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Parenteral Drug Delivery

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1. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition and enteral versus a combination of enteral and parenteral nutrition for adults in the intensive care unit. (PubMed)

Enteral versus parenteral nutrition and enteral versus a combination of enteral and parenteral nutrition for adults in the intensive care unit. Critically ill people are at increased risk of malnutrition. Acute and chronic illness, trauma and inflammation induce stress-related catabolism, and drug-induced adverse effects may reduce appetite or increase nausea and vomiting. In addition, patient management in the intensive care unit (ICU) may also interrupt feeding routines. Methods to deliver (...) nutritional requirements include provision of enteral nutrition (EN), or parenteral nutrition (PN), or a combination of both (EN and PN). However, each method is problematic. This review aimed to determine the route of delivery that optimizes uptake of nutrition.To compare the effects of enteral versus parenteral methods of nutrition, and the effects of enteral versus a combination of enteral and parenteral methods of nutrition, among critically ill adults, in terms of mortality, number of ICU-free days

2018 Cochrane

2. An Overview of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Its Application in Non-Parenteral Drug Delivery (PubMed)

An Overview of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Its Application in Non-Parenteral Drug Delivery The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the chitosan based nanoparticles for various non-parenteral applications and also to put a spotlight on current research including sustained release and mucoadhesive chitosan dosage forms. Chitosan is a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer regarded as safe for human dietary use and approved for wound dressing applications. Chitosan has been used (...) -based NP have various applications in non-parenteral drug delivery for the treatment of cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, pulmonary diseases, drug delivery to the brain and ocular infections which will be exemplified in this review. Chitosan shows low toxicity both in vitro and some in vivo models. This review explores recent research on chitosan based NP for non-parenteral drug delivery, chitosan properties, modification, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and preclinical studies.

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2017 Pharmaceutics

3. Parenteral Drug Delivery

Parenteral Drug Delivery Parenteral Drug Delivery Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Parenteral Drug Delivery Parenteral (...) Drug Delivery Aka: Parenteral Drug Delivery , Injectable Drug Delivery Route , Injectable Medication Route , Injectable Route of Medication Delivery II. Types (SQ or SC) (IM) Intravascular Injection (IV) Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Parenteral Drug Delivery." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Related Topics

2018 FP Notebook

4. Intrathecal Drug Delivery Systems for Cancer Pain and Noncancer Pain

for intrathecal drug delivery systems for patients with chronic non-malignant back pain BACKGROUND Cancer is the leading cause of death in Canada: it was associated with an estimated 76,600 deaths in 2014. 1 About two thirds of patients with incurable cancer experience pain. 2 At the end of life, about 10% to 30% of cancer patients receiving conventional pain therapies have pain that is refractory (difficult to manage) or persistent. 2 Currently available options include opioid rotation, parenteral infusions (...) Intrathecal Drug Delivery Systems for Cancer Pain and Noncancer Pain Health Quality Ontario ABOUT OHTAS Contact us: Evidence@hqontario.ca Intrathecal Drug Delivery Systems for Cancer Pain and Noncancer Pain: OHTAC Recommendation ONTARIO HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ADVISORY COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS ? OHTAC recommends against the expansion of public funding for intrathecal drug delivery systems for patients with chronic pain due to advanced cancer ? OHTAC recommends against the expansion of public funding

2016 Health Quality Ontario

5. Development of nanoemulsion for efficient brain parenteral delivery of cefuroxime: designs, characterizations, and pharmacokinetics (PubMed)

Development of nanoemulsion for efficient brain parenteral delivery of cefuroxime: designs, characterizations, and pharmacokinetics Drugs that are effective against diseases in the central nervous system and reach the brain via blood must pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a unique interface that protects against potential harmful molecules. This presents a major challenge in neuro-drug delivery. This study attempts to fabricate the cefuroxime-loaded nanoemulsion (CLN) to increase drug (...) rats. A similar profile was obtained for the biodistribution of cefuroxime in the brain, in which CLN showed a significantly higher Cmax, AUC0-t , prolonged half-life, and lower clearance as compared to free cefuroxime solution.Overall, CLN showed excellent physicochemical properties, fulfilled the requirements for parenteral administration, and presented improved in vivo pharmacokinetic profile, which reflected its practical approach to enhance cefuroxime delivery to the brain.

