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Parietal Lobe

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2621. The anatomy of visual neglect. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The anatomy of visual neglect. The brain regions that are critically associated with visual neglect have become intensely disputed. In particular, one study of middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke patients has claimed that the key brain region associated with neglect is the mid portion of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), on the lateral surface of the right hemisphere, rather than the posterior parietal lobe. Such a result has wide-ranging implications for both our understanding of the normal (...) function these cortical areas and the potential mechanisms underlying neglect. Here, we use novel high resolution MRI protocols to map the lesions of 35 right-hemisphere patients who had suffered either MCA or posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory stroke. For patients with MCA territory strokes, the critical area involved in all neglect patients was the angular gyrus of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL). Although the STG was damaged in half of our MCA neglect patients, it was spared in the rest

2003 Brain

2622. Correlation between language organization and diffusion tensor abnormalities in refractory partial epilepsy. (Abstract)

imaging (fMRI) of language and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were acquired. For the fMRI, a noun-verb generation task was performed, all images were motion corrected, and activated pixels in classic language areas were counted. The DTI images were acquired in six standard directions with an initial non-diffusion-weighted scan. The "average anisotropy" was determined in a region of interest in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and parietal lobe white matter. An asymmetry index (AI) was calculated (...) for language and DTI. Atypical language lateralization was diagnosed if the lateralization index (LI)-language was smaller than 0.4.Two of the nine patients had atypical language localization (LI-language, -0.6, and 0.3); both had left temporal DTI asymmetry (LI-DTI, -0.3 and -0.2). The remaining seven patients had typical language localization, and no marked DTI abnormalities. Asymmetry in temporal lobe DTI correlated with LI-language (r= 0.8; p = 0.006).Atypical language lateralization in patients

2003 Epilepsia

2623. Cinguloparietal atrophy distinguishes Alzheimer disease from semantic dementia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and on simple calculations. Consistent with these neuropsychological deficits, the most significant area of atrophy in the AD group was the left parietal cortex vs controls (z = 5.0; P =.04). Compared with SD, AD was associated with more atrophy in the left parietal lobe (z = 5.6; P =.04) and bilaterally in the posterior cingulate/precuneus (z = 5.1; P =.04). A discriminant function analysis demonstrated that the degree of atrophy of right posterior cingulate, left parietal lobe, right amygdala, and right (...) anterior temporal lobe structures correctly classified 96% of the patients.Alzheimer disease is associated with a specific pattern of cortical atrophy compared with SD.

2003 Archives of Neurology

2624. Myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis (Schilder's disease): report of a case and review of the literature. (Abstract)

-handed young man presenting with left hemiplegia, aphasia and behavioural changes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed two large lesions, irregular contrast-enhancing, in the subcortical white matter of the right frontal and parietal lobes, and increased intracranial pressure. Definitive diagnosis was made with biopsy. The characteristic pathological features are demyelinization of the white matter, lymphocytic perivascular infiltrates, microglial proliferation and immunohistochemical signs

2002 British Journal of Neurosurgery

2625. Do cognitive patterns of brain magnetic activity correlate with hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease? Full Text available with Trip Pro

and mesial temporal lobe regions.As expected, Alzheimer's disease patients showed greater hippocampal atrophy than controls bilaterally. MEG derived indices of the degree of activation in left parietal and temporal lobe areas, occurring after 400 ms from stimulus onset, correlated significantly with the relative volume of lateral and mesial temporal regions. In addition, the size of the right hippocampus accounted for a significant portion of the variance in cognitive scores independently of brain (...) activity measures.These data support the view that there is a relation between hippocampal atrophy and the degree of neurophysiological activity in the left temporal lobe.

2003 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

2626. Relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis: pathological confirmation of viral reactivation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

active encephalitis consisting of necrosis and lymphocyte infiltration with a large number of intranuclear inclusions in the neurones and glial cells in the markedly oedematous parenchyma of the right frontal and parietal lobes. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry, HSV-1 DNA by in situ hybridisation, and herpes simplex virus nucleocapsids by electronmicroscopy. These clinical and pathological findings suggest that direct viral reactivation might result (...) Relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis: pathological confirmation of viral reactivation. This case is reported to raise awareness of herpes simplex encephalitis as a persisting brain disorder. A 66 year old immunocompetent man developed status epilepticus and died of pneumonia in the course of progressive hemiparesis, cognitive decline, and atrophy of the brain over a five year period after herpes simplex encephalitis. In addition to a completely destroyed left temporal lobe, necropsy revealed

2003 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

2627. Brain lesions in the course of generalised tetanus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Brain lesions in the course of generalised tetanus. A 47-year-old woman developed left hemiparesis primarily affecting the lower limbs during the course of severe generalised tetanus. MRI on the 82nd hospital day revealed cortical and subcortical lesions predominantly in the right frontal and parietal lobes in addition to marked brain atrophy. Three months later, the enhancing lesions were still present on follow up MRI. We postulate that structures above brainstem may be involved in severe

2003 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

2628. Association between relative temporal and prefrontal sulcal cerebrospinal fluid and illness duration in schizophrenia. (Abstract)

Association between relative temporal and prefrontal sulcal cerebrospinal fluid and illness duration in schizophrenia. Changes in sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume have been related to the neurodegeneration hypothesis in schizophrenia. Fifty-three (24 neuroleptic-naive) schizophrenics and a control group (n=26) were studied with MRI to assess regional sulcal CSF values relative to the total volume of brain lobes (prefrontal, orbital, temporal, parietal, and occipital). Segmentation (...) of brain structures was performed using an automatic Talairach-based method. Relative CSF volumes were adjusted for age by means of linear regression from normal subjects; the corrected values were used to assess their relationship with illness duration and age of onset (AOS). The volume of sulcal CSF on prefrontal and temporal lobes (bilateral) was significantly greater in schizophrenic patients and showed a significant positive correlation with illness duration not found in the other regions studied

2002 Schizophrenia Research

2629. Volumes of association thalamic nuclei in schizophrenia: a postmortem study. (Abstract)

Volumes of association thalamic nuclei in schizophrenia: a postmortem study. The major association thalamic nuclei, the mediodorsal nucleus (MD) and the medial pulvinar nucleus (PUM) are regarded as important parts of the circuits among association cortical regions. Association cortical regions of the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes have been repeatedly implicated in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Thus, the aim of the present postmortem study was to investigate the volumes

2003 Schizophrenia Research

2630. Neural mechanism of propofol anesthesia in severe depression: a positron emission tomographic study. (Abstract)

prefrontal region with larger regions of relative decrease in rCBF at higher propofol doses. At the higher dose, the values of rCBF in the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus, the pontine tegmentum, and the cerebellar cortex were also affected. Meanwhile, there were few changes of relative rCBF in the basal frontal lobes during both sedated and anesthetized states.As in earlier studies using normal subjects, pronounced suppression in rCBF in the brain stem reticular formation, the thalamus, and the parietal (...) , and rCBF was serially quantified in the awake, sedated, and anesthetized states. The authors used high-resolution positron emission tomography with 15O-labeled water and statistical parametric mapping 99 for imaging and analysis of the data.Global cerebral blood flow showed sharp decreases from the awake level during the administration of propofol, decreasing 26.8% in the sedated state and 54.4% in the anesthetized state. Moreover, a dose effect was seen in both parietal cortices and the left lateral

2003 Anesthesiology

2631. Expression of tenascin-C in various human brain tumors and its relevance for survival in patients with astrocytoma. (Abstract)

, a significant difference was noted in the expression of TN-C when comparing gray with white matter using either Western blot analysis or immunohistochemistry. TN-C was found in the white matter of the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes and in the hippocampus, where the immunoreaction was especially strong in the hippocampal formation. In 181 astrocytomas of different grades (World Health Organization [WHO] Grade 2-4), TN-C immunopositivity was seen to varying degrees in the cellular

2003 Cancer

2632. Brain morphology associated with obstructive sleep apnea. (Abstract)

but not in patients with OSA. Diminished regional and often unilateral gray matter loss was apparent in multiple sites of the brain in patients with OSA, including the frontal and parietal cortex, temporal lobe, anterior cingulate, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Unilateral loss in well-perfused structures suggests onset of neural deficits early in the OSA syndrome. The gray matter loss occurs within sites involved in motor regulation of the upper airway as well as in areas contributing to cognitive function.

2002 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

2633. Justifying video-assisted thoracic surgery for spontaneous hemopneumothorax. (Abstract)

(mean age, 25.3 years). Eleven patients were in hypovolemic shock, and their hemoglobin levels ranged from 6.7 to 12.7 g/dL; therefore, they received fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion. The amount of blood drained through the chest tube varied from 200 to 3,500 mL. Emergency VATS revealed that 5 cases were simple hemothoraces and 19 cases were associated with pneumothorax. The cause of bleeding was identified by thoracoscopy, as from an aberrant vessel (n = 11), torn parietal pleura (n = 4 (...) ), ruptured vascularized bullae (n = 2), and lung parenchyma (n = 1). Six patients had no evidence of an obvious bleeding site. Bullous lesions were at the apex of the upper lobe in 14 patients, and multiple lobar involvement was seen in 2 patients. All the bullae were resected with endoscopic stapler in eight patients and ligated with a homemade endoloop in eight patients. The mean operation time was 42 min. The mean chest tube removal time was 3.5 days after insertion, and mean postoperative stay

2002 Chest

2634. Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow on 99mTc ECD brain SPECT in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome and normal findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to detect brain lesions showing hypoperfusion in 32 female patients with pSS and definite neuropsychiatric symptoms or signs. Seventeen female patients with pSS without neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs were included as a control group for comparison. All of the 49 patients with pSS had normal findings on brain MRI.99mTc ECD brain SPECT showed brain regions with hypoperfusion in 18 (56.3%) of the 32 patients, and parietal lobes were the most common areas with such lesions. By contrast, 99mTc ECD brain

