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Parietal Lobe

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2641. Ictal neocortical slowing in temporal lobe epilepsy. (Abstract)

frontal and ipsilateral parietal cortex exhibited large amplitude irregular slow waves during seizures. This frontoparietal slowing persisted into the postictal period. Perirolandic and occipital cortex were relatively spared. These EEG patterns were accompanied by bland staring, minor automatisms, and unresponsiveness or amnesia in the majority of patients studied.Prominent irregular slowing occurs in bilateral frontal and ipsilateral parietal association cortex during and after temporal lobe (...) Ictal neocortical slowing in temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may affect brain regions outside the temporal lobe, causing impaired neocortical function during seizures.The authors selected 11 consecutive patients with mesial TLE and hippocampal sclerosis who underwent intracranial EEG monitoring and had no seizures during a follow-up period of at least 1 year after temporal lobe resection. Secondarily generalized seizures were excluded, and up to three seizures were analyzed

2004 Neurology

2642. White matter lesions impair frontal lobe function regardless of their location. Full Text available with Trip Pro

White matter lesions impair frontal lobe function regardless of their location. To analyze the effect of white matter lesions in different brain regions on regional cortical glucose metabolism, regional cortical atrophy, and cognitive function in a sample with a broad range of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive function.Subjects (n = 78) were recruited for a study of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) contributions to dementia. A new method was developed (...) frontal and parietal WMH were associated with reduced frontal rCMRglc, whereas occipitotemporal WMH was only marginally associated with frontal rCMRglc. These associations were stronger and more widely distributed in nondemented subjects where reduced frontal rCMRglc was correlated with WMH for all regions measured. In contrast, there was no relationship between WMH in any brain region and rCMRglc in either parietal or occipitotemporal regions. WMHs in all brain regions were associated with low

2004 Neurology

2643. Reduced medial temporal lobe N-acetylaspartate in cognitively impaired but nondemented patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reduced medial temporal lobe N-acetylaspartate in cognitively impaired but nondemented patients. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal lobe gray matter (GM) is diminished in Alzheimer disease (AD). Because NAA is considered a marker of neuronal integrity, reduced medial temporal and parietal lobe NAA could be an early indication of dementia-related pathology in elderly individuals.1) To determine whether cognitively impaired but nondemented (CIND) elderly (...) individuals exhibit a similar pattern of reduced medial temporal and parietal lobe NAA as AD patients. 2) To compare regional NAA patterns, hippocampal and neocortical gray matter (GM) volumes in CIND patients who remained cognitively stable and those who became demented over 3.6 years of follow-up. 3) To examine the relationship between memory performance, medial temporal lobe NAA, and hippocampal volume.Seventeen CIND, 24 AD, and 24 cognitively normal subjects were studied using MRSI and MRI.Relative

2005 Neurology

2644. Ipsilateral and contralateral MRI volumetric abnormalities in chronic unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and their clinical correlates. (Abstract)

of interest included the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus as well as temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital lobe gray and white matter. Clinical markers of neurodevelopmental insult (initial precipitating insult, early age of recurrent seizures) and chronicity of epilepsy (epilepsy duration, estimated number of lifetime generalized seizures) were related to magnetic resonance (MR) volume abnormalities.Quantitative MR abnormalities extend beyond the ipsilateral hippocampus and temporal lobe (...) with extratemporal (frontal and parietal lobe) reductions in cerebral white matter, especially ipsilateral but also contralateral to the side of seizure onset. Volumetric abnormalities in ipsilateral hippocampus and bilateral cerebral white matter are associated with factors related to both the onset and the chronicity of the patients' epilepsy.These cross-sectional findings support the view that volumetric abnormalities in chronic TLE are associated with a combination of neurodevelopmental and progressive

2005 Epilepsia

2645. Somatosensory processing is impaired in temporal lobe epilepsy. (Abstract)

Somatosensory processing is impaired in temporal lobe epilepsy. Growing evidence suggests that temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a network disease. In this view, the seizure focus may produce measurable deficits in specific cortical functions.A tactile grating orientation (GrOr) discrimination task associated with parietal lobe function was administered at the index fingertip to 15 subjects with medically intractable TLE and to 19 neurologically normal controls. TLE subjects were tested

2005 Epilepsia

2646. The BOLD effect of interictal spike activity in childhood occipital lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The BOLD effect of interictal spike activity in childhood occipital lobe epilepsy. Occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) presents in childhood with different manifestations, age of onset and EEG features that form distinct syndromes. The ictal clinical symptoms are difficult to correlate with onset in particular areas in the occipital lobes, and the EEG recordings have not been able to overcome this limitation. The mapping of epileptogenic cortical regions in OLE remains therefore an important goal (...) in our understanding of these syndromes.In this work, three patients with two types of idiopathic childhood OLE were studied with EEG source analysis and also with mapping of the BOLD effect associated with spikes in simultaneous EEG/fMRI recordings.Two patients with late onset OLE provided EEG source localizations in the lateral parietal cortex and in the medial occipital areas. The BOLD activations were more consistent and restricted to the medial parietal-occipital cortex in both cases. One

2006 Epilepsia

2647. Voxel-based T2 relaxation rate measurements in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with and without mesial temporal sclerosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the ipsilateral hippocampus but also in other ipsilateral temporal regions, orbitofrontal, and parietal regions and to a lesser degree in contralateral frontal regions. The relaxation rate decreases in TLE-no were confined to small regions in the ipsilateral anterior inferior and medial temporal lobe in the SPM analysis while ROI analysis showed additional regions in the ipsilateral hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate.TLE-MTS showed extensive, widespread but predominantly ipsilateral temporal (...) Voxel-based T2 relaxation rate measurements in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with and without mesial temporal sclerosis. Quantitative measurements of T(2) relaxation in the hippocampus for focus lateralization in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are well established. Less is known to what degree such relaxation abnormalities also affect regions beyond the ipsilateral hippocampus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize extent and distribution pattern of extrahippocampal

2007 Epilepsia

2648. Identification of abnormal neuronal metabolism outside the seizure focus in temporal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with a higher percentage of pathological voxels than those in controls.Reduced NAA/(Cr+Cho) was found in ipsilateral temporal and parietal lobes and bilaterally in insula and frontal lobes. Temporal abnormalities identified the epileptogenic focus in 70% in TLE-MTS and 83% of TLE-no. Extratemporal abnormalities identified the epileptogenic focus in 78% of TLE-MTS but in only 17% of TLE-no.TLE is associated with extrahippocampal reductions of NAA/(Cr+Cho) in several lobes consistent with those brain areas (...) Identification of abnormal neuronal metabolism outside the seizure focus in temporal lobe epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify metabolically abnormal extrahippocampal brain regions in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with (TLE-MTS) and without (TLE-no) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence for mesial-temporal sclerosis (MTS) and to assess their value for focus lateralization by using multislice 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI).MRSI in combination with tissue

2004 Epilepsia

2649. Consequences of hippocampal damage across the autobiographical memory network in left temporal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Consequences of hippocampal damage across the autobiographical memory network in left temporal lobe epilepsy. Lesion and neuroimaging evidence suggests the hippocampus (HC) is a crucial node in the neural network supporting autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval, and thus focal damage to the HC may have functional consequences for structures throughout the network. Using fMRI, we examined the impact of hippocampal damage on the engagement and connectivity of the AM network in 11 patients (...) with left temporal lobe epilepsy (mean age of onset of seizures, 24 years) with significant left hippocampal atrophy and a mild AM deficit. All investigations were completed pre-surgically. The fMRI paradigm comprised three conditions: (i) retrieving specific AMs in response to personalized cues obtained during a pre-scan interview; (ii) a sentence completion control task; and (iii) a size discrimination control task. AM-related activity (relative to the control tasks) was significantly reduced

