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Parietal Lobe

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181. Temporal Order Processing of Syllables in the Left Parietal Lobe (Full text)

Temporal Order Processing of Syllables in the Left Parietal Lobe Speech processing requires the temporal parsing of syllable order. Individuals suffering from posterior left hemisphere brain injury often exhibit temporal processing deficits as well as language deficits. Although the right posterior inferior parietal lobe has been implicated in temporal order judgments (TOJs) of visual information, there is limited evidence to support the role of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL (...) ) in processing syllable order. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the left inferior parietal lobe is recruited during temporal order judgments of speech stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected on 14 normal participants while they completed the following forced-choice tasks: (1) syllable order of multisyllabic pseudowords, (2) syllable identification of single syllables, and (3) gender identification of both multisyllabic and monosyllabic speech stimuli. Results

2009 The Journal of Neuroscience PubMed

182. Surgical treatment of parietal lobe epilepsy. (Full text)

Surgical treatment of parietal lobe epilepsy. Parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE) accounts for a small percentage of extratemporal epilepsies, and only a few and mostly smaller series have been reported. Preoperative findings, surgical strategies, pathological bases, and postoperative outcomes for PLE remain to be elucidated.Patients with PLE were identified by screening a prospective epilepsy surgery database established in 1989 at the University of Bonn. Charts, preoperative imaging studies (...) %) underwent invasive electroencephalography evaluation. After lesionectomy of the dominant (in 20 patients) or nondominant (in 20 patients) parietal lobe and additional multiple subpial transections (in 11 patients), 2 patients suffered from surgical and 12 from neurological complications, including temporary partial Gerstmann syndrome. There were no deaths. Histopathological analysis revealed 16 low-grade tumors, 11 cortical dysplasias, 9 gliotic scars, 2 cavernous vascular malformations, and 1

2009 Journal of Neurosurgery PubMed

183. Assessment of coma

of impaired awareness most commonly seen with lesions of the non-dominant parietal lobe or prefrontal cortex. Alerting/wakefulness is preserved to a large degree. Encephalopathy Diffuse disturbance of cerebral function in the absence of overt parenchymal inflammation or structural abnormality. There are numerous encephalopathies due to electrolyte disturbances, disturbances in thyroid function, inborn errors of metabolism (e.g., porphyria, mitochondrial disorders), organ failure (e.g., hepatic (...) discharges in the brain, either as absence/petit mal seizures (bifrontal or diffuse cortical and thalamic involvement), complex partial seizures (usually of temporal lobe origin, associated with diffuse limbic involvement and cerebral cortical inhibition), or generalised convulsive seizures (with seizure discharges involving both cerebral hemispheres and brainstem structures). Coma can be prolonged in status epilepticus (e.g., non-convulsive status epilepticus as diagnosed by EEG). Convulsive movements

2018 BMJ Best Practice

184. Assessment of pruritus

-92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24041961?tool=bestpractice.com Papoiu AD, Coghill RC, Kraft RA, et al. A tale of two itches. Common features and notable differences in brain activation evoked by cowhage and histamine induced itch. Neuroimage. 2012;59:3611-3623. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3288667/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22100770?tool=bestpractice.com Induced itch stimuli co-activate the anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and inferior parietal (...) lobe predominantly in the left hemisphere. Following itch induction, the multiple activated sites in the brain argue against the existence of a single itch centre and reflect the multidimensionality of pruritus. Steinhoff M, Bienenstock J, Schmelz M, et al. Neurophysiological, neuroimmunological, and neuroendocrine basis of pruritus. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:1705-1718. http://www.jidonline.org/article/S0022-202X(15)33013-X/fulltext http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16845410?tool

2018 BMJ Best Practice

185. Assessment of pruritus

-92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24041961?tool=bestpractice.com Papoiu AD, Coghill RC, Kraft RA, et al. A tale of two itches. Common features and notable differences in brain activation evoked by cowhage and histamine induced itch. Neuroimage. 2012;59:3611-3623. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3288667/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22100770?tool=bestpractice.com Induced itch stimuli co-activate the anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and inferior parietal (...) lobe predominantly in the left hemisphere. Following itch induction, the multiple activated sites in the brain argue against the existence of a single itch centre and reflect the multidimensionality of pruritus. Steinhoff M, Bienenstock J, Schmelz M, et al. Neurophysiological, neuroimmunological, and neuroendocrine basis of pruritus. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:1705-1718. http://www.jidonline.org/article/S0022-202X(15)33013-X/fulltext http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16845410?tool

2018 BMJ Best Practice

186. ACR–ASNR Practice Parameter for Brain PET/CT Imaging Dementia Res. 17 – 2015 - 2019

degeneration or injury: elevated CSF tau protein (both total and phosphorylated tau); decreased F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on PET in a specific topographic pattern involving posterior cingulate/precuneus and temporoparietal cortex; and atrophy on structural magnetic resonance, again in a specific topographic pattern involving medial, basal, and lateral temporal lobes and medial and lateral parietal cortices [9]. Biomarkers of Aß amyloid are indicative of initiating upstream events that may