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2018 International journal of nanomedicine

6. Successful outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy delivery via telemedicine. (PubMed)

Successful outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy delivery via telemedicine. Most outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) services use a hospital-based model of care in which patients remain in proximity to large hospitals facilitating clinical review. We aimed to evaluate clinical outcomes and complication rates for patients living in geographically isolated locations managed by telemedicine-supported OPAT. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study.Between 2011 and 2015, we (...) in 87% of patients and the unplanned, OPAT-related readmission rate was 8%. Nineteen percent and 10% of patients had drug-related and line-related adverse effects, respectively.Despite a complex case mix, our adverse event and readmission rates are similar to the published literature describing a non-telemedicine model to deliver OPAT. High rates of favourable clinical outcomes and likely cost benefits suggest that telemedicine-supported OPAT is an efficacious and safe substitute for inpatient care

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2017 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

7. The Effect of Warmed Parenteral Fluids During Delivery

The Effect of Warmed Parenteral Fluids During Delivery The Effect of Warmed Parenteral Fluids During Delivery - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. The Effect of Warmed Parenteral Fluids During (...) by (Responsible Party): hanoch schreiber, Meir Medical Center Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: To evaluate the influence of warm IV fluids during delivery and cesarean section on perinatal outcomes. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Delivery, Obstetric Other: Body temperature parenteral fluids Not Applicable Detailed Description: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Assessing the influence of warmed parenteral fluids during delivery/cesarean section on the obstetrical

2017 Clinical Trials

8. 2018 IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy

, great emphasis was placed on appropriate patient selection. Currently in the United States, patients rarely remain hospitalized solely to complete a course of parenteral antimicrobial therapy. Except for some persons who inject drugs (PWID), most patients are eligible for some form of OPAT. The current focus is on identifying the appropriate setting for OPAT, that is, whether patients will receive their antimicrobials at home, in an infusion center, or in a SNF. The exact delivery model chosen (...) tolerability and may influence the type of vascular access device (VAD) needed. Drugs are prepared and supplied to the patient/caregiver in a variety of delivery devices suitable for administering antimicrobials in the outpatient setting. Each method has advantages and disadvantages but should be selected based upon patient preferences and capabilities, drug characteristics (concentration/solubility, stability, infusion time), VAD, and cost/insurance coverage. Intravenous push is a rapid and convenient

2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America

9. Stealth and Cationic Nanoliposomes as Drug Delivery Systems to Increase Andrographolide BBB Permeability (PubMed)

Stealth and Cationic Nanoliposomes as Drug Delivery Systems to Increase Andrographolide BBB Permeability (1) Background: Andrographolide (AG) is a natural compound effective for the treatment of inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this investigation was the preparation of liposomes to enhance the penetration into the brain of AG, by modifying the surface of the liposomes by adding Tween 80 (LPs-AG) alone or in combination with Didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB (...) ) (CLPs-AG). (2) Methods: LPs-AG and CLPs-AG were physically and chemically characterized. The ability of liposomes to increase the permeability of AG was evaluated by artificial membranes (PAMPA) and hCMEC/D3 cells. (3) Results: Based on obtained results in terms of size, homogeneity, ζ-potential and EE%. both liposomes are suitable for parenteral administration. The systems showed excellent stability during a month of storage as suspensions or freeze-dried products. Glucose resulted the best

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2018 Pharmaceutics

10. A preliminary study on plasma concentration achieved following intrapterygomandibular space injection of dexamethasone as a route of drug delivery with lignocaine inferior alveolar nerve block-correlation of clinical effects. (PubMed)

A preliminary study on plasma concentration achieved following intrapterygomandibular space injection of dexamethasone as a route of drug delivery with lignocaine inferior alveolar nerve block-correlation of clinical effects. To determine the quantity of dexamethasone plasma concentration achieved following intrapterygomandibular space injection of dexamethasone when co-administered with inferior alveolar nerve block correlating with the clinical effects in the postoperative phase.A preliminary (...) prospective study to evaluate the dexamethasone plasma concentration achieved following intrapterygomandibular space injection of dexamethasone with 2% lignocaine inferior alveolar nerve block to achieve hemi-mandibular anesthesia for minor oral surgical procedures and derive clinical correlations.Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid, chiefly used for the management of postsurgical sequelae like trismus and swelling in maxillofacial surgical practice. Conventionally, parenteral dexamethasone is administered

