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Parietal Lobe

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181. A Systematic Review of the Literature for the Effects of Music on Dementia Patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

to be damaged with reduced circulation. Mayo Clinic, (2019) [48] Lewy Bodies (LB) LB is a form of dementia which is associated with a protein called alpha-synuclein. This is an abnormal deposit that affects the chemicals in the brain and leads to problems with movement, mood, behavior and thinking. NIH, (2019) [49] Frontotemporal Dementia (FD) FD is a group of disorders which is a form of dementia. It causes progressive nerve cell loss in the frontal lobe or temporal lobe of the brain. This leads (...) of the brain are impaired by dementia, music memory remains intact [10]. Music engages many parts of our brain such as temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebral and limbic systems. It affects semantic memory, motor and rhythm. Music plays a prominent role in communication, social interaction, emotional self-regulation and most importantly aging. Music enhances attention, memory and cognitive functioning. It contributes to positive aging by reduced social seclusions, increased emotional well-being

2020 Gerontology and Geriatric Research

182. Cognitive Benefits of Exercise Interventions: An fMRI Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Despite a growing number of functional MRI studies reporting exercise-induced changes during cognitive processing, a systematic determination of the underlying neurobiological pathways is currently lacking. To this end, our neuroimaging meta-analysis included 20 studies and investigated the influence of exercise on cognition-related functional brain activation. The overall meta-analysis encompassing all experiments revealed exercise-induced changes in the left parietal lobe during cognitive processing (...) . Subgroup analysis further revealed that in the younger-age group (<35 years old) exercise induced more widespread changes in the right hemisphere whereas in the older-age group (≥35 years old) exercise-induced changes were restricted to the left parietal lobe. Furthermore, subgroup analysis for exercise intervention duration, showed that shorter exercise interventions induced changes in regions connected with frontoparietal and default mode networks whereas regions exhibiting effects of longer

2020 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

183. Transient Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopsia in Nonketotic Hyperglycemia: A Case Report and Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

in hyperglycemic patients presenting with reversible visual field defects and positive visual symptoms, especially when they are associated with typical MRI abnormalities. Homonymous superior quadrantanopsia has mostly been reported in discrete lesions involving the optic radiation. Since the geniculocalcarine tract is widely spread across the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, analyzing the pattern of the visual field defect aids in localizing the responsible lesion. , The optic radiation forms Meyer's (...) ; quadrantanopsia ; hyperglycemia ; diabetes mellitus INTRODUCTION Homonymous visual field defects usually result from a structural lesion involving the optic radiation to the visual cortex. Occasionally such defects can be observed in patients with head trauma, carbon monoxide poisoning, migraine, or occipital lobe epilepsy, with no lesions being discernible in neuroimaging. Recognizing the nature of homonymous visual field defects might be important for helping to localize lesions and determine their etiology

2020 Journal of Clinical Neurology

184. Meditation effect in changing functional integrations across large-scale brain networks: Preliminary evidence from a meta-analysis of seed-based functional connectivity Full Text available with Trip Pro

and others have contrasted experienced meditators and novices. In between-network FC analyses, meditation has been associated with relatively increased FC between DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN), especially the regions implicated in cognitive regulation and self-monitoring, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC; Brewer et al., ; Creswell et al., ; Hasenkamp & Barsalou, ), superior frontal gyrus (SFG; Creswell et al., ) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL; Hasenkamp & Barsalou, ; Yang et al

2020 Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology

185. The pharmacological interaction of compounds in ayahuasca: a systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

- acetylaspartylglutamate in the posterior cingulate cortex. -Connectivity was increased between the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, and between the anterior cingulate cortex and limbic structures in the right medial temporal lobe. -Glutamate + glutamine reductions correlated with increases in the “nonjudging” subscale of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire-Increased anterior cingulate cortex-medial temporal lobe connectivity correlated with increased scores on the self-compassion (...) , Sampedro et al. found post-acute reductions in glutamate and glutamine, creatine, and N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate in the posterior cingulate cortex. Increased activity was observed between the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, as well as between the anterior cingulate cortex and limbic structures in the right medial temporal lobe. Glutamate and glutamine reductions correlated with increases in “non-judging” subscale scores in the Five Facets Mindfulness