2007 Brain

2650. Ictal clinical and scalp-EEG findings differentiating temporal lobe epilepsies from temporal 'plus' epilepsies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ictal clinical and scalp-EEG findings differentiating temporal lobe epilepsies from temporal 'plus' epilepsies. Temporal 'plus' epilepsies are characterized by seizures involving a complex epileptogenic network including the temporal lobe and the closed neighboured structures such as the orbito-frontal cortex, the insula, the frontal and parietal operculum and the temporo-parieto-occipital junction. Temporal 'plus' epilepsies are currently identified by means of intracerebral electrodes (...) but whether their diagnosis can be suspected non-invasively has not been evaluated yet. The aim of this retrospective study was to address this issue in 80 consecutive patients who were thought to suffer from non-lesional temporal lobe seizures which finally proved, on the basis of stereotactic intracerebral EEG (SEEG) recordings, to be 'purely' temporal (TL group, n = 58) or temporal 'plus' (T+ group, n = 22). Our results showed that the two groups of patients were difficult to differentiate on the basis

2007 Brain

2651. Visual disturbances representing occipital lobe epilepsy in patients with cerebral calcifications and coeliac disease: a case series. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Visual disturbances representing occipital lobe epilepsy in patients with cerebral calcifications and coeliac disease: a case series. Paroxysmal visual manifestations may represent epileptic seizures arising from the occipital lobe. In coeliac disease (CD) bilateral occipital calcifications and seizure semiology consistent with an occipital origin have been described, primarily in Mediterranean countries. By reporting three adult patients from an Australian outpatient clinic with visual (...) of malabsorption were not always present. Neurological examination was unremarkable in two patients, impaired dexterity and mild hemiatrophy on the left was noted in one. Routine electroencephalography was unremarkable. In all cases, computed tomography demonstrated bilateral cortical calcification of the occipital-parietal regions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no additional lesion. All patients had biopsy confirmed CD. Seizure control improved after treatment with gluten free diet and anticonvulsants

2004 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

2652. Asymmetrical extra-hippocampal grey matter loss related to hippocampal atrophy in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Asymmetrical extra-hippocampal grey matter loss related to hippocampal atrophy in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Structural neuroimaging studies have consistently shown a pattern of extra-hippocampal atrophy in patients with left and right drug-refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, it is not yet completely understood how extra-hippocampal atrophy is related to hippocampal atrophy. Moreover, patients with left MTLE often exhibit more intense cognitive impairment (...) grey matter volume. The results from 36 patients with right and left MTLE were compared, and results from the two groups were compared with those from 49 healthy controls.Compared with controls, patients with MTLE showed a more intense correlation between hippocampal grey matter volume and regional grey matter volume in locations such as the contralateral hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal gyri and frontal and parietal areas. Compared with right MTLE, patients with left MTLE exhibited a wider

2007 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

2653. Improved cerebral function in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy after subtemporal amygdalohippocampectomy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and the dorsomedial and ventromedial frontal cortices. Glucose metabolism also increased in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules and in the remaining temporal lobe regions remote from the resected mesial temporal region, such as the superior temporal gyrus and the temporal pole. By contrast, postoperative glucose metabolism decreased only in the mesial temporal area adjacent to the resected region. Postoperative verbal memory, delayed recall and attention/concentration scores were significantly better than (...) Improved cerebral function in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy after subtemporal amygdalohippocampectomy. The functional changes that occur throughout the human brain after the selective removal of an epileptogenic lesion remain unclear. Subtemporal selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) has been advocated as a minimally invasive surgical procedure for patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We evaluated the effects of subtemporal SAH on cerebral glucose

2008 Brain

2654. Frontal Lobe syndrome

after lesions of the right hemisphere involving either the right parietal lobe or the right frontal lobe. Patients with right-sided brain lesions typically neglect the left hemispace. This can be assessed by asking the patient to draw or to read. Patients may neglect the left half of the drawing or leave off the left half of words (neglect ). Differential diagnosis Investigations Check B12 levels, thyroid function, serology for syphilis and antinuclear antibodies. Consider MRI/CT scanning (...) Frontal Lobe syndrome Frontal Lobe Syndrome. FLS information. Frontal Lobe Lesions | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Frontal Lobe Syndrome Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 6 Nov 2014 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK

2008 Mentor

2655. Neuronal population coding of continuous and discrete quantity in the primate posterior parietal cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

information that predicted the monkeys' quantity judgments. Thus, different information-carrying processes of partly intermingled neuronal networks in the parietal lobe seem to encode various forms of abstract quantity. (...) Neuronal population coding of continuous and discrete quantity in the primate posterior parietal cortex Quantitative knowledge guides vital decisions in the life of animals and humans alike. The posterior parietal cortex in primates has been implicated in representing abstract quantity, both continuous (extent) and discrete (number of items), supporting the idea of a putative generalized magnitude system in this brain area. Whether or not single neurons encode different types of quantity

