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Parietal Lobe

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2541. Localization of white matter volume increase in autism and developmental language disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

into an outer zone containing the radiate compartment and an inner zone containing sagittal and bridging system compartments. In both high-functioning autism and DLD, enlargement localized to the radiate white matter (all lobes in autism, all but parietal in DLD), whereas inner zone white matter compartments showed no volume differences from controls. Furthermore, in both autism and DLD, later or longer-myelinating regions showed greater volume increases over controls. Neither group showed cerebral cortex

2004 Annals of Neurology

2542. Abnormal imitation-related cortical activation sequences in Asperger's syndrome. (Abstract)

during imitation of still pictures of lip forms. In the control subjects, cortical activation progressed in 30 to 80-millisecond steps from the occipital cortex to the superior temporal sulcus, to the inferior parietal lobe, and to the inferior frontal lobe, and finally, 75 to 90 milliseconds later, to the primary motor cortex of both hemispheres. Similar activation sites were found in AS subjects but with slightly larger scatter. Activation of the inferior frontal lobe was delayed by 45 to 60 (...) milliseconds and activations in the inferior frontal lobe and in the primary motor cortex were weaker than in control subjects. The observed abnormal premotor and motor processing could account for a part of imitation and social impairments in subjects with AS.

2004 Annals of Neurology

2543. Lobar distribution of lesion volumes in late-life depression: the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN). Full Text available with Trip Pro

were compared against depression status. After controlling for age and hypertension, subjects with depression exhibited significantly greater total white matter lesion volume in both hemispheres and in both frontal lobes than did control subjects. Although a similar trend was observed in the parietal lobes, the difference did not reach a level of statistical significance. Models of the temporal and occipital lobes were not statistically significant. Older individuals with depression have greater (...) white matter disease than healthy controls, predominantly in the frontal lobes. These changes are thought to disrupt neural circuits involved in mood regulation, thus increasing the risk of developing depression.

2006 Neuropsychopharmacology

2544. Cerebral atrophy in myotonic dystrophy: a voxel based morphometric study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

significantly reduced brain tissue volumes. Grey matter volume was inversely correlated with age; this inverse correlation was significantly stronger in DM1 than in controls. Neither the clinical and genetic characteristics nor white matter lesions were correlated with cortical atrophy. Grey matter atrophy was located mainly in the bilateral frontal and parietal lobes, in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and in the left superior temporal and occipital gyrus.

2004 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

2545. A voxel based morphometry study on mild cognitive impairment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

atrophy was found elsewhere-for example, in the temporal lobe, left superior parietal lobule, left anterior cingulate gyrus, and bilaterally in the thalami.The MRI findings in MCI resemble those seen in early AD. (...) (MRI) studies have detected atrophy of the medial temporal lobe in subjects with MCI, but for the other cerebral regions the results have been inconsistent.To study the pattern of brain atrophy in MCI.Thirty two controls and 51 individuals with MCI deriving from population based cohorts were studied by MRI using voxel based morphometry. The threshold of t maps was set at p < 0.001.Individuals with MCI had significant unilateral atrophy in the medial temporal lobe on the right side. Less extensive

2005 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

2546. Brain activation during ideomotor praxis: imitation and movements executed by verbal command. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Brain activation during ideomotor praxis: imitation and movements executed by verbal command. Ideomotor apraxia is a disorder of both imitation movements and movements executed by verbal command. Lesion studies have identified the left parietal lobe as the neural correlate for ideomotor praxis (IP), although there are opposing views.To localise the neural substrates for IP using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Brain regions activated by both imitation and verbal command movements were

2005 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

2547. Correlations between MRI-assessed volumes of the thalamus and cortical Brodmann's areas in schizophrenia. (Abstract)

on their ability for self-care. Correlations between the relative gray and white matter volumes of the individual cortical Brodmann's areas and five dorsoventral levels of the thalamus were assessed.Compared to normal subjects, schizophrenia patients lacked significant thalamic gray matter volume correlations with the prefrontal and medial temporal cortical regions in the right hemisphere, and with frontal, cingulate, posterior parietal and occipital regions in the left hemisphere, while normal white matter (...) volume cortical-thalamic correlations along the cingulate gyrus and in the temporal lobe were not found in schizophrenia patients in both hemispheres. In contrast to both normal comparison subjects and good-outcome group, schizophrenia patients with poor outcomes showed significant bilateral gray matter volume correlations between the dorsal thalamus and ventral prefrontal cortex, while the group differences in the white matter volume correlations were mostly restricted to the cingulate arch.Whereas