2020 Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry

186. Affect in the Aging Brain: A Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis of Older Vs. Younger Adult Affective Experience and Perception Full Text available with Trip Pro

sulcus, frontal eye fields, superior parietal lobule, and ventral premotor cortex) and the frontoparietal control network (i.e., the dorsolateral and lateral parietal cortex) support perceptual attention, executive function, and some aspects of cognitive control (Buckner, Andrews-Hanna, & Schacter, ; Cole, Repovš, & Anticevic, ; Denny, Kober, Wager, & Ochsner, ; Dixon et al., ; Dixon, Thiruchselvam, Todd, & Christoff, ; Spreng, Mar, & Kim, ; Spreng, Sepulcre, Turner, Stevens, & Schacter, ; Spreng (...) , Anderson, Locantore, & McIntosh, ; Park & Reuter-Lorenz, ; Turner & Spreng, ). A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies on cognitive aging revealed that older adults exhibit more reliable activation in the prefrontal cortex during cognitive tasks relative to younger adults, whereas younger adults exhibit more reliable activation in exteroceptive sensory regions such as the occipital lobe (Spreng, Wojtowicz, & Grady, ). This pattern has been called the posterior-anterior shift in aging (PASA

2020 Affective Science

187. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Potential to Detect Posttraumatic Neurodegeneration Full Text available with Trip Pro

mTBI. Glutamate Studies 1 and 3 found increased Glu, which was primarily measured in the WM of the parietal lobe in mTBI patients compared to HC with an overall strong ES of 0.79 (95% CI 0.17–1.41; Fig. ). Fig. 3. Glutamate (Glu) is a marker for disturbed brain metabolism. Two out of the 4 included studies (studies 1 and 3) measured increased Glu in the WM 1 cm above the lateral ventricles at 10 h (mean) and in the whole brain 10.7 days (mean) after mTBI, respectively. The overall effect size (...) ), a marker for disturbed brain metabolism, choline (Cho), a marker for increased cell membrane turnover, and creatine (Cr) were used in 2 out of the 4 included articles. Regions of interests were the frontal lobe, the white matter around 1 cm above the lateral ventricles, or the whole brain. NAA was decreased in patients compared to HC with an effect size (ES) of –0.49 (95% CI –1.08 to 0.09), primarily measured in the frontal lobe. Glu was increased in the white matter in 22 mTBI patients compared to 22

2020 Neurodegenerative Diseases

188. Cognitive Impairment and Depression in Sleep-Deprived Individuals: A Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

in sleep deprivation and consolidation In rodents, SD substantially decreases the ability to induce hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP; an electrophysiological measure of neuroplasticity). In case it is induced, the enhancement is seen to decay more rapidly. 23 Supplementary to these findings in animal studies, it was established in humans that one night of SD impairs learning and encoding-related activity within the medial temporal lobe, 24 specifically the hippocampus. 25 Moreover, selective (...) that are executed. 39 The hippocampus operates in a broad network of anatomically and functionally connected cortical regions during memory encoding, such as the DLPFC and posterior parietal regions, which are also required for directed attention. 40 I nadequate sleep reduces hippocampal synthesis of proteins associated with neuroplasticity and impairs hippocampal neurogenesis 41 and alongwith extracellular accumulation of high levels of adenosine during extended wake also affects plasticity, by disrupting

2020 International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research [IJCMR]

189. Neuroplasticity in post-stroke aphasia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of functional imaging studies of reorganization of language processing Full Text available with Trip Pro

in individuals with aphasia than in neurologically normal controls; and second, in cohorts with aphasia, activity in left hemisphere language regions, and possibly a temporal lobe region in the right hemisphere, is positively correlated with language function. There is modest, equivocal evidence for the claim that individuals with aphasia differentially recruit right hemisphere homotopic regions, but no compelling evidence for differential recruitment of additional left hemisphere regions or domain-general