2007 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

2656. Space and the parietal cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

Space and the parietal cortex Current views of the parietal cortex have difficulty accommodating the human inferior parietal lobe (IPL) within a simple dorsal versus ventral stream dichotomy. In humans, lesions of the right IPL often lead to syndromes such as hemispatial neglect that are seemingly in accord with the proposal that this region has a crucial role in spatial processing. However, recent imaging and lesion studies have revealed that inferior parietal regions have non-spatial (...) functions, such as in sustaining attention, detecting salient events embedded in a sequence of events and controlling attention over time. Here, we review these findings and show that spatial processes and the visual guidance of action are only part of the repertoire of parietal functions. Although sub-regions in the human superior parietal lobe and intraparietal sulcus contribute to vision-for-action and spatial functions, more inferior parietal regions have distinctly non-spatial attributes

2007 Trends in cognitive sciences

2657. Dissociated Pathways for Successful Memory Retrieval from the Human Parietal Cortex: Anatomical and Functional Connectivity Analyses Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the medial parietal cortex. However, little is known about the functional differences between lateral and medial parietal cortices in the memory retrieval process. In this study, we examined whether the human lateral and medial parietal lobes have differential anatomical and functional connectivity with the temporal lobe. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to constrain the analysis of anatomical connectivity obtained by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Both DTI tractography (...) and functional connectivity analysis showed that the lateral parietal region has anatomical and functional connections with the lateral temporal lobe, and the medial parietal region has connections with the medial temporal lobe. These results suggest the existence of segregated lateral and medial parieto-temporal pathways in successful memory retrieval.

2007 Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY)

2658. Spatiotemporal segregation in visual search: evidence from parietal lesions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

on the contralesional side). In Experiment 2, simplified displays yielded analogous results, ruling out search ease as a crucial factor in poor preview search. In Experiment 3, outlines around distractor groups (to aid segmentation) improved conjunction but not preview search, suggesting a specific deficit in spatiotemporal segmentation. Experiment 4 ruled out spatial disengagement problems as a factor. The data emphasize the role of spatiotemporal segmentation cues in preview search and the parietal lobe (...) Spatiotemporal segregation in visual search: evidence from parietal lesions. The mechanisms underlying segmentation and selection of visual stimuli over time were investigated in patients with posterior parietal damage. In a modified visual search task, a preview of old objects preceded search of a new set for a target while the old items remained. In Experiment 1, control participants ignored old and prioritized new items, but patients had severe difficulties finding the target (especially

2004 Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance

2659. Impaired Medial Temporal Repetition Suppression is Related to Failure of Parietal Deactivation in Alzheimer Disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impaired Medial Temporal Repetition Suppression is Related to Failure of Parietal Deactivation in Alzheimer Disease. Neural networks supporting encoding of new information are affected early in the course of Alzheimer disease (AD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in AD have reported decreased medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation when comparing novel versus repeated stimuli. It is, however, unclear whether this finding is related to a failure of normal suppression of MTL (...) and in prefrontal and superior parietal cortices, compared with OC. In contrast, OC showed greater parietal task-induced deactivation than AD. Increased MTL activity during Repeated was correlated with more impaired parietal deactivation and poorer performance of the postscan recognition memory test of encoding the face-name pairs.Reduction of MTL activity to repeated stimuli, which become highly familiarized to healthy OC, was impaired in AD. This abnormal increased MTL activation was related to disrupted

2008 The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

2660. Neuropsychological results in pediatric patients with epilepsy surgery in the parietal cortex. (Abstract)

Neuropsychological results in pediatric patients with epilepsy surgery in the parietal cortex. This study evaluated pre- and postoperatively cognitive functions in 15 pediatric patients with surgically treated parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE). Seizure outcome was very satisfying with 87% seizure-free patients 1 year after surgery, and 82% in the long-term follow-up. Preoperative intelligence was in the subaverage range. Impairments in specific cognitive functions (memory, attention, executive

2007 Epilepsia

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