2005 Schizophrenia Research

2548. Spatial working memory among middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia and volunteers using fMRI. (Abstract)

to the volunteers. Although we found no significant group effects in spatial WM activation of DLPFC, we did observe areas in medial frontal cortex including the left anterior cingulate gyrus, parietal areas of the both hemispheres, multiple sites within the basal ganglia of the left hemisphere, and the left superior temporal gyrus where healthy volunteers showed greater BOLD response to WM. In a second pattern, patients showed a greater BOLD response to WM in left fusiform gyrus [Brodmann's Area (BA) 19], peri (...) -rolandic areas, medial frontal area; right anterior cerebellum (culmen), middle occipital lobe, and postcentral/supramarginal gyri (BA 2/40).Middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia display normal or near-normal spatial WM activation of DLPFC when the processing demands of the WM task are within their performance capacity. Nonetheless, even when patients perform nearly normally, they demonstrate an aberrant pattern of brain response.

2004 Schizophrenia Research

2549. Word retrieval in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

cingulate gyrus, in addition to regions of the parietal and temporal lobes. The confrontation naming fMRI task also revealed impaired activation in less extensive prefrontal regions, including the inferior frontal gyrus and regions of the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. These changes were present despite matched performance between patients and controls during each activation paradigm. The pattern of dysfunction corresponded to the presence of cognitive deficits on both letter fluency

2004 Brain

2550. Differential impact of the FMR1 gene on visual processing in fragile X syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

have reduced sensitivity for psychophysical stimuli that probe the M pathway but not for those that probe the P pathway, a complementary visual stream that performs a separate set of early visual operations. Finally, male patients with FXS performed poorly on a global motion task but not on a form perception task, suggesting that the M pathway thalamic deficit may have a selective impact on cortical visual functioning in the parietal lobe, which is known to be a major recipient of M pathway

2004 Brain

2551. fMRI correlates of state and trait effects in subjects at genetically enhanced risk of schizophrenia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to the psychotic state may be related to hyperactivation in the parietal lobe. (...) fMRI correlates of state and trait effects in subjects at genetically enhanced risk of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder that typically develops in early adult life. Structural imaging studies have indicated that patients with the illness, and to some extent their unaffected relatives, have subtle deficits in several brain regions, including prefrontal and temporal lobes. It is, however, not known how this inherited vulnerability leads to psychosis. This study used

2004 Brain

2552. Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson's disease with and without dementia: a comparison with Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and controls. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of VBM. Reduced grey matter volume in PDD patients compared with controls was observed bilaterally in the temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, and in the occipital lobe, the right frontal lobe and the left parietal lobe, as well as some subcortical regions. Parkinson's disease patients without dementia showed reduced grey matter volume in the frontal lobe compared with control subjects. There was significant grey matter atrophy bilaterally in the occipital lobe of PDD (...) patients compared with Parkinson's disease patients. In addition, significant temporal lobe atrophy, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus was detected in Alzheimer's disease relative to PDD. No significant volumetric differences were observed in PDD compared with DLB. Thus, Parkinson's disease involves grey matter loss in frontal areas. In PDD, this extends to temporal, occipital and subcortical areas, with occipital atrophy in PDD being the only difference between the two groups

2004 Brain

2553. Event-related fMRI of frontotemporal activity during word encoding and recognition in schizophrenia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to correct items. Previous findings of a deficit in bilateral prefrontal cortex activation during encoding in patients were reproduced, but patients showed greater parahippocampal activation rather than deficits in temporal lobe activation. During recognition, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation was lower in the patients and right anterior prefrontal cortex activation was preserved, as in the authors' previous study using positron emission tomography. Successful retrieval was associated (...) with greater right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in the comparison subjects, whereas orbitofrontal, superior frontal, mesial temporal, middle temporal, and inferior parietal regions were more active in the patients during successful retrieval.The pattern of prefrontal cortex underactivation and parahippocampal overactivation in the patients suggests that functional connectivity of dorsolateral prefrontal and temporal-limbic structures is disrupted by schizophrenia. This disruption may

2004 American Journal of Psychiatry

2554. The nature of traumatic memories: a 4-T FMRI functional connectivity analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Comparison of connectivity maps at coordinates x=2, y=20, z=36 (right anterior cingulate gyrus) for the two groups showed that the subjects without PTSD had greater correlation than the PTSD subjects in the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann's area 32), left striatum (caudate), left parietal lobe (Brodmann's areas 40 and 43), and left insula (Brodmann's area 13). In contrast, the PTSD subjects showed greater correlation than the subjects without PTSD (...) in the right posterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann's area 29), right caudate, right parietal lobe (Brodmann's areas 7 and 40), and right occipital lobe (Brodmann's area 19).The differences in brain connectivity between PTSD and comparison subjects may account for the nonverbal nature of traumatic memory recall in PTSD subjects, compared to a more verbal pattern of traumatic memory recall in comparison subjects.

