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Parietal Lobe

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2561. Patterns of failure in relation to radiotherapy fields in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. (Abstract)

lobe in 5 (20%), thalamus in 5 (20%), frontal lobe in 4 (16%), parietal lobe in 2 (8%), and suprasellar region in 2 (8%). Five patients (20%) had neuraxis dissemination (M+ disease) at initial diagnosis. The RT treatment volumes were craniospinal (CS) in 17 (68%), whole brain (WB) followed by a boost in 2 (8%), and primary site (PS) alone in 6 (24%). The median dose to the primary site was 54 Gy (range, 31-55.8 Gy). The median dose to patients receiving WB and spinal fields was 36 Gy (range, 23.4

2004 Biology and Physics

2562. Changes in cerebral cortex of children treated for medulloblastoma. (Abstract)

thinner cortex was found in the parietal lobe, posterior superior temporal gyrus, and lateral temporal lobe. These regions of cortical thinning overlapped with the regions of cortex that undergo normal age-related thinning.The spatial distribution of cortical thinning suggested that the areas of cortex that are undergoing development are more sensitive to the effects of treatment of medulloblastoma. Such quantitative methods may improve our understanding of the biologic effects that treatment has (...) after treatment of medulloblastoma. The measurements from these children were compared with the measurements from age- and gender-matched normally developing children previously scanned. For additional comparison, the pattern of thickness change was compared with the cortical thickness maps from a larger group of 65 normally developing children.In the left hemisphere, relatively thinner cortex was found in the perirolandic region and the parieto-occipital lobe. In the right hemisphere, relatively

2007 Biology and Physics

2563. A population-based description of glioblastoma multiforme in Los Angeles County, 1974-1999. (Abstract)

), and blacks (1.5 per 100,000). After 1989, compared with the period before magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was available, there was an increase in GBM incidence rates among those with of higher SES that was most pronounced in females. The incidence of GBM was highest for frontal lobe tumors and for tumors that involved two or more lobes (overlapping tumors), followed by tumors in the temporal and parietal lobes. In the multivariate analysis, year of diagnosis, SES, gender, race (Latino but not black (...) -adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) of GBM increased from 1974 to 1999 by an estimated 2.4% per year among males and 2.8% per year among females. Overall, males had a 60% increased risk of brain tumors compared with females. Males had a higher incidence of GBM compared with females at each anatomic subsite except the posterior fossa. The largest male:female ratio occurred in the occipital lobes. Non-Latino whites had the highest incidence rates (2.5 per 100,000) followed by Latino whites (1.8 per 100,000

2005 Cancer

2564. A common variable immunodeficient patient who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis followed by the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. (Abstract)

-yr-old female CVID patient with ADEM who evolutionally manifested the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. She was admitted with convulsions and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed high-intensity areas in the right temporal lobe and the left fronto-parietal region but she became conscious soon. Her serum findings showed severe hypogammaglobulinemia and a follow up MRI revealed that these areas had diminished. Consequently, she was diagnosed as having CVID with ADEM. After 5 months, she fell

2005 Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

2565. Cortical abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. (Abstract)

Cortical abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results of structural brain imaging studies of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have shown subtle reductions in total brain volume and in volumes of the right frontal lobe and caudate nucleus. Although various conventional volumetric and voxel-based methods of image analysis have been used in these studies, regional brain size and grey-matter abnormalities have not yet been (...) in the frontal cortices of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, with reduced regional brain size localised mainly to inferior portions of dorsal prefrontal cortices bilaterally. Brain size was also reduced in anterior temporal cortices bilaterally. Prominent increases in grey matter were recorded in large portions of the posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices bilaterally.The frontal, temporal, and parietal regions are heteromodal association cortices that constitute

2003 Lancet

2566. Lung Malignancy

cm and ≤5 cm. T2b - tumour >5 cm and ≤7 cm. T3: Tumour >7 cm that directly invades any of the following: chest wall (including superior sulcus tumours), diaphragm, phrenic nerve, mediastinal pleura, parietal pericardium; or Tumour in the main bronchus <2 cm distal to the carina but without involvement of the carina; or associated atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis of the entire lung or separate tumour nodule(s) in the same lobe. T4 - invasion of mediastinal organs (eg, the oesophagus, trachea (...) , great vessels, heart), malignant pleural effusion, recurrent laryngeal nerve, or satellite nodule(s) within the primary lobe or separate tumour nodule(s) in different ipsilateral lobe. Regional lymph node involvement (N): N0 - no lymph nodes involved. N1 - ipsilateral bronchopulmonary or hilar nodes involved. N2 - ipsilateral mediastinal or subcarinal nodes. N3 - contralateral mediastinal, hilar, any supraclavicular nodes involved. Metastatic involvement (M): M0 - no metastases. M1 - metastases