2018 Oral and maxillofacial surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

11. Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review

Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review Comparative Effectiveness Review Number 218 RComparative Effectiveness Review Number 218 Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review Prepared for: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 5600 (...) . Timothy J. Wilt, M.D., M.P.H. AHRQ Publication No. 19-EHC016-EF April 2019 ii Key Messages Purpose of Review To summarize the effects of long-term osteoporosis drug treatment and of osteoporosis drug treatment discontinuation and holidays. Key Messages • Evidence on the effects of long-term osteoporosis drug treatment and drug continuation versus discontinuation is mostly limited to white, healthy, postmenopausal women. • Long-term alendronate reduces radiographic vertebral and nonvertebral fractures

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

12. Regional Models of Care for Systemic Treatment: Standards for the Organization and Delivery of Systemic Treatment

, computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE), pumps and equipment and labelling of drug products. A summary checklist has been developed that can be used to assess a program for concordance with this standards document and also guide centres that need to prioritize as they further develop their systemic therapy services (Appendix 1). For more information on the modified Delphi consensus methodology used by the STP, please see Appendix 2. ? For additional elements related to 1) Safe delivery of systemic (...) Standards, Safe Administration of Systemic Cancer Therapy Part 2: Administration of Chemotherapy and Management of Preventable Adverse Events Pharmacists ? Review and verify systemic treatment orders and supervise the preparation and dispensing of systemic treatment.* ? ICP pharmacists provide support to allow consultation from other systemic treatment delivery centres in the region.* ? Manage or delegate the new drug funding program reimbursement process.* ? Provide patient education related to planned

2019 Cancer Care Ontario

13. Cefazolin potency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a microbiologic assessment in support of a novel drug delivery system for skin and skin structure infections (PubMed)

Cefazolin potency against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a microbiologic assessment in support of a novel drug delivery system for skin and skin structure infections Despite aggressive medical and surgical management, the resolution of skin and skin structure infections is often difficult due to insufficient host response, reduced drug penetration, and a high prevalence of resistance organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). As a result of these factors (...) for this organism is currently unknown.We assessed the potency of cefazolin against a collection of 1,239 MRSA from 42 US hospitals using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute-defined broth micro-dilution methodology.The cefazolin MIC inhibiting 50% of the isolates was 64 mg/L; 81% had MICs ≤128 and nearly all (99.9%) had MICs ≤512 mg/L.The overwhelming majority of MRSA had cefazolin MICs that were considerably lower than achievable tissue concentrations (≥1,000 mg/L) using this novel drug delivery system

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2017 Infection and drug resistance

14. Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles: Development & statistical optimization of norfloxacin for topical drug delivery system (PubMed)

Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles: Development & statistical optimization of norfloxacin for topical drug delivery system Poly lactic acid is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and non-toxic polymer, widely used in many pharmaceutical preparations such as controlled release formulations, parenteral preparations, surgical treatment applications, and tissue engineering. In this study, we prepared lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for topical and site targeting delivery of Norfloxacin (...) these two. Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles of Norfloxacin showed the %cumulative drug release of 89.72% in 24 h. A stability study of the optimized formulation showed the suitable condition for the storage of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles was at 4 ± 2 °C/60 ± 5% RH. These results illustrated high potential of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles Norfloxacin for usage as a topical antibiotic drug carriers.

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2017 Bioactive Materials

15. Recommendations for the Delivery of Psychosocial Oncology Services in Ontario

Recommendations for the Delivery of Psychosocial Oncology Services in Ontario A Master page name | 1 Recommendations for the Delivery of Psychosocial Oncology Services in OntarioAs the government’s principal cancer advisor, Cancer Care Ontario equips health professionals, organizations and policy-makers with the most up-to-date cancer knowledge and tools to prevent cancer and deliver high-quality patient care. We do this by collecting and analyzing data about cancer services and combining (...) it with evidence and research that is shared with the healthcare community in the form of guidelines and standards. We also monitor and measure the performance of the cancer system, and oversee a funding and governance model that ties funding to performance, making healthcare providers more accountable and ensuring value for investments in the system. Cancer Care Ontario actively engages people with cancer and their families in the design, delivery and evaluation of Ontario’s cancer system, and works

2018 Cancer Care Ontario

16. Comparison of drug delivery with autoinjector versus manual prefilled syringe and between three different autoinjector devices administered in pig thigh (PubMed)

Comparison of drug delivery with autoinjector versus manual prefilled syringe and between three different autoinjector devices administered in pig thigh Parenteral routes of drug administration are often selected to optimize actual dose of drug delivered, assure high bioavailability, bypass first-pass metabolism or harsh gastrointestinal environments, as well as maximize the speed of onset. Intramuscular (IM) delivery can be preferred to intravenous delivery when initiating intravenous access (...) is difficult or impossible. Drugs can be injected intramuscularly using a syringe or an automated delivery device (autoinjector). Investigation into the IM delivery dynamics of these methods may guide further improvements in the performance of injection technologies. Two porcine model studies were conducted to compare differences in dispersion of injectate volume for different methods of IM drug administration. The first study compared the differences in the degree of dispersion and uptake of injectate

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2016 Medical devices (Auckland, N.Z.)

17. Preparation, characterization, and potential application of chitosan, chitosan derivatives, and chitosan metal nanoparticles in pharmaceutical drug delivery (PubMed)

Preparation, characterization, and potential application of chitosan, chitosan derivatives, and chitosan metal nanoparticles in pharmaceutical drug delivery Naturally occurring polymers, particularly of the polysaccharide type, have been used pharmaceutically for the delivery of a wide variety of therapeutic agents. Chitosan, the second abundant naturally occurring polysaccharide next to cellulose, is a biocompatible and biodegradable mucoadhesive polymer that has been extensively used (...) in the preparation of micro-as well as nanoparticles. The prepared particles have been exploited as a potential carrier for different therapeutic agents such as peptides, proteins, vaccines, DNA, and drugs for parenteral and nonparenteral administration. Therapeutic agent-loaded chitosan micro- or nanoparticles were found to be more stable, permeable, and bioactive. In this review, we are highlighting the different methods of preparation and characterization of chitosan micro- and nanoparticles, while reviewing

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2016 Drug design, development and therapy

18. In vivo investigation of temporal effects and drug delivery induced by transdermal microneedles with optical coherence tomography (PubMed)

In vivo investigation of temporal effects and drug delivery induced by transdermal microneedles with optical coherence tomography Transdermal drug-delivery systems (TDDS) have been a growing field in drug delivery because of their advantages over parenteral and oral administration. Recent studies illustrate that microneedles (MNs) can effectively penetrate through the stratum corneum barrier to facilitate drug delivery. However, the temporal effects on skin and drug diffusion are difficult (...) to investigate in vivo. In this study, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to observe the process by which MNs dissolve and to investigate the temporal effects on mouse skin induced by MNs, including the morphological and vascular changes. Moreover, the recovery process of the skin was observed with OCT. Additionally, we proposed a method to observe drug delivery by estimation of cross-correlation relationship between sequential 2D OCT images obtained at the same location, reflecting the variation

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2016 Biomedical optics express

19. PLGA based drug delivery systems - promising carriers for wound healing activity. (PubMed)

) (PLGA) is a widely used biodegradable polymer approved by food and drug administration and European medicines agency as an excipient for parenteral administrations. It is a well-established drug delivery system in various medical applications. The aim of the current review is to elaborate the applications of PLGA based drug delivery systems carrying different wound healing agents and also present PLGA itself as a wound healing promoter. PLGA carriers encapsulating drugs such as antibiotics, anti (...) PLGA based drug delivery systems - promising carriers for wound healing activity. Wound treatment remains one of the most prevalent and economically burdensome healthcare issues in the world. Current treatment options are limited and require repeated administrations which led to the development of new therapeutics to satisfy the unmet clinical needs. Many potent wound healing agents were discovered but most of them are fragile and/or sensitive to in vivo conditions. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid

2016 Wound Repair and Regeneration

20. Phase Transitions of Isotropic to Anisotropic Biocompatible Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems Overcoming Insoluble Benznidazole Loading (PubMed)

was improved according to the composition and type of LBDDS produced, suggesting possible drug location among surfactant layers. The cell viability assays proved the biocompatibility for all of the prepared nanoemulsions at SOR less than 1.5 and liquid crystals at SOR less than 2.5, demonstrating their promising features for the oral or parenteral colloidal delivery systems containing benznidazole for Chagas disease treatment. (...) Phase Transitions of Isotropic to Anisotropic Biocompatible Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems Overcoming Insoluble Benznidazole Loading Previous studies reported low benznidazole (BNZ) loading in conventional emulsions due to the weak interaction of the drug with the most common oils used to produce foods or pharmaceuticals. In this study, we focused on how the type of surfactant, surfactant-to-oil ratio w/w (SOR) and oil-to-water ratio w/w (OWR) change the phase behavior of different lipid

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2016 International journal of molecular sciences

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