2004 American Journal of Psychiatry

2555. Brain activation measured with fMRI during a mental arithmetic task in schizophrenia and major depression. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the patient groups. The patients with schizophrenia, but not those with major depression, had less activation in prefrontal brain regions, relative to the comparison participants. However, subtracting brain activation during the vigilance task from activation during the mental arithmetic task showed that the schizophrenia patients had activation in parietal areas.A double dissociation of parietal and frontal lobe activation was found for the schizophrenia patients and the depression patients. The greater (...) parietal lobe activation in the patients with schizophrenia may reflect a compensatory strategy for the failure to recruit cognitive processes that involve frontal lobe areas when solving a mental arithmetic task.

2004 American Journal of Psychiatry

2556. White matter abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

bilaterally in the parietal region (supramarginal gyri), right posterior cingulate gyrus, and left occipital lobe (lingual gyrus). No areas of significantly higher FA were observed in patients compared with healthy volunteers. Lower FA in the parietal region correlated significantly with higher Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores.These preliminary findings provide evidence of an abnormality that involves the anterior cingulate white matter in the pathogenesis of OCD and are consistent

2005 Archives of General Psychiatry

2557. Cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging brain morphometric correlates of brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met gene polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

effects (in Met allele carriers vs Val homozygotes) on 5 cognitive domain z scores and magnetic resonance imaging gray matter brain volume measures (Talairach atlas-based cerebral lobes and optimized voxel-based morphometry) were examined using general linear models.On verbal memory, there was a significant genotype effect but no genotype x diagnosis effects. In both patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers, Met allele carriers had poorer verbal memory performance than their Val-homozygous (...) counterparts. On visuospatial abilities, there were significant genotype and genotype x diagnosis effects. Met allele-associated visuospatial impairment was specific to patients with schizophrenia but not healthy volunteers. There were significant genotype effects on gray matter volumes within brain regions known to subserve these 2 cognitive domains, with Met allele carriers having smaller temporal and occipital lobar gray matter volumes. Optimized voxel-based morphometry further suggests that parietal

2006 Archives of General Psychiatry

2558. Reduced left angular gyrus volume in first-episode schizophrenia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to delineate postcentral, supramarginal, and angular gyri gray matter volumes.Group comparisons revealed that the left angular gyrus gray matter volume in patients was 14.8% less than that of the normal subjects. None of the other regions measured showed significant group volume or asymmetry differences.Patients with new-onset schizophrenia showed smaller left angular gyrus volumes than normal subjects, consistent with other studies showing parietal lobe volume abnormalities in schizophrenia. Angular gyrus

2005 American Journal of Psychiatry

2559. White matter abnormalities in first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with major depressive disorder. (Abstract)

was used to analyze the scans.The patient group exhibited significantly lower fractional anisotropy values than healthy comparison subjects in the white matter of the right middle frontal gyrus, the left lateral occipitotemporal gyrus, and the subgyral and angular gyri of the right parietal lobe. There were no regions of significantly higher fractional anisotropy values in patients compared with healthy comparison subjects.These findings suggest that abnormalities of brain white matter may be present

2007 American Journal of Psychiatry

2560. Distribution of brain metastases in relation to the hippocampus: implications for neurocognitive functional preservation. (Abstract)

the hippocampus (n = 235). The most common location for metastatic disease was the frontal lobe (31.6%, n = 86). This was followed by the cerebellum (24.3%, n = 66), parietal lobe (16.9%, n = 46), temporal lobe (12.9%, n = 35), occipital lobe (7.7%, n = 21), deep brain nuclei (4.0%, n = 11), and brainstem (2.6%, n = 7).Of the 100 patients, 8 had metastases within 5 mm of the hippocampus. Hence, a 5-mm margin around the hippocampus for conformal avoidance whole brain radiotherapy represents an acceptable risk

2007 Biology and Physics

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