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Parietal Lobe

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2661. Parietal attentional system aberrations during target detection in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: event-related fMRI evidence. (Abstract)

made significantly more errors of commission than comparison subjects. Further, relative to comparison subjects, individuals with ADHD showed significantly less activation in the bilateral parietal lobes (including the superior parietal gyrus and supramarginal and angular gyri of the inferior parietal lobe), right precuneus, and thalamus.Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated significant impairments in their ability to direct and allocate attentional resources. These difficulties were associated (...) Parietal attentional system aberrations during target detection in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: event-related fMRI evidence. Directed attention, the ability to allocate and direct attention toward a salient stimulus, is impaired in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This construct is often assessed with target detection or oddball tasks, and individuals with ADHD perform poorly on such tasks. However, to date, the specific brain structures or neural

2006 American Journal of Psychiatry

2662. Reduced volume of parietal and frontal association areas in patients with schizophrenia characterized by passivity delusions. (Abstract)

Reduced volume of parietal and frontal association areas in patients with schizophrenia characterized by passivity delusions. In patients with schizophrenia, passivity delusions are characterized by a difficulty in determining the agency of purposive actions. Neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging data suggest that passivity delusions are associated with dysfunction of the parietal lobe association cortex.Cortical volume calculated from magnetic resonance imaging data in a group of 12 (...) patients with schizophrenia characterized by motor passivity delusions was compared statistically with the cortical volume of 11 patients without passivity delusions.Reduced cortical volume was observed in parietal and frontal association cortices in the passivity group.These data provide direct evidence for the involvement of the parietal lobe in the pathophysiology of passivity delusions in schizophrenia.

2005 Psychological Medicine

2663. Effect of chronic exposure to antipsychotic medication on cell numbers in the parietal cortex of macaque monkeys. Full Text available with Trip Pro

or olanzapine, at doses producing plasma levels in the therapeutic range in schizophrenia subjects, was associated with significantly smaller total brain weight and volume, including an 11.8-15.2% smaller gray matter volume in the left parietal lobe. Consequently, in this study we sought to determine whether these smaller volumes were associated with lower numbers of the gray matter's constituent cellular elements. The use of point counting and Cavalieri's principle on Nissl-stained sections confirmed (...) a 14.6% smaller gray matter volume in the left parietal lobe from antipsychotic-exposed monkeys. Use of the optical fractionator method to estimate the number of each cell type in the gray matter revealed a significant 14.2% lower glial cell number with a concomitant 10.2% higher neuron density. The numbers of neurons and endothelial cells did not differ between groups. Together, the findings of smaller gray matter volume, lower glial cell number, and higher neuron density without a difference

2007 Neuropsychopharmacology

2664. Evidence for superior parietal impairment in Williams syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence for superior parietal impairment in Williams syndrome. Parietal lobe impairment is hypothesized to contribute to the dramatic visual-spatial deficits in Williams syndrome (WS). The authors examined the superior and inferior parietal lobule in 17 patients with WS and 17 control female adults (CNLs). The right and left superior parietal lobule gray matter volumes were significantly smaller in patients with WS than in CNLs, even after controlling for total cerebral gray matter. Impaired (...) superior parietal function could explain WS visual-spatial and visual-motor problems.

2005 Neurology

2665. Focal dystonia after removal of a parietal meningioma. (Abstract)

Focal dystonia after removal of a parietal meningioma. A patient presented at the age of 50 years with a right-sided, writing-specific dystonia which settled without treatment. Ten years later she developed focal seizures affecting the right leg and occasionally spreading to the right arm. A left parietal meningioma was removed and 2 years later she developed dystonic movements of her right hand. Gliotic changes were seen on magnetic resonance imaging in the superficial left parietal lobe

2004 Movement Disorders

2666. Progression from frontal-parietal to mesial-temporal epilepsy after fluid percussion injury in the rat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and duration of bilateral seizures. These results demonstrate that FPI-induced frontal-parietal epilepsy (FPE) progresses to mesial-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with dual pathology. These observations establish numerous similarities between FPI-induced and human PTE and further validate it as a clinically relevant model of PTE. (...) Progression from frontal-parietal to mesial-temporal epilepsy after fluid percussion injury in the rat. We recently described an in vivo model of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) in the rat where chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures appear following a single episode of fluid percussion injury (FPI). PTE, studied during the first 2 months post-injury, was focal and seizures originated predominantly from the frontal-parietal neocortex at or around the injury site. However, rarer bilateral seizures

2005 Brain

2667. Progressive loss of speech output and orofacial dyspraxia associated with frontal lobe hypometabolism. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Progressive loss of speech output and orofacial dyspraxia associated with frontal lobe hypometabolism. Three patients are described with slowly progressive loss of speech and dysarthria associated with orofacial dyspraxia, initially with intact written language, who subsequently developed more widespread cognitive abnormalities. Positron emission tomography (PET) revealed bifrontal hypometabolism in all of the patients, most marked in the inferior and lateral portions of both frontal lobes (...) , with some extension into the parietal and temporal cortices in one case. These patients may represent a further example of focal progressive cortical degeneration.

1991 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

2668. Regional Distribution of Interictal 31P Metabolic Changes in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

of inorganic phosphate (Pi), pH, or phosphomonoesters (PME) between regions in the left and right hemispheres of controls. In patients with TLE, Pi and pH were higher and PME was lower throughout the entire ipsilateral temporal lobe as compared with the contralateral side and there were no significant asymmetries outside the temporal lobe. The degree of ipsilateral/contralateral asymmetry for all three metabolites was substantially greater for the temporal lobe than for the frontal, occipital, and parietal (...) Regional Distribution of Interictal 31P Metabolic Changes in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy We compared the 31P metabolites in different brain regions of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with those from controls.Ten control subjects and 11 patients with TLE were investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [31P]MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). [31P]MR spectra were selected from a variety of brain regions inside and outside the temporal lobe.There were no asymmetries

1998 Epilepsia

2669. Temporal lobe stimulation reveals anatomic distinction between auditory naming processes. (Abstract)

Temporal lobe stimulation reveals anatomic distinction between auditory naming processes. Language errors induced by cortical stimulation can provide insight into function(s) supported by the area stimulated. The authors observed that some stimulation-induced errors during auditory description naming were characterized by tip-of-the-tongue responses or paraphasic errors, suggesting expressive difficulty, whereas others were qualitatively different, suggesting receptive difficulty (...) . They hypothesized that these two response types reflected disruption at different stages of auditory verbal processing and that these "subprocesses" might be supported by anatomically distinct cortical areas.To explore the topographic distribution of error types in auditory verbal processing.Twenty-one patients requiring left temporal lobe surgery underwent preresection language mapping using direct cortical stimulation. Auditory naming was tested at temporal sites extending from 1 cm from the anterior tip

2003 Neurology

2670. Intracranial ictal onset zone in nonlesional lateral temporal lobe epilepsy on scalp ictal EEG. (Abstract)

Intracranial ictal onset zone in nonlesional lateral temporal lobe epilepsy on scalp ictal EEG. To determine the ictal focus and the role of seizure characteristics, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, and subtraction ictal SPECT in patients diagnosed as having nonlesional lateral temporal lobe epilepsy by long-term scalp video-EEG monitoring.The authors studied 33 consecutive patients with nonlesional neocortical epilepsy who had a scalp ictal onset zone localized in the temporal lobe and good (...) surgical outcome after focal neocortical resection. All patients were evaluated using intracranial recordings prior to resection. Semiology, FDG-PET, and ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT were used to verify the diagnostic role of these methods in the localization of epileptic foci.The ictal onset zones, confirmed by intracranial study, were the lateral temporal (22 patients), parietal (5), frontal (3), temporoparietal (2), and occipital (1) areas. FDG-PET analyzed by statistical parametric mapping

