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Parietal Lobe

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2581. Heritability of changes in brain volume over time in twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia. (Full text)

changes of the whole brain; cerebral gray and white matter of the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes; cerebellum; and lateral and third ventricles over time between and within twin pairs were compared using repeated measures analysis of covariance. Structural equation modeling was applied to estimate contributions of additive genetic and common and unique environmental factors.Significant decreases over time in whole brain and frontal and temporal lobe volumes were found in patients (...) with schizophrenia and their unaffected co-twins compared with control twins. Bivariate structural equation modeling using cross-trait/cross-twin correlations revealed significant additive genetic influences on the correlations between schizophrenia liability and progressive whole brain (66%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51%-100%), frontal lobe (76%; 95% CI, 54%-100%), and temporal lobe (79%; CI, 56%-100%) volume change.The progressive brain volume loss found in patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected

2008 Archives of General Psychiatry PubMed abstract

2582. Differential Hypometabolism Patterns according to Mild Cognitive Impairment Subtypes. (Abstract)

). Glucose metabolism in the frontal, parietal and posterior cingulate cortices, the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus was evaluated using Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2). Structural analysis of the whole-brain grey matter was performed with voxel-based morphometry in SPM2.Significant hypometabolism was found in the medial temporal lobe in aMCI subjects compared to the controls and naMCI subjects. In addition, both the aMCI and naMCI patients had hypometabolism of the posterior cingulum

2008 Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

2583. The major symptom dimensions of obsessive-compulsive disorder are mediated by partially distinct neural systems. (Full text)

prefrontal (BA10) cortices and decreased bilateral prefrontal WM volume. Scores on the 'symmetry/ordering' dimension were negatively correlated with 'global' GM and WM volumes. Scores on the 'contamination/washing' dimension were negatively correlated with 'regional' GM volume in bilateral caudate nucleus and WM volume in right parietal region. Scores on the 'harm/checking' dimension were negatively correlated with regional GM and WM volume in bilateral temporal lobes. Scores on the 'symmetry/ordering (...) ' dimension were negatively correlated with regional GM volume in right motor cortex, left insula and left parietal cortex and positively correlated with bilateral temporal GM and WM volume. The results remained significant after controlling for age, sex, educational level, overall illness severity, global WM and GM volumes and excluding patients with comorbid depression. The reported symptom dimension-specific GM and WM alterations support the hypothesis that OCD is an etiologically heterogeneous

2008 Brain PubMed abstract

2584. Effects of sex and normal aging on regional brain activation during verbal memory performance. (Full text)

). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate--a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory

2008 Neurobiology of Aging PubMed abstract

2585. Reduced interhemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia-tractography based segmentation of the corpus callosum. (Full text)

deformable contour segmentation. These subdivisions employ a previously generated probabilistic subdivision atlas, based on fiber tractography and anatomical lobe subdivision. The structural scan was then co-registered with the DTI scan and the anatomical corpus callosum subdivisions were propagated to the associated FA map.Results revealed decreased FA within parts of the corpus interconnecting frontal regions in schizophrenia compared with controls, but no significant changes for callosal fibers (...) interconnecting parietal and temporo-occipital brain regions. In addition, integrity of the anterior corpus was statistically significantly correlated with negative as well as positive symptoms, while posterior measures correlated with positive symptoms only.This study provides quantitative evidence for a reduction of interhemispheric brain connectivity in schizophrenia, involving corpus callosum, and further points to frontal connections as possibly disrupted in schizophrenia.

2008 Schizophrenia Research PubMed abstract

2586. Neurogenesis after primary intracerebral hemorrhage in adult human brain. (Full text)

scanning confocal microscopy. We found that neural stem/progenitor cell-specific protein markers were expressed in cells located in the perihematomal regions of the basal ganglia and parietal lobe of the adult human brain after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (n=5). Cells in this region also expressed cell proliferation markers, which colocalized to the same cells that expressed neural stem/progenitor cell-specific proteins. Our data suggest that intracerebral hemorrhage induces neurogenesis

2008 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism PubMed abstract

2587. Clinical and Neuropathological Features of the Arctic APP Gene Mutation Causing Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease. (Full text)

disease APP mutations. Several affected mutation carriers displayed general brain atrophy and reduced blood flow of the parietal lobe as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography. One Swedish case and 1 American case with the Arctic APP mutation came to autopsy, and both showed no signs of hemorrhage but revealed severe congophilic angiopathy, region-specific neurofibrillary tangle pathological findings, and abundant amyloid plaques. Intriguingly, most

2008 Archives of Neurology PubMed abstract

2588. Body mass index and magnetic resonance markers of brain integrity in adults. (Full text)

concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (spectroscopic marker of neuronal viability) in frontal (p = 0.001), parietal (p = 0.006), and temporal (p = 0.008) white matter; (2) lower N-acetylaspartate in frontal gray matter (p = 0.01); and (3) lower concentrations of choline-containing metabolites (associated with membrane metabolism) in frontal white matter (p = 0.05).These results suggest that increased BMI at midlife is associated with neuronal and/or myelin abnormalities, primarily in the frontal lobe. Because (...) white matter in the frontal lobes is more prone to the effects of aging than in other lobes, our results may reflect accelerated aging in individuals with high levels of adiposity. Thus, greater BMI may increase the odds of developing an age-related disease, such as Alzheimer's disease.