2019 American Society of Neuroradiology

187. Dementia

) elevated CSF tau, total tau, and phosphorylated tau; 2) decreased fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake on PET in temporoparietal cortex; and 3) disproportionate atrophy on structural MRI in medial, basal, and lateral temporal lobe and medial parietal cortex. In persons who meet the core clinical criteria for probable AD dementia, biomarker evidence may increase the certainty that the basis of the clinical dementia syndrome is the AD pathophysiological process. The recommendations (...) on the frontal cortex in early FTD [46]. MR spectroscopy could be a helpful secondary test in patients who have clinical findings of FTD, but it is not a first-line imaging test. MRI Functional (fMRI) Head Brain activation has been shown to be significantly decreased in FTD in the frontal and parietal lobes compared with AD [47]. Resting state fMRI demonstrates alterations in structural and functional connectivity in presymptomatic FTD [48]. However, fMRI remains in the realm of research

2019 American College of Radiology

188. Movement Disorder and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

restriction in gray matter structures. This includes the cortex (particularly throughout the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes—though often asymmetric—with occipital and cerebellar involvement in less common variants of sporadic CJD, the Heidenhain, and Brownell-Oppenheimer variants, respectively), the basal ganglia (60%, predominantly the anterior caudate and putamen), and the thalami (13%; including the posterior thalamus [pulvinar sign] or the posteromedial thalamus [hockey stick sign]) [6-8,10-15 (...) of these findings remain unclear. ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® 9 Movement Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases In patients with CBD, MRI shows asymmetric atrophy of the frontal and parietal lobes, typically contralateral to the more affected side, as well as the striatum [42,57-60]. Faint T2/FLAIR hyperintensity can also be seen in the subcortical white matter in the atrophic regions, likely related to neuronal loss and gliosis [42,57,59,60]. In patients with PSP, MRI generally shows midbrain atrophy

2019 American College of Radiology

189. Guidelines on autopsy practice: Third trimester antepartum and intrapartum stillbirth

at full autopsy: 8 CEff 150617 9 V1 Draft · thymus · heart (septum and free walls) · lungs (right and left each lobe) · liver (both major lobes) · pancreas · spleen · adrenal glands · kidneys · muscle and diaphragm · stomach, small and large bowels · larynx/trachea and thyroid · bone: rib including growth plate in stillbirth; long bone (including growth plate), vertebral body and skull mandatory for suspected skeletal dysplasia · brain: if preservation allows include cerebral cortex (...) and periventricular white matter (frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital), deep grey matter (caudate, striatum, thalamus), hippocampus, midbrain (inferior colliculi), pons, medulla (inferior olives), cerebellum with dentate nucleus. Sampling may by necessity be more restricted if there is advanced autolysis · other organ lesions as appropriate · placenta (at least three full-thickness blocks, plus focal lesions) · membrane roll · umbilical cord (at least two). [Level of evidence D.] A record of the samples

2017 Royal College of Pathologists

190. Guidelines on autopsy practice: Fetal autopsy (2nd trimester fetal loss and termination of pregnancy for congenital anomaly)

and genitalia · T- or Y-shaped skin incision on body · Central nervous system (CNS) examination: median posterior or transverse posterior parietal scalp incision observation of maturity to assist gestational assessment consider removal under water if suspected CNS malformation (including ventriculomegaly), examination of posterior fossa structures by posterior approach. Consider referring the whole central nervous system for neuropathological examination in appropriate cases. This may include sampling (...) ) will usually produce sufficient fixation to allow adequate sectioning and block sampling to allow the brain to be returned to the body before release for funeral. If there is doubt consult the local neuropathology team. [Level of evidence: GPP] 11 Histological examination Recommended blocks required at full autopsy: 9 · thymus · heart (septum and free walls) · lungs (right and left each lobe) · liver (both major lobes) · pancreas · spleen · adrenal glands CEff 150617 9 FINAL v1 · kidneys · muscle

2017 Royal College of Pathologists

191. EANM-EAN recommendations for the use of brain 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) in neurodegenerative cognitive impairment and dementia: Delphi consensus

parietal, AUC = 0.69, P = 0.045) . A trend was also observed for AD‐memory dominant cases, with AUC = 0.65 ( P = 0.062) for hypometabolism in bilateral inferior frontal, cuneus and inferior temporal, and right inferior parietal. The logopenic variant of PPA and typical AD dementia could be discriminated (AUC = 0.89) based on the right medial temporal and posterior cingulate gyri, the left inferior, middle and superior temporal lobes, and left supramarginal gyrus . Patients with posterior cortical (...) or in the infrequent DLB cases with a normal pre‐synaptic dopaminergic imaging. The inclusion of FDG‐PET in the new criteria for DLB as a supportive biomarker (a scan not showing hypometabolism in the occipital lobes does not exclude DLB) also contributed to the panellists’ decision. FDG‐PET to differentiate AD from FTLD (PICO 9) Critical outcomes were available in five of the examined papers . These papers found 80%–99% sensitivity range, 63%–98% specificity range, 87%–89.2% accuracy range , - , 0.91–0.97 AUC