2003 Neurology

2671. Rejection behaviour: a human homologue of the abnormal behaviour of Denny-Brown and Chambers' monkey with bilateral parietal ablation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rejection behaviour: a human homologue of the abnormal behaviour of Denny-Brown and Chambers' monkey with bilateral parietal ablation. A unique behavioural syndrome in humans followed two separate strokes involving both parietotemporal regions. The behavioural alterations resemble those of Denny-Brown and Chambers' monkey with bilateral ablation of the parietal lobe which were characterised by strong withdrawal or refusal to be touched on the limbs and head. In both humans and animals, touch (...) on the limbs or head elicited exaggerated withdrawal movements and refusal to be touched on the lips and tongue resulted in difficulty in feeding. These behavioural alterations can be interpreted as loss of exploratory activities towards extrapersonal space, or more positively, as rejection of contact with the environment. This rejection behaviour in which tactile, visual, and/or gustatory exploration tendencies are altered, is a counterpart of human frontal lobe syndrome and human Klüver-Bucy syndrome.

1989 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

2672. Effects of left parietal injury on covert orienting of attention Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of left parietal injury on covert orienting of attention To assess the effects of left parietal injury on covert visual attention during a detection task and a pointing task.The Posner's paradigm was given to a patient who was found at the age of 74 to have spent all his life without the left parietal lobe as a result of a congenital perinatal insult and to a control subject. In one session subjects were required to provide an arbitrary response at stimulus appearance (key press (...) that mechanisms concerned with the attention for action systems are located within the left parietal lobe.

2002 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

2673. Paired transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols reveal a pattern of inhibition and facilitation in the human parietal cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

the effects of paired TMS of the parietal cortex on contralateral tactile perception. Fifteen healthy subjects were involved in a task of discrimination of electrical stimuli delivered at near-threshold intensity of sensory perception over the left thumb. Paired TMS was delivered with a focal coil on the right posterior parietal lobe after various delays from the presentation of finger stimuli. The effects of different interstimulus intervals (ISI: 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 1 1 Bms1B) between the conditioning (...) Paired transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols reveal a pattern of inhibition and facilitation in the human parietal cortex Intracortical inhibition (ICI) and facilitation (ICF) of the human motor cortex can be induced by paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Although demonstrated in experimental animals, the existence of intracortical inhibitory and excitatory circuits in parietal sensory cortex has not been documented in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate

2000 The Journal of physiology

2674. Loss of unilateral eye closure and right parietal lesion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

innervation Glioma physiopathology Humans Male Parietal Lobe physiopathology 1988 7 1 1988 7 1 0 1 1988 7 1 0 0 ppublish 3204392 PMC1033219 J Nerv Ment Dis. 1956 Mar;123(3):201-18 13367832 AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1955 Jun;73(6):597-601 14375424 (...) Loss of unilateral eye closure and right parietal lesion. 3204392 1989 01 30 2018 11 13 0022-3050 51 7 1988 Jul Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry Loss of unilateral eye closure and right parietal lesion. 1008 Belin C C Larmande J J Gaymard B B Larmande P P eng Case Reports Letter England J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2985191R 0022-3050 IM Aged Apraxias physiopathology Brain Neoplasms physiopathology Dominance, Cerebral physiology Eyelids

1988 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

2675. The acetylcholine releaser linopirdine increases parietal regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer's disease. (Abstract)

to controls. Patients treated with LPD showed an increase in parietal rCBF of 4.1 +/- 5.8%; whereas those treated with placebo showed a decrease of -2.0 +/- 7.4% (F = 5.13; df = 1, 22; P = 0.03). These data support the conclusion that rCBF abnormalities in AD are, in part, truly "functional" and can be selectively altered with pharmacological interventions. The parietal activation seen with LPD and other cholinergic AD drug therapies suggests the importance of measuring parietal lobe neuropsychological (...) The acetylcholine releaser linopirdine increases parietal regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer's disease. Centrally acting cholinergic drugs have been reported to increase regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in brain regions affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied the effects of the acetylcholine releaser linopirdine (LPD) on SPECT rCBF in patients with probable AD. Twenty-four AD patients (12 M, 12 F; mean age

1997 Psychopharmacology

2676. Scopolamine impairs memory performance and reduces frontal but not parietal visual P3 amplitude. (Abstract)

Scopolamine impairs memory performance and reduces frontal but not parietal visual P3 amplitude. It has been suggested that the P3 event-related potential (ERP) may mark the operation of certain working or long-term memory processes. It has also been reported that cholinergic blockade by scopolamine induces significant memory impairment and is associated with an increased latency, as well as amplitude reduction or abolition of the auditory P3, thus supporting hypothesised links between P3 (...) and long-term memory function. An intriguing anomaly is that, while visual P3 latency is also increased by scopolamine, amplitude is not changed. The aim of this study was to make a more detailed assessment of the effects of scopolamine on the visual P3 at a drug dose known to induce memory impairment. After drug administration, memory performance was significantly impaired and visual P3 latency was significantly increased. There was little evidence of parietal P3 amplitude reduction, but frontal P3

2000 Biological psychology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2677. Neurogenic pain and abnormal movements contralateral to an anterior parietal artery stroke. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with hemiballismus may result from disconnection of the parietal lobe from deeper structures. In contrast with isolated hemiballismus, we suggest that the simultaneous occurrence of this movement disorder with ipsilateral pain is specific for an anterior parietal artery stroke. (...) Neurogenic pain and abnormal movements contralateral to an anterior parietal artery stroke. Unlike delayed pain syndrome, acute central pain is a very rare symptom in acute stroke. In addition, the incidence of hemiballismus in acute cerebrovascular diseases is less than 1%. To our knowledge, the association of these 2 clinical conditions has not been previously described.After observing one patient with hemiballismus accompanied by ipsilateral acute limb pain at stroke onset, we

2003 Archives of Neurology

2678. Some Surprising Findings on the Involvement of the Parietal Lobe in Human Memory Full Text available with Trip Pro

Some Surprising Findings on the Involvement of the Parietal Lobe in Human Memory The posterior parietal lobe is known to play some role in a far-flung list of mental processes: linking vision to action (saccadic eye movements, reaching, grasping), attending to visual space, numerical calculation, and mental rotation. Here, we review findings from humans and monkeys that illuminate an untraditional function of this region: memory. Our review draws on neuroimaging findings that have repeatedly (...) identified parietal lobe activations associated with short-term or working memory and episodic memory. We also discuss recent neuropsychological findings showing that individuals with parietal lobe damage exhibit both working memory and long-term memory deficits. These deficits are not ubiquitous; they are only evident under certain retrieval demands. Our review elaborates on these findings and evaluates various theories about the mechanistic role of the posterior parietal lobe in memory. The available

2008 Neurobiology of learning and memory

2679. Serial reaction time performance following right parietal lobe damage Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serial reaction time performance following right parietal lobe damage The serial reaction time task (SRT) is used to assess implicit sequence learning. Neuroimaging studies implicate parietal involvement; however, the necessity of this area is unclear. We tested six unilateral right parietal patients and compared their performance to matched controls. Both groups showed similar levels of learning and explicit awareness. Two patients with the largest lesions extending into either frontal (...) or cerebellar regions showed no learning. These data suggest that implicit sequence learning can occur despite damage to the right parietal lobe.

2008 Journal of neuropsychology

2680. Resection of parietal lobe gliomas: incidence and evolution of neurological deficits in 28 consecutive patients correlated to the location and morphological characteristics of the tumor. (Abstract)

Resection of parietal lobe gliomas: incidence and evolution of neurological deficits in 28 consecutive patients correlated to the location and morphological characteristics of the tumor. The goal of this study is to report the incidence and clinical evolution of neurological deficits in patients who underwent resection of gliomas confined to the parietal lobe.Patient demographics, findings of serial neurological examinations, tumor location and neuroimaging characteristics, extent of resection (...) , and surgical outcomes were tabulated by reviewing inpatient and office records, as well as all pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained in 28 consecutive patients who underwent resection of a glial neoplasm found on imaging studies to be confined to the parietal lobe. Neurological deficits were correlated with hemispheric dominance, location of the lesion within the superior or inferior parietal lobules, subcortical extension, and involvement of the postcentral gyrus. The tumors were

2005 Journal of Neurosurgery

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