2008 Annals of Neurology PubMed abstract

2589. Voxel-Based Analysis of Gray Matter and CSF Space in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. (Abstract)

-based morphometry analysis of the morphologic data and revealed enlarged ventricles and sylvian fissures and stenotic sulci of high convexity, especially in the precuneus in the INPH group, with decreased gray matter density in the insula, caudate and thalamus.In INPH, morphologic change occurs in the frontoparietal high convexity with ventricular dilatations, dilated sylvian fissures and tight sulci in the medial parietal lobes.(c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

2008 Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

2590. Misclassified Tissue Volumes in Alzheimer Disease Patients With White Matter Hyperintensities. Importance of Lesion Segmentation Procedures for Volumetric Analysis. (Full text)

% (17.9 cm(3)) of whole brain volume (corrected for total intracranial capacity). Mean percentage of misclassified tissue volumes for the severe group was 4.8% of whole brain, which translates to a mean volume 42.2 cm(3). Gray matter volume was most overestimated in the severe group, where 6.4% of the total gray matter volume was derived from misclassified WMH. The regional analysis showed that frontal (41%, 7.4 cm(3)) and inferior parietal (18%, 3.25 cm(3)) lobes were most affected by tissue (...) misclassification.MRI-based volumetric studies of Alzheimer Disease that do not account for WMH can expect an erroneous inflation of gray or white matter volumes, especially in the frontal and inferior parietal regions. To avoid this source of error, MRI-based volumetric studies in patient populations susceptible to hyperintensities should include a WMH segmentation protocol.

2008 Stroke PubMed abstract

2591. Aggressive metastasising adenocarcinoma of the retinal pigment epithelium with trisomy 21. (Abstract)

with the primary process--developed in the parietal lobe and cerebellopontine angle. Adenocarcinoma of the retinal pigment epithelium, which occurs rarely in longstanding blind eyes, may exhibit aggressive behaviour with life-threatening risk of metastatic spread.

2008 British Journal of Ophthalmology

2592. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection SPECT analysis in Parkinson's disease with and without dementia. (Abstract)

-matched controls, there were multiple hypoperfusion areas in cases where the original diagnosis was PD. Temporal bases showed the lowest perfusion; frontal bases and medial parietal lobes the second; visual cortices the third; and parietal association areas exhibited the fourth lowest. During the clinical course, 10 of the patients suffered dementia, 9 had fluctuating cognition, and 19 experienced repeated visual hallucinations. Significant negative correlations were observed between dementia (...) and the bilateral posterior cingulate area, and among fluctuating cognition and bilateral medial parietal lobes, parietal association areas, and dorsal occipital lobes. Repeated visual hallucinations did not show any correlation with any region of interest. We concluded that multiple hypoperfusion areas were observed in the 3D-SSP SPECT analysis. Although the presence of dementia showed a significant relationship with the bilateral posterior cingulate areas, perfusion in the frontal bases, temporal bases

2005 Movement Disorders

2593. Striatal dopa and glucose metabolism in PD patients with freezing of gait. (Abstract)

without FOG underwent brain positron emission tomography with (18)[F]-6-fluoro-levodopa (FDOPA) and (18)[F]-fluordesoxyglucose (FDG). Striatum decarboxylase activity was expressed by metabolic influx constants of the striatum related to the occipital lobe (Kocc). FDG uptake in caudate and putamen was normalized to global FDG uptake. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of striatal regions was used, as well as voxel-based analysis by statistical parametric mapping (SPM). ROI analysis did not reveal (...) differences in striatal FDOPA and FDG uptake between the groups. SPM showed lower putaminal FDOPA uptake (P = 0.05 uncorrected) with increased FDG uptake (P = 0.01 uncorrected) in freezing PD, whereas caudate uptake of the two tracers was reduced. Freezing-related cortical FDG decrease was found in (right) parietal regions. In conclusion, in freezing PD, caudate uptake of FDG and FDOPA was reduced, whereas putamen FDOPA decrease was associated with FDG increase. Right hemisphere circuitry seemed