2020 Neurobiology of Language

190. Visual mental imagery engages the left fusiform gyrus, but not the early visual cortex: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging evidence Full Text available with Trip Pro

UMR 7225, Paris Brain Institute, ICM, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière , F-75013 Paris, France 3 Dassault Systèmes, Vélizy-Villacoublay , France Paolo Bartolomeo 2 Sorbonne Université, Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Paris Brain Institute, ICM, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière , F-75013 Paris, France For correspondence: Abstract The dominant neural model of visual mental imagery (VMI) stipulates that memories from the medial temporal lobe acquire sensory features in early visual areas. However (...) , neurological patients with damage restricted to the occipital cortex typically show perfectly vivid VMI, while more anterior damages extending into the temporal lobe, especially in the left hemisphere, often cause VMI impairments. Here we present two major results reconciling neuroimaging findings in neurotypical subjects with the performance of brain-damaged patients: (1) a large-scale metaanalysis of 46 fMRI studies, of which 27 investigated specifically visual mental imagery, revealed that VMI engages

2020 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

191. Effects of drinking on late-life brain and cognition Full Text available with Trip Pro

for these actions is thought to include NMDA and GABA-A receptors. High doses of alcohol acutely reduce prefrontal and temporal lobe function, including planning, verbal fluency, memory and complex motor control including cerebellar function. The pattern of impairment has been compared with that seen in hippocampal damage. Excessive alcohol consumption can also lead to a number of conditions with psychiatric symptoms, including psychotic disorders and delirium. In this review we focus on structural brain (...) validation. Thresholds are likely to be different according to sex, comorbid conditions and genetic susceptibility. Effects on brain structure Brain atrophy in chronic alcoholism is well described. The frontal lobes are thought to be particularly vulnerable. Kril et al found frontal cortex reductions of 23% in uncomplicated alcoholism, replicating earlier findings. MRI studies have also reported widespread cortical atrophy, which may particularly affect the frontal lobes. Interestingly, longitudinal MRI

2018 Evidence-Based Mental Health

192. Magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain atrophy from the EXPEDITION3 trial in mild Alzheimer's disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

centrally by tensor-based morphometry with a standard FreeSurfer brain parcellation. Prespecified volumetric measures, including whole brain and ventricles, along with anatomically localized regions in the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes were evaluated in those participants.Group-mean differences in brain atrophy rates were directionally consistent across a number of brain regions but small in magnitude (1.3-6.9% slowing) and not statistically significant when corrected for multiple comparisons

2019 Alzheimer's & dementia (New York, N. Y.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

193. Guidelines on autopsy practice: Fetal autopsy (2nd trimester fetal loss and termination of pregnancy for congenital anomaly)

and genitalia · T- or Y-shaped skin incision on body · Central nervous system (CNS) examination: median posterior or transverse posterior parietal scalp incision observation of maturity to assist gestational assessment consider removal under water if suspected CNS malformation (including ventriculomegaly), examination of posterior fossa structures by posterior approach. Consider referring the whole central nervous system for neuropathological examination in appropriate cases. This may include sampling (...) ) will usually produce sufficient fixation to allow adequate sectioning and block sampling to allow the brain to be returned to the body before release for funeral. If there is doubt consult the local neuropathology team. [Level of evidence: GPP] 11 Histological examination Recommended blocks required at full autopsy: 9 · thymus · heart (septum and free walls) · lungs (right and left each lobe) · liver (both major lobes) · pancreas · spleen · adrenal glands CEff 150617 9 FINAL v1 · kidneys · muscle

2017 Royal College of Pathologists

194. Guidelines on autopsy practice: Third trimester antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth

at full autopsy: 8 CEff 150617 9 V1 Draft · thymus · heart (septum and free walls) · lungs (right and left each lobe) · liver (both major lobes) · pancreas · spleen · adrenal glands · kidneys · muscle and diaphragm · stomach, small and large bowels · larynx/trachea and thyroid · bone: rib including growth plate in stillbirth; long bone (including growth plate), vertebral body and skull mandatory for suspected skeletal dysplasia · brain: if preservation allows include cerebral cortex (...) and periventricular white matter (frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital), deep grey matter (caudate, striatum, thalamus), hippocampus, midbrain (inferior colliculi), pons, medulla (inferior olives), cerebellum with dentate nucleus. Sampling may by necessity be more restricted if there is advanced autolysis · other organ lesions as appropriate · placenta (at least three full-thickness blocks, plus focal lesions) · membrane roll · umbilical cord (at least two). [Level of evidence D.] A record of the samples

2017 Royal College of Pathologists

195. Physical therapy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

progression of AD, the cholinergic activity is reduced, thereby affecting cognitive function and behavior owing to the lack of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and significant reduction of gray matter in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus . Genetic aspects are of great importance in the etiopathogenesis of AD, leading to somatic mutation in the tissues . Among the main disabilities observed in AD, dementia, which affects about one in six individuals

2019 Fisioterapia e Pesquisa

196. Electroencephalogram Evidence for Memory Suppression: A Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

, 48 face-picture pairs Memory suppression were associated with changes during a time window of 70-260 ms, such as P1 and N2, mainly at the right inferior frontal gyrus and occipital lobe. Hanslmayr et al., 2009 24 healthy right-handed participants TNT paradigm, 54 neutral faces and 54 semantically unrelated words ERP e? ects were due to a decreased right frontal and left parietal positivity. Positivity in the NT condition was selectively reduced over right frontal and left parietal electrode sites (...) serve as markers of memory processes. This systematic review examines the literature regarding EEG alterations in memory suppression, highlighting their results on electrophysiological indicators. A systematic review from January 2007 to November 2017 was conducted using PubMed, Embase and ScienceDirect databases. As results, 12 studies were eligible for inclusion. Quantitative EEG can be a objective tool for studying the mechanisms involved in memory suppression. There is evidence that a parietal

2019 Temas em Psicologia

197. The effects of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) supplementation on the cognitive performance of young healthy adults – a Systematic Review Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the central nervous system. The use of fMRI on participants revealed that the multivitamin supplement with guarana produced greater activation of the right precentral gyrus, the left middle frontal gyrus, frontal medial gyri and the left and right superior parietal lobes in comparison with the multivitamin supplement without guarana for Scholey A et al. (2013). White DJ et al. (2017) reported that the guarana supplement led to greater phase advance across fronto-central regions, but this effect did

2019 Global Psychiatry

198. Neuroimaging Findings in US Government Personnel With Possible Exposure to Directional Phenomena in Havana, Cuba. Full Text available with Trip Pro

significantly greater ventral diencephalon and cerebellar gray matter volumes and significantly smaller frontal, occipital, and parietal lobe white matter volumes; significantly lower mean diffusivity in the inferior vermis of the cerebellum (patients: 7.71 × 10-4 mm2/s; controls: 8.98 × 10-4 mm2/s; difference, -1.27 × 10-4 [95% CI, -1.93 × 10-4 to -6.17 × 10-5] mm2/s; P < .001); and significantly lower mean functional connectivity in the auditory subnetwork (patients: 0.45; controls: 0.61; difference

2019 JAMA

200. Alpha desynchronization during simple working memory unmasks pathological aging in cognitively healthy individuals. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-back WM testing, the behavioral performance was similar between the two groups, however, qEEG notably differentiated CH-PATs from CH-NATs on the simple, 0-back testing: Alpha ERD decreased from baseline only in the parietal region in CH-NATs, while it decreased in all brain regions in CH-PATs. Alpha SE did not change in CH-NATs, but was increased from baseline in the CH-PATs in frontal and left lateral regions (p<0.01), and was higher in the frontal region (p<0.01) of CH-PATs compared to CH-NATs (...) . The alpha ERD and SE analyses suggest there is frontal lobe dysfunction during WM processing in the CH-PAT stage. Additional power and correlations with behavioral performance were also explored. This study provide pilot information to further evaluate whether this biomarker has clinical significance.

2019 PLoS ONE

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