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Parietal Lobe

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2601. Asperger syndrome: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of brain. (Abstract)

Asperger syndrome: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of brain. Asperger syndrome (AS; an autistic disorder) is associated with impaired social skills and obsessional/repetitive behavior. Patients with autism have significant abnormalities in the frontal lobe and frontoparietal connectivity. Nobody has examined the relationship between abnormalities in the frontal and parietal lobes and clinical symptoms in people with AS.We used in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (...) to examine neuronal integrity of the medial prefrontal and parietal lobes in 14 non-learning-disabled adults with AS and 18 control subjects (of similar sex, age, and IQ). We obtained measures of the prefrontal lobe in 11, the parietal lobe in 13, and both lobes in 10 subjects with AS. We measured concentrations and ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr + PCr), and choline (Cho). Levels of NAA, Cr + PCr, and Cho are indicators of neuronal density and mitochondrial metabolism

2002 Archives of General Psychiatry

2602. Synapse loss may be a minor contributor to decreased regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease. (Abstract)

in postmortem brain samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) that measures synaptophysin, with results expressed as picomoles synaptophysin/10 mg brain. Synaptophysin was expressed either as concentration (QS method) or as the ratio of the concentration to the combined results in frontal, temporal and parietal lobe (RS method). There was no correlation between synapse loss and rCBF using the QS method and only borderline significance between right SPECT and right temporal synaptophysin

2003 Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

2603. Brain activity during auditory backward and simultaneous masking tasks. (Abstract)

Brain activity during auditory backward and simultaneous masking tasks. Normal-hearing adult subjects performed a simultaneous and a backward auditory masking task, while their brain activity was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging. No differences between these tasks were observed in the auditory brain regions on the superior temporal lobes. Brain activity was larger for simultaneous than backward masking in the left inferior parietal lobe, the left inferior frontal cortex

2003 Hearing Research

2604. Supratentorial arachnoid cyst mimicking a Ménière's disease attack. (Abstract)

male, who suddenly began to feel dizzy while sitting at his workplace, complaining of left tinnitus and aural fullness, in a classic clinical picture of Ménière's disease. The anomalous findings at otoneurological examination (markedly the left deviation at the Fukuda test) made a magnetic resonance image (MRI) scan mandatory and a huge AC was found in the left fronto-parietal lobe. The mass provoked an evident clockwise rotation of the brainstem that we suppose to be the cause of acoustico-facial

2003 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

2605. Chromosome 3 linked frontotemporal dementia (FTD-3). (Abstract)

varies between 46 and 65 years. The disease presents with a predominantly frontal lobe syndrome but there is also evidence for temporal and dominant parietal lobe dysfunction. Late in the illness individuals develop a florid motor syndrome with pyramidal and extrapyramidal features. Structural imaging reveals generalized cerebral atrophy; H2 15 O-PET scanning in two individuals relatively early and late in the disease shows a striking global reduction in cerebral blood flow affecting all lobes (...) . On macroscopic pathologic examination, there is generalized cerebral atrophy affecting the frontal lobes preferentially. Microscopically, there is neuronal loss and gliosis without specific histopathologic features.FTD-3 shares clinical and pathologic features with other forms of FTD and fulfills international consensus criteria for FTD. There is involvement of the parietal lobes clinically, radiologically, and pathologically in FTD-3 in contrast to some forms of FTD. This more diffuse involvement

2002 Neurology

2606. MRS in relation to hippocampal volume in the oldest old. (Abstract)

MRS in relation to hippocampal volume in the oldest old. The MRS brain metabolite ratio N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/myo-inositol (mI) is reported to be decreased in AD. MRS was used to study medial temporal and parietal regions in 60 cognitively healthy subjects older than 85 years. Subjects with small hippocampal volumes, a putative risk factor for dementia, had significantly lower NAA/mI in parietal and temporal lobes compared with other subjects. Neuropsychological tests and APOE genotype did

2003 Neurology

2607. Spatial and motor neglect in children. (Abstract)

. In three cases, cortical lesions were restricted to one lobe, either the parietal, frontal, or temporal. In eight children, lesions extended over more than one lobe, and one child sustained only subcortical lesions.Unilateral spatial and motor neglect occurs even in very young children. Right spatial neglect described in very young children may be related to the development of hemispheric specialization.