2018 European Academy of Neurology

196. CRACKCast E101 – Stroke

by the anterior and posterior circulations. The anterior circulation originates from the carotid system and perfuses 80% of the brain, including the optic nerve, retina, and fronto-parietal and anterior-temporal lobes. The first branch off the internal carotid artery is the ophthalmic artery, which supplies the optic nerve and retina. As a result, the sudden onset of painless monocular blindness (amaurosis fugax) identifies the stroke as involving the anterior circulation (specifically the ipsilateral carotid (...) . The brainstem also contains the reticular activating system, which is responsible for mediating consciousness, and the emesis centers. Unlike those with anterior circulation strokes, patients with posterior circulation stroke can have loss of consciousness and frequently have nausea and vomiting. The posterior cerebral artery supplies portions of the parietal and occipital lobes, so vision and thought processing are impaired. One of the more curious facets of this syndrome is that the patient may be unaware

2017 CandiEM

197. Effects of drinking on late-life brain and cognition (Full text)

for these actions is thought to include NMDA and GABA-A receptors. High doses of alcohol acutely reduce prefrontal and temporal lobe function, including planning, verbal fluency, memory and complex motor control including cerebellar function. The pattern of impairment has been compared with that seen in hippocampal damage. Excessive alcohol consumption can also lead to a number of conditions with psychiatric symptoms, including psychotic disorders and delirium. In this review we focus on structural brain (...) validation. Thresholds are likely to be different according to sex, comorbid conditions and genetic susceptibility. Effects on brain structure Brain atrophy in chronic alcoholism is well described. The frontal lobes are thought to be particularly vulnerable. Kril et al found frontal cortex reductions of 23% in uncomplicated alcoholism, replicating earlier findings. MRI studies have also reported widespread cortical atrophy, which may particularly affect the frontal lobes. Interestingly, longitudinal MRI

2018 Evidence-Based Mental Health PubMed

198. Management of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association

seizures. Multivariate logistic regression showed that clinical presentation with seizures correlated with a location in the temporal and frontal lobes and with a superficial topography. The strongest association (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 1.77–6.85) was observed between seizures and bAVM location in the temporal lobe. A study of 302 consecutive patients with unruptured bAVMs added superficial venous drainage and presence of varices in the venous drainage as features associated with seizures ( P =0.005 and P (...) (anterior, middle, or posterior) cerebral divisions had lower risk of ICH (OR, 0.40; P <0.001). The authors noted positive associations with ICH for bAVM size (OR, 0.96; P <0.001), solely deep venous drainage (OR, 3.19; P <0.001), and associated aneurysm (OR, 2.72; P <0.001). Using DSA-based evaluation, Shankar et al reviewed 78 patients with nonhemorrhagic bAVMs presenting with (n=33) and without (n=45) seizures for distinguishing angioarchitectural features. They noted location (frontal, parietal

2017 American Heart Association

199. Management of brain arteriovenous malformations (Full text)

patients with nonhemorrhagic bAVMs presenting with (n=33) and without (n=45) seizures for distinguishing angioarchitectural features. They noted location (frontal, parietal, temporal lobe; OR, 4.52; 95% CI, 0.95–21.47), venous outflow stenosis (OR, 6.71; 95% CI, 1.99–22.56), and long (>3-cm superficial course) pial draining vein (OR, 5.71; 95% CI, 1.32–24.56). The authors enumerated these values as a 3-point score with a receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.841 (95% CI, 0.749–0.933 (...) -year risk of developing epilepsy after a first seizure was 58%. , One prospective observational study collected records of 101 consecutive patients with unruptured and ruptured bAVMs during a 10-year period and compared patients with and without seizures. Multivariate logistic regression showed that clinical presentation with seizures correlated with a location in the temporal and frontal lobes and with a superficial topography. The strongest association (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 1.77–6.85) was observed

2017 American Academy of Neurology PubMed

200. Neuroimaging Findings in US Government Personnel With Possible Exposure to Directional Phenomena in Havana, Cuba. (PubMed)

significantly greater ventral diencephalon and cerebellar gray matter volumes and significantly smaller frontal, occipital, and parietal lobe white matter volumes; significantly lower mean diffusivity in the inferior vermis of the cerebellum (patients: 7.71 × 10-4 mm2/s; controls: 8.98 × 10-4 mm2/s; difference, -1.27 × 10-4 [95% CI, -1.93 × 10-4 to -6.17 × 10-5] mm2/s; P < .001); and significantly lower mean functional connectivity in the auditory subnetwork (patients: 0.45; controls: 0.61; difference

2019 JAMA

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