2006 Movement Disorders

2594. Neuropsychological and neuroanatomical correlates of perseverative responses in subacute stroke. (Full text)

was administered by indicating involvement of frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobe, caudate nucleus, lenticular nucleus and/or thalamus. Lesion volume was calculated using a manual tracing technique. Lesion analyses indicated that perseverative behaviour is strongly associated with lesions involving the caudate nucleus or the lenticular nucleus, independent of lesion volume. The caudate nucleus was an important correlate of perseveration independent of the presence of hemi-neglect. No association

2006 Brain PubMed abstract

2595. Children with new-onset epilepsy: neuropsychological status and brain structure. (Full text)

occipital and parietal lobe grey matter. Patients with idiopathic epilepsy exhibit cognitive dysfunction and academic underachievement at the onset of the disorder, irrespective of epilepsy syndrome, and indications of antecedent neurocognitive impairment are present in a subset of children. Volumetric abnormalities are not yet apparent in the epilepsy group as a whole, but there are indications of an altered structure-function relationship in epilepsy, and the subset of children with prior history

2006 Brain PubMed abstract

2596. Cholinergic challenge in Alzheimer patients and mild cognitive impairment differentially affects hippocampal activation--a pharmacological fMRI study. (Full text)

: at baseline, and after acute (single dose) and prolonged exposure (5 days) to galantamine. Functional data were analysed in an event-related fashion. In both groups, acute exposure produced strong increases in brain activation (Z > 3.1). Prolonged exposure produced less strong effects that mainly involved decreases in activation (Z > 3.1). In mild cognitive impairment, acute exposure increased activation in posterior cingulate, left inferior parietal, and anterior temporal lobe. Prolonged exposure (...) on memory encoding. Unique profiles of signal reactivity were found in a number of areas, including left inferior parietal lobe and left hippocampus proper. The reactivity of posterior cingulate and hippocampal structures to cholinergic challenge suggests a key role of the cholinergic system in the functional processes that lead to Alzheimer's disease. The differential response to cholinergic challenge in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer patients may reflect a difference in the functional status

2006 Brain PubMed abstract

2597. Periventricular nodular heterotopia with overlying polymicrogyria. (Full text)

severe in the posterior frontal and perisylvian areas, occasionally with extension to the parietal lobes beyond the immediate perisylvian cortex. The posterior PNH-PMG subtype consisted of 20 patients (15 male and 5 female) between 5 days and 40 years of age. It was characterized by PNH in the trigones, temporal and posterior horns of the lateral ventricles, and PMG most severe in the temporo-parieto-occipital regions. The third type was found in 2 females aged 7 months and 2 years

2005 Brain PubMed abstract

2598. Left hippocampal pathology is associated with atypical language lateralization in patients with focal epilepsy. (Full text)

studies. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of lesions in different parts of the left hemisphere, lesions present during language acquisition, on language lateralization. We investigated 84 adult patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy with structural lesions and 45 healthy control subjects with an established functional MRI language paradigm. Out of the 84 patients 43 had left hippocampal sclerosis, 13 a left frontal lobe lesion and 28 a left temporal-lateral lesion. All these lesions (...) were likely to have been present during the first years of life during language acquisition. To assess the lateralization of cerebral language representation globally as well as regionally, we calculated lateralization indices derived from activations in four regions of interest (i.e. global, inferior frontal, temporo-parietal and remaining prefrontal). Patients with left hippocampal sclerosis showed less left lateralized language representations than all other groups of subjects (P < 0.005

2006 Brain PubMed abstract

2599. Brain activation and hypothalamic functional connectivity during human non-rapid eye movement sleep: an EEG/fMRI study. (Full text)

regions of the temporal lobe, the inferior parietal lobule and the inferior/middle frontal gyri. The hypothalamic region known to be of particular importance in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle shows specific temporally correlated network activity with the cortex while the system is in the sleeping state, but not during wakefulness. We describe a specific pattern of decreased brain activity during sleep and suggest that this pattern must be synchronized for establishing and maintaining sleep. (...) subjects (6 female: mean = 24.1 years, 3 male: mean = 26.0 years) and analyzed local blood oxygenation level dependent signal changes linked to the transition from wakefulness to different non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages (according to Rechtschaffen and Kales) of the first sleep cycles after 36 h of total sleep deprivation. Several brain regions throughout the cortex, the limbic lobe, the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, as well as midbrain structures, such as the mammillary body/hypothalamus

2006 Brain PubMed abstract

2600. The precuneus: a review of its functional anatomy and behavioural correlates. (Full text)

The precuneus: a review of its functional anatomy and behavioural correlates. Functional neuroimaging studies have started unravelling unexpected functional attributes for the posteromedial portion of the parietal lobe, the precuneus. This cortical area has traditionally received little attention, mainly because of its hidden location and the virtual absence of focal lesion studies. However, recent functional imaging findings in healthy subjects suggest a central role for the precuneus

2006 Brain PubMed abstract

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