2008 Mentor

2567. Space-occupying Lesions

area is involved. Hemiparesis or fits may affect the contralateral side. Parietal lobe Parietal lobe lesions can produce a very interesting neurological picture: There may be hemisensory loss. Decreased two-point discrimination. Astereognosis is the inability to recognise a familiar object placed in the hand. Extinction can be demonstrated by asking the patient to close their eyes and touch one side of their body. Ask the patient to point to where you touched. Repeat this but touching both sides (...) and the presentation may give an indication of the location of the lesion but not its aetiology. There may be more general symptoms related to raised intracranial pressure or seizures, behavioural changes, or false localising signs. Large lesions in some regions, such as the frontal lobe, may be relatively silent whilst a small lesion in the dominant hemisphere may devastate speech. A tumour may infiltrate and destroy important structures, it may obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSP) and cause

2008 Mentor

2568. Neurological Examination of the Upper Limbs

this may happen. Problems with joint position sense or vibration usually occur distally first. Vibration sense can be lost before joint position sense in peripheral neuropathy or myelopathy affecting the dorsal columns. Parietal lobe lesions can also cause impairment of two-point discrimination. The distal parts of the limbs tend to be affected in polyneuropathy, the legs usually being involved before the arms. A 'glove and stocking' effect is produced. Did you find this information useful? Thanks

2008 Mentor

2569. Dyspraxia and Apraxia

self-esteem. Acquired apraxia/dyspraxia Aetiology [ ] Acquired apraxia/dyspraxia is usually due to disease affecting the left inferior parietal lobe, the frontal lobes or the corpus callosum. Stroke and dementia are the most common causes but any disease affecting these areas of the brain, including tumours, can be the cause. The disease process leads to loss of knowledge about how to perform skilled movements. Presentation There are various different types of apraxia, classified by the body area

2008 Mentor

2570. Dysarthria and Dysphasia

. Here it means the rhythm of speech. Conduction dysphasia/aphasia - lesions are around the arcuate fasciculus, posterior parietal and temporal regions. Symptoms are naming deficits, inability to repeat non-meaningful words and word strings, although there is apparently normal speech comprehension and production. Patients are aware of their difficulties. Deep dysphasia/ aphasia - lesions are in the temporal lobe, especially those mediating phonological processing. Symptoms are word repetition (...) problems and semantic paraphasia (semantically related word substituted when asked to repeat a target word). Transcortical sensory dysphasia/aphasia - lesions are in the junction areas of the temporal, parietal and occipital areas of left hemisphere. Symptoms are impaired comprehension, naming, reading, writing and semantic irrelevancies in speech. Transcortical motor dysphasia/aphasia - lesions are located between Broca's area and supplementary motor area. Symptoms are transient mutism, telegrammatic

2008 Mentor

2571. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

and symptoms improve when the patient has been removed from the source. Late features Some patients develop later symptoms perhaps after several weeks of apparent recovery from the incident. This late stage is more common in those aged over 40. [ ] Neurological or neuropsychiatric features including disorientation, apathy, mutism, irritability, inability to concentrate, personality change, and parietal lobe lesions. is thought to be a late feature, but the link with carbon monoxide poisoning has been

2008 Mentor

2572. Visual Field Defects

until the fibres reach the geniculate body, so lesions in the tract before the geniculate body may produce incongruous defects. Lesions in the main optic radiation or optic peduncle cause complete (left or right) homonymous hemianopia without macular sparing. This is seen in stroke and middle cerebral artery lesions. Lesions in the temporal radiation cause upper quadrantic homonymous hemianopia, commonly with macular sparing - eg, tumours. Lesions in the parietal radiation cause inferior quadrantic (...) homonymous hemianopia without macular sparing. Lesions in the anterior visual cortex (common) produce a contralateral homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing - eg, posterior cerebral artery occlusion. Lesions in the macular cortex produce homonymous macular defect - eg, blunt injury to the occiput. Lesions of the intermediate visual cortex produce an homonymous arc scotoma, with sparing of both macula and periphery. This is seen in a distal posterior cerebral artery occlusion. Occipital lobe lesions

2008 Mentor

2573. Posterior Leucoencephalopathy Syndrome

in the posterior regions of both cerebral hemispheres, affecting mostly the occipital and parietal lobes. Using standard MRI, it may not be easy to differentiate from other acute vascular diseases but venous sinus thrombosis can be rapidly diagnosed by CT or MR venography. Angiography can identify vessel thrombosis, dissection, or vasculitis. Electroencephalography (EEG) can be used to identify subclinical seizures and can point to other causes of encephalopathy. Lumbar puncture can diagnose infection

