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Parathyroid Anatomy

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1. A reappraisal of vascular anatomy of the parathyroid gland based on fluorescence techniques Full Text available with Trip Pro

A reappraisal of vascular anatomy of the parathyroid gland based on fluorescence techniques Identification of the parathyroid glands (PGs) during thyroid surgery may prevent their inadvertent surgical removal and prevent postoperative hypoparathyroidism. However, identification of the PGs does not guarantee their function, and their vascular supply needs to be preserved as well. The recent introduction of intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent angiography of the PGs during thyroid (...) surgery allows for the appraisal of the vascular anatomy and evaluation of PG function. The use of this tool could lead to a significant reduction in the rate of postoperative hypoparathyroidism, as it allows surgeons to adapt their surgical technique for the preservation of the PGs. ICG fluorescent angiography is currently the only available real-time tool to assess the vascular blood supply of each individual PG intraoperatively and can thus assist surgeons in their decision-making. Herein, we

2017 Gland surgery

2. Parathyroid, Thyroid and Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Anatomy in an Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Parathyroid, Thyroid and Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Anatomy in an Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). The parathyroid gland was first identified in the Indian rhinoceros in 1849 by Sir Richard Owen. We performed a necropsy in an Indian rhinoceros, recapitulating Owen's dissection and display what appear to be the initial identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in situ and the anatomy and histology of the largest rhinoceros parathyroid glands yet identified.Patrick T. Rhino, a 41 (...) structures were photographed in situ and biopsied. The thyroid was identified deep to the strap muscles, received its blood supply from the inferior and superior thyroid arteries and was blue in color. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve, identified and photographed in situ for the first time in the rhinoceros, was deep to the inferior thyroid artery and was traced throughout its cervical course. Single parathyroid glands identified on the lateral thyroid lobes received their blood supply from

2017 World Journal of Surgery

3. Parathyroid Anatomy

Parathyroid Anatomy Parathyroid Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Parathyroid Anatomy Parathyroid Anatomy Aka (...) : Parathyroid Anatomy , Parathyroid Gland , Parathyroid II. Anatomy Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Four Parathyroid Glands in neck One gland positioned behind each of poles III. Physiology Parathyroid Gland regulates extracellular calcