaining to sensory modalities that were not activated

1995 NeuroImage Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2665. The increased reaction time of antisaccades. What makes the difference? (Abstract)

comparisons) revealed significant differences only in the first two experiments. Our results suggest that the antisaccades present increased latency, compared to that of pro-target saccades, only under certain experimental conditions and especially when the target location is unpredictable. We presume that the antisaccade's latency prolongation is due not to the frontal lobe inhibition but to the double interference of the parietal lobe, which has to re-reconstruct the target location in space.

1996 International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2666. Effect of sertraline on regional metabolic rate in patients with affective disorder. (Abstract)

by decreased metabolic activity in depressive patients, showed relatively increased activity on both sides after sertraline when contrasted with temporal and some occipital areas. Sertraline was associated with a significantly increased relative metabolic rate in right parietal lobe and in left occipital area 19, and a decreased metabolic rate in right occipital area 18. Other areas that differed between controls and a larger cohort of 39 depressive patients--including medial frontal lobe, cingulate gyrus

1997 Biological psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2667. Patterns of brain activity during visual imagery of letters. (Abstract)

and to examine its visuospatial properties: The associated brain activity was compared with activity evoked by the same stimuli when the subjects just detected the intervening tones. All subjects produced broad imagery-related responses over multiple cortical regions. After initial activation of the auditory cortices, the earliest imagery-related responses originated in the left prerolandic area 320 msec after the voice onset. They were followed within 70 msec by signals originating in the posterior parietal (...) lobe close to midline (precuneus) and, 100 msec later, in the posterior superior temporal areas, predominantly in the left hemisphere. The activations were sustained and partially overlapping in time. Imagery-related activity in the left lateral occipital cortex was observed in two subjects, and weak late activity in the calcarine cortex in one subject. Real audiovisually presented letters activated multiple brain regions, and task-induced visuospatial processing of these stimuli further increased

1999 Journal of cognitive neuroscience Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2668. Spontaneous brain magnetic activity in schizophrenia patients treated with aripiprazole. (Abstract)

brain activity. At washout, 3 patients showed increased delta and theta activity along with paraxosymal bitemporal slow waves. In 2 of these patients, the slow waves were generated in the superior temporal plane, as determined by dipole modeling. In the third patient, the slow waves appeared to have been generated at multiple regions throughout the temporal and inferior parietal lobes. As a group, schizophrenia patients, when compared with normal controls, demonstrated significant decreases in alpha

1998 Psychopharmacology bulletin Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2669. Sleep deprivation-induced reduction in cortical functional response to serial subtraction. (Abstract)

Sleep deprivation-induced reduction in cortical functional response to serial subtraction. Thirteen normal volunteers were studied with fMRI during arithmetic performance after a normal night of sleep and following sleep deprivation (SD). Aims included determining whether the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the parietal lobe arithmetic areas are vulnerable to the effects of SD. After a normal night of sleep, activation localized to the bilateral PFC, parietal lobes and premotor areas. Following SD

1999 Neuroreport Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2670. Effect of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist buspirone on regional brain electrical activity in man: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). (Abstract)

). At the pharmacodynamic peak (1st hour), buspirone increased theta and decreased fast alpha and beta sources. Areas of theta increase were mainly the left temporo-occipito-parietal and left prefrontal cortices, which is consistent with PET studies on buspirone-induced decreases in regional cerebral blood flow and fenfluramine-induced serotonin activation demonstrated by changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism. In later hours (8th hour) with lower buspirone plasma levels, delta, theta, slow alpha and fast beta (...) decreased, predominantly in the prefrontal and anterior limbic lobe. Whereas the results of the 1st hour speak for a slight CNS sedation (more in the sense of relaxation), those obtained in the 8th hour indicate activation. Thus, LORETA may provide useful and direct information on drug-induced changes in central nervous system function in man.

2000 Psychiatry research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2671. Cerebral perfusion in hypertensive patients: effects of lacidipine and hydrochlorothiazide. (Abstract)

Cerebral perfusion in hypertensive patients: effects of lacidipine and hydrochlorothiazide. Previous studies have shown areas of cerebral hypoperfusion in the frontal and parietal lobes of asymptomatic hypertensives, in the absence of extracranial carotid artery stenosis. The aims of the present study were: (a) to correlate the presence of focal cortical hypoperfusion with the presence of white matter lesions (WML), lacunae and extracranial carotid artery stenosis; and (b) to compare

2000 Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2672. Saccadic and smooth-pursuit eye movements in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. (Abstract)

was found in the antisaccade paradigm. Smooth pursuit impairment does not seem to depend on the primary enduring negative symptoms.In deficit schizophrenics, the abnormalities observed in the antisaccadic task are consistent with prefrontal dysfunction, and may suggest parietal lobe dysfunction as well.

2001 Schizophrenia research

2673. Dose-dependent regional cerebral blood flow changes during remifentanil infusion in humans: a positron emission tomography study. (Abstract)

, corrected for multiple comparisons) using statistical parametric mapping.Cardiorespiratory parameters were maintained constant over time. At the low remifentanil dose, significant increases in relative rCBF were noted in the lateral prefrontal cortices, inferior parietal cortices, and supplementary motor area. Relative rCBF decreases were observed in the basal mediofrontal cortex, cerebellum, superior temporal lobe, and midbrain gray matter. Moderate doses further increased rCBF in mediofrontal (...) and anterior cingulate cortices, occipital lobe transition, and caudal periventricular grey. Significant decreases were detected in the inferior parietal lobes. These dose-dependent effects of remifentanil on rCBF were confirmed by a correlation analysis.Remifentanil induced dose-dependent changes in relative rCBF in areas involved in pain processing. At moderate doses, rCBF responses were additionally detected in structures known to participate in modulation of vigilance and alertness. Insight

2001 Anesthesiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2674. Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in Alzheimer disease: changes after treatment with xanomeline. (Abstract)

Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in Alzheimer disease: changes after treatment with xanomeline. Patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease received transdermal xanomeline, an M1-selective cholinergic agonist, or placebo for 4 months. Clinical assessments and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging examinations were carried out at baseline, and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. There was a positive correlation between change from baseline in parietal lobe gray-matter

2002 The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2675. Evidence for widespread movement-associated functional MRI changes in patients with PPMS. (Abstract)

in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. In patients, the extent of the fMRI activations was strongly correlated with MR lesion burden (r ranging from 0.70 to 0.86, p < 0.001).This study shows that movement-associated cortical activation in patients with PPMS is widely distributed and also involves multimodal "nonmotor" cortical networks. It also suggests that adaptive cortical reorganization might be one of the mechanisms limiting the clinical impact of MS in the progressive phases of the disease.

2002 Neurology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2676. Analysis of fMRI and finger tracking training in subjects with chronic stroke. (Abstract)

on a computer screen with extension and flexion movements of the paretic index finger. Functional brain images were collected from the frontal and parietal lobes of the subject with a 4 tesla magnet. Areas of interest included the sensorimotor cortex (SMC), primary motor area (M1), primary sensory area (S1), premotor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Comparison between all subjects with stroke and all well elderly subjects at pre-test was analysed with two-sample t-tests. Change from pre-test

2002 Brain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2677. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during pantomiming tool-use gestures. (Abstract)

, right-hand praxis exhibited additional activation in the left putamen and posterior part of the left inferior temporal region. Our findings concur with neuropsychological observations that the left hemisphere in right-handers mediates programming and executing skilled movements and that, within the left hemisphere, praxis is predominantly subserved by the parietal lobe, supplementary motor area, and premotor area. However, unlike previous lesion studies, the results of our fMRI study suggested (...) , oppositional movements between thumb and index finger. Activated cortical regions were highly lateralized to the left hemisphere during pantomiming of tool use regardless of hand used. Praxis with either hand commonly activated the superior parietal lobule, supplementary motor area, premotor area of the left hemisphere, and cerebellar vermis. However, minimal activation occurred in the inferior parietal lobule, which has been known to be a critical area for praxis generation. Compared with left-hand praxis

2001 Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation cerebrale Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2678. Brain volumes and surface morphology in monozygotic twins. (Abstract)

to evaluate total brain volume, gray matter, white matter, ventricles and volumes of the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. An artificial neural network algorithm was used to measure the cerebellum, thalamus, caudate and putamen. Measures of surface morphology included an index of gyral and sulcal curvature, surface area and cortical depth. The cerebral volume regions, including the gray matter, white matter and lobar volumes, were highly correlated within monozygotic twin pairs, with nearly

2002 Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

2679. A neuroanatomical construct for the amnesic effects of propofol. (Abstract)

+/- 6% decrement from baseline) groups differed in rCBF reductions primarily in right-sided prefrontal and parietal regions, close to areas activated in the baseline memory task, particularly R dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 46; x, y, z = 51, 38, 22). The medial temporal lobe region exhibited relative rCBF increases.As amnesia becomes maximal, rCBF reductions induced by propofol occur in brain regions identified with working memory processes. In contrast, medial temporal lobe (...) structures were resistant to the global CBF decrease associated with propofol sedation. The authors postulate that the episodic memory effect of propofol is produced by interference with distributed cortical processes necessary for normal memory function rather than specific effects on medial temporal lobe structures.

2002 Anesthesiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2680. Cognitive effects of nicotine in humans: an fMRI study. (Abstract)

%), and had a load-specific effect on latency (P = 0.004; 43.78% decrease at the highest memory load). Within a network of parietal and frontal areas activated by the task (P < 0.05, corrected at the voxel level), nicotine produced an increased response (P < 0.05; uncorrected within the regions of interest) in the anterior cingulate, superior frontal cortex, and superior parietal cortex. It also produced an increased response in the midbrain tectum in all active conditions and in the parahippocampal gyrus (...) , cerebellum, and medial occipital lobe during rest (P = 0.05; uncorrected). The present observations point to altered neuronal activity in a distributed neural network associated with on-line task monitoring and attention and arousal systems as underlying nicotine-related enhancement of attention and working memory in human subjects.

2003 NeuroImage Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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