2003 Neurology

2608. Different patterns of N-acetylaspartate loss in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia and AD. Full Text available with Trip Pro

old) and 43 patients with AD of comparable age and dementia severity were studied using MRSI and MRI. Patients were compared to 52 cognitively normal subjects with and without lacunes.Compared to controls, patients with SIVD had lower NAA by 18% (p < 0.001) in frontal cortex and by 27% (p < 0.003) in parietal cortex, but no significant NAA reduction in white matter and medial temporal lobe. Compared to patients with AD, patients with SIVD had lower NAA by 13% (p < 0.02) in frontal cortex and by 20 (...) % (p < 0.002) in left parietal cortex. Cortical NAA decreased in SIVD with increasing white matter lesions (r = 0.54, p < 0.02) and number of lacunes (r = 0.59, p < 0.02). Thalamic lacunes were associated with greater NAA reduction in frontal cortex than were lacunes outside the thalamus (p < 0.02) across groups, after adjusting for cognitive impairments. Adding parietal NAA to MRI-derived hippocampal atrophy improved separation between SIVD and AD (p = 0.02) from 79 to 89%.These results emphasize

2003 Neurology

2609. Eye movements tell only half the story. (Abstract)

Eye movements tell only half the story. The dramatic improvements of neglect symptoms after prism adaptation (PA) have been interpreted as evidence that PA reorganizes higher levels of spatial representation. Here the authors demonstrate that while the exploratory eye movements of a patient with neglect were clearly shifted toward the left after PA, he still showed no awareness for the left side of the stimuli he was now actively exploring. PA modulates functions of the parietal lobe

2003 Neurology

2610. Loss of frontal fMRI activation in early frontotemporal dementia compared to early AD. (Abstract)

, with no differences between FTD and AD. A parametric working memory task was applied to assess frontal activation as a function of working memory load.The activated working memory network in FTD and AD included frontal and parietal lobe and thalamus. In frontal and parietal cortex, brain activation was significantly decreased in FTD. Frontal regions in patients with FTD showed less linear activation increase with working memory load than in AD. Possibly as a compensation mechanism, the cerebellum showed

2003 Neurology

2611. Exploring white matter tracts in band heterotopia using diffusion tractography. (Abstract)

connectivity of band heterotopia and, in particular, whether in vivo white matter tracts traverse the heterotopic gray matter. Five patients with band heterotopia and five control subjects were scanned with whole brain diffusion tensor imaging. Anisotropy maps were calculated. Using fast marching tractography, we produced maps of connectivity and tract traces from two seed points, in the splenium of the corpus callosum and the right parietal lobe. Eigenvectors were found to pass through the band

2002 Annals of Neurology

2612. Reappraisal of the human vestibular cortex by cortical electrical stimulation study. (Abstract)

(n = 6), or indefinable feelings of body motion (n = 8). Almost all vestibular sites were located in the cortex (41/44): in the temporal (n = 19), parietal (n = 14), frontal (n = 5), occipital (n = 2), and insular (n = 1) lobes. Among these sites, we identified a lateral cortical temporoparietal area we called the temporo-peri-Sylvian vestibular cortex (TPSVC), from which vestibular symptoms, and above all rotatory sensations, were particularly easily elicited (24/41 cortical sites, 58.5 (...) %). This area extended above and below the Sylvian fissure, mainly inside Brodmann areas 40, 21, and 22. It included the parietal operculum (9/24 TPSVC sites) which was particularly sensitive for eliciting pitch plane illusions, and the mid and posterior part of the first and second temporal gyri (15/24 TPSVC sites) which preferentially caused yaw plane illusions. We suggest that the TPSVC could be homologous with the monkey's parietoinsular vestibular cortex.

2003 Annals of Neurology

2613. Neuroanatomical correlates of episodic encoding and retrieval in young and elderly subjects. (Abstract)

Neuroanatomical correlates of episodic encoding and retrieval in young and elderly subjects. Lesion studies have shown convincingly that the medial temporal lobes (MTL) and frontal lobes are critical to episodic memory. Ageing generally has been found to have a generally negative effect on episodic memory performance, which might relate to neurofunctional changes in the frontal and medial temporal brain regions. In the present study, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate separately (...) activation in the left anterior MTL compared with the ELD-RED but not the ELD-NORM subjects. Comparing correctly rejected items (retrieval attempt) with baseline, the ELD-RED group showed much increased overall activity throughout the brain compared with the other groups. However, when correctly recognized items (retrieval attempt + success) were compared directly with correctly rejected items (retrieval attempt), these differences were greatly reduced, revealing common activity in the left parietal