2002 Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

2635. Corpus callosum and posterior fossa development in monozygotic females: a morphometric MRI study of Turner syndrome. (Abstract)

Corpus callosum and posterior fossa development in monozygotic females: a morphometric MRI study of Turner syndrome. Previous neuroimaging research in Turner syndrome (TS) has indicated parietal lobe anomalies, while anomalies in other brain loci have been less well-substantiated. This study focused on potential cerebellar abnormalities and possible disruptions of interhemispheric (parietal) callosal connections in individuals with TS. Twenty-seven female children and adolescents with TS (mean (...) . No group difference in intracranial area measurements was observed. The reduced area of the genu in TS may reflect compromised connectivity between inferior parietal regions. Further, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia associated with TS agrees with literature that suggests the posterior fossa as a region prone to structural alterations in the face of early developmental insult.

2003 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

2636. parietal lobe signs

parietal lobe signs parietal lobe signs - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search parietal lobe signs The parietal lobe is the principal sensory area of the cerebral cortex. The manifestations of damage may be specific to the dominant or non-dominant hemisphere, or it may be general: Disease of either dominant or non-dominant hemisphere post-central gyral sensory cortex produces contralateral disturbance of cortical (...) dimensional sense - dressing dyspraxia, constructional dyspraxia geographical agnosia - e.g. unable to find defined places Involving the optic radiation deep in the parietal lobe: lower homonymous quadrantanopia Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016

2010 GP Notebook

2637. Surgical treatment of occipital lobe epilepsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, MR imaging, and histopathology data were reviewed, and patients with additional temporal and/or parietal involvement were categorized separately. Seizure outcome was classified according to the Engel classification scheme (Classes I-IV). Two patients were excluded due to incomplete data sets. Fifty-two patients with intractable epilepsy involving predominantly the occipital lobe were included in the study, comprising 17.8% of 292 patients undergoing operations for extratemporal epilepsies.In (...) nearly all cases (50 [96.2%] of 52), a structural lesion was visible on preoperative MR imaging. Of these cases, 29 (55.8%) had "pure" OLE with no temporal or parietal lobe involvement. Most patients (83%) had complex partial seizures, and 60% also had generalized seizures. All patients underwent occipital lesionectomies or topectomies; 9 patients (17.3%) underwent additional multiple subpial transections. Histopathology results revealed 9 cortical dysplasias (17.3%), 9 gangliogliomas (17.3%), 6

2008 Journal of Neurosurgery

2638. Voxel-based morphometry of temporal lobe epilepsy: An introduction and review of the literature. (Abstract)

asymmetrical distribution of temporal lobe abnormalities preferentially observed ipsilateral to the seizure focus, particularly of the hippocampus (82.35% of all studies), parahippocampal gyrus (47.06%), and entorhinal (23.52%) cortex. The contralateral hippocampus was reported as abnormal in 17.65% of studies. There was a much more bilateral distribution of extratemporal lobe atrophy, preferentially affecting the thalamus (ipsilateral = 61.11%, contralateral = 50%) and parietal lobe (ipsilateral = 47.06 (...) Voxel-based morphometry of temporal lobe epilepsy: An introduction and review of the literature. We review the applications and results of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies that have reported brain changes associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). A PubMed search yielded 18 applications of VBM to study brain abnormalities in patients with TLE up to May 2007. Across studies, 26 brain regions were found to be significantly reduced in volume relative to healthy controls. There was a strong

2007 Epilepsia

2639. Normal neuroanatomical variation due to age: the major lobes and a parcellation of the temporal region. (Abstract)

Normal neuroanatomical variation due to age: the major lobes and a parcellation of the temporal region. We used high-resolution MRI to investigate gray and white matter aging in the major lobes of the cerebrum (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital) and the major sectors of the temporal lobe (temporal pole, superior temporal gyrus, infero-temporal region, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus). Subjects included 87 adults between the ages of 22 and 88 years. Regions of interest were

2005 Neurobiology of Aging

2640. Limbic reductions of 5-HT1A receptor binding in human temporal lobe epilepsy. (Abstract)

Limbic reductions of 5-HT1A receptor binding in human temporal lobe epilepsy. To test the hypothesis that in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) there is involvement outside of mesial structures and that this involvement affects serotonin systems, thus suggesting a mechanism for affective symptoms in this population.Serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding was studied with PET and [Carbonyl-11C]WAY-100 635 in 14 patients (6 with left-, 8 with right-sided mesial temporal lobe focus) and 14 controls (...) . The 5-HT1A receptor binding potential was calculated for hippocampus, amygdala, orbitofrontal, insular, lateral temporal, and anterior cingulate cortex, in raphe nuclei, and in two regions presumably uninvolved in the epileptogenic process (parietal, and dorsolateral frontal neocortex).The binding potential was reduced in the epileptogenic hippocampus (p = 0.0001) and amygdala (p = 0.0001) in all patients, including the six with normal [18F]FDG PET and MRI. It was also reduced in the anterior

2004 Neurology

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