2008 Mentor

2574. Portal Hypertension

. Anterior abdominal wall: Via the umbilical vein - visible as caput medusae radiating from the umbilicus. May also occur where adhesions exist between abdominal viscera and the parietal peritoneum, or at sites of stomas or previous surgery. Anorectal junction - rarely cause bleeding. Veins from retroperitoneal viscera - communicate with systemic veins on the posterior abdominal wall. Other patterns of blood flow: If individual tributaries of the portal vein are thrombosed, this causes local venous (...) hypertension. With splenic vein block, oesophageal and gastric varices may result. In Budd-Chiari syndrome (hepatic vein occlusion), collaterals open up within the liver; blood tends to be diverted through the caudate lobe whose short hepatic veins drain directly into the inferior vena cava. Portosystemic venous anastomoses can cause encephalopathy, possibly due to various 'toxins' bypassing the liver's 'detoxification' process. Circulatory disturbances: Portal hypertension and cirrhosis produce

2008 Mentor

2575. Brain Tumours in Adults

affecting the upper and/or lower limb. Cognitive or behavioural symptoms. Symptoms relating to location of mass - eg, frontal lobe lesions associated with personality changes, disinhibition and parietal lobe lesions might be associated with dysarthria. Papilloedema (absence of papilloedema does not exclude a brain tumour). Differential diagnosis Other causes of a . . . Investigations NB : consider an urgent direct access MRI scan of the brain to be performed within two weeks (or CT scan if MRI is contra

2008 Mentor

2576. Abdominal Pain Full Text available with Trip Pro

- this list points out some of the most urgent or the more easily missed causes to keep in mind: Medical Myocardial infarction. Diabetic ketoacidosis. Lower lobe pneumonia. Sickle cell crisis. Hypercalcaemia. Hereditary angio-oedema. Gynaecological/obstetric Ectopic pregnancy - may present with nonspecific symptoms - eg, syncope, urinary symptoms, diarrhoea or shoulder tip pain or without 'missed period'. Placental abruption, heavy vaginal bleeding and other pregnancy complications. Ovarian (...) or coughing: suggests peritonitis. Constant dull ache: suggests inflammation - eg, appendicitis, diverticulitis. The pattern of pain may change over time - eg, early appendicitis, mesenteric ischaemia or bowel strangulation may begin as colicky pain and then become constant as the condition progresses; pain may localise as the parietal peritoneum becomes involved. Any radiation or referred pain? Aortic aneurysm, renal and pancreatic pain: may radiate to the back. Renal colic: may radiate to the groin

2008 Mentor

2577. Gerstmann's Syndrome

Guidelines. You may find one of our more useful. In this article In This Article Gerstmann's Syndrome In this article Synonyms: developmental Gerstmann's syndrome (when it occurs in children), Gerstmann tetrad The condition should not be confused with Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome or Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome - a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Description [ , ] This is a condition arising as a result of disease of the dominant parietal lobe at the angular gyrus. [ ] Possibly both (...) in the light of the educational level of the patient, including the age of a child. An easier test may be applicable, especially for children. Finger agnosia : finger agnosia is difficulty in distinguishing fingers on the hand. It is tested by requests like, "Touch my index finger with your index finger" and "Touch your nose with your little finger". Left-right disorientation : this is confusion of the right and left limbs and indicates a lesion in the dominant parietal lobe. It is tested by requests like

2008 Mentor

2578. Central modulation of pain perception in patients with silent myocardial ischemia. (Abstract)

Naloxone AIM IM Angina Pectoris physiopathology Electric Stimulation Electrocardiography, Ambulatory Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory physiology Humans Male Median Nerve physiology Middle Aged Myocardial Infarction physiopathology Myocardial Ischemia physiopathology Naloxone pharmacology Neural Conduction physiology Pain physiopathology Pain Threshold drug effects physiology Parietal Lobe physiology Placebos Reaction Time physiology Spinal Cord physiology Ulnar Nerve physiology 1994 7 15 1994 7 15 0 1

1994 The American journal of cardiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2579. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Calculus Problem Solving

cognition between non-frontal neural structures, such as left parietal lobe, and frontal neural structures involved in mechanistic plans, actions and mental sets. The data collected will consist of behavioral measures of cognitive performance and corresponding fMRI images. The data that we collect in this protocol will be of value in identifying a set of neural regions and distributed networks mediating the forms of knowledge representation stored in the prefrontal cortex. We will also use the data (...) obtained in these studies to constrain theories of frontal lobe function and to provide evidence for the role of specific frontal cortex sectors in specific cognitive functions. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Observational Enrollment : 60 participants Official Title: Functional Neuroimaging of Calculus Problem Solving Study Start Date : May 2003 Study Completion Date : March 2005 Groups and Cohorts Go to Outcome Measures Go to Eligibility Criteria Go to Information

2003 Clinical Trials

2580. Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to Study Visual Attention

Magnetic Stimulation Parietal Lobe fMRI Cognition Perception Cortical Stimulation Spatial Attention (...) . Functional brain imaging studies also suggest that these attentional filtering mechanisms are mediated by top-down feedback signals arising in higher-order areas in frontal and parietal cortex. However, it is not clear from these studies whether these frontal and parietal brain regions are functionally significant in attentional control of behavior. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over a particular cortical region can interfere with cognitive processing in that region, thereby creating

2000 Clinical Trials

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