2003 Brain

2614. Spatial neglect in near and far space investigated by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. (Abstract)

. These errors occurred more for lines in near space than for lines in far space. Magnetic stimulation of the right posterior parietal cortex or the right ventral occipital lobe selectively induced a significant shift to the right in the perceived midpoint for near- and far-space lines, respectively. The results reproduced in normal subjects the dissociation between neglect in near and far space that has been described in patients with different right-hemisphere lesions. This dissociation supports (...) Spatial neglect in near and far space investigated by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Localized repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to disrupt visuospatial perception in the near and far space of six healthy volunteer subjects. In addition to the baseline condition, they were stimulated over the right posterior parietal cortex, the right or left dorsal occipital cortex or the right ventral occipital cortex, during the brief presentation of a transected horizontal

2002 Brain

2615. Hierarchical versus parallel processing in tactile object recognition: a behavioural-neuroanatomical study of aperceptive tactile agnosia. (Abstract)

networks for tactile information processing and the associated parallel processing of complementary micro- and macrogeometrical information within postcentral gyrus and posterior parietal lobe. (...) observed when complementary visual information was available (i.e. transmodal information transfer). In this case, the perceptual improvement was accompanied by a corresponding improvement in explicit object recognition. High resolution MRIs identified lesions in the postcentral gyrus in both patients, and additionally in the secondary somatosensory area (SII) and the posterior parietal cortex in the more severely affected patient. The results demonstrate that the underlying failure in tactile agnosia

2002 Brain

2616. Neural resources for processing language and environmental sounds: evidence from aphasia. (Abstract)

correlations (r = 0.74 for accuracy, r = 0.95 for reaction time). Severely aphasic patients tended to perform worse in both domains, but lesion size did not correlate with performance. Lesion overlay analysis indicated that damage to posterior regions in the left middle and superior temporal gyri and to the inferior parietal lobe was a predictor of deficits in processing for both speech and environmental sounds. The lesion mapping and further statistical assessments reliably revealed a posterior superior

2003 Brain

2617. Partial epilepsy manifesting atonic seizure: report of two cases. (Abstract)

manifesting atonic seizures, one with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and the other with parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE), were reported. The long-term video/EEG monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and interictal fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were investigated in each patient.Paroxysmal diminution of muscle tone mainly involved the axial muscles in both patients. In contrast with the abrupt falls seen in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, the falls in these patients were

2002 Epilepsia

2618. Grey and white matter flumazenil binding in neocortical epilepsy with normal MRI. A PET study of 44 patients. (Abstract)

and in 44 patients with refractory neocortical focal epilepsy and normal optimal MRI. Fourteen patients had unilateral frontal lobe epilepsy, five occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), six parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE) and 19 neocortical epilepsy that was not clearly lobar. Parametric images of FMZ volume of distribution (FMZ-V(d)) were computed. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) with explicit masking, including the white matter, was used to analyse individual patients and groups. Thirty-three of the 44 (...) patients showed focal abnormal FMZ-V(d); increases in 16, decreases in eight, and both increases and decreases in nine. In seven patients, the increases in FMZ binding were periventricular, in locations normally seen in periventricular nodular heterotopia on MRI. There were frontal and parietal increases in FMZ binding in grey and white matter in the PLE group and decreases in the cingulate gyrus in the OLE group. FMZ binding increases, particularly periventricular increases, were a prominent feature

2003 Brain

2619. Clinical and molecular findings in a patient with a novel mutation in the deafness-dystonia peptide (DDP1) gene. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and parietal cortex and marked atrophy of the occipital lobes. Although the visual loss is caused predominantly by neurodegeneration of the visual cortex, degeneration of the retina and the optic nerve contributes to the visual impairment. The pathological changes in basal ganglia and sensory cortex demonstrate the disintegration of subcortico-cortical circuits and correlate well with the clinical presentation of multifocal dystonia. The data presented here showed that, in contrast to most of the known

2003 Brain

2620. Ventral occipital lesions impair object recognition but not object-directed grasping: an fMRI study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

grasping, despite considerable atrophy in some regions of the parietal lobes. In particular, an area in the anterior intraparietal sulcus was activated more for grasping an object than for just reaching to that object, for both D.F. and controls. In conclusion, we have been able to confirm directly that D.F.'s visual form agnosia is associated with extensive damage to the ventral stream, and that her spared visuomotor skills are associated with visual processing in the dorsal stream.

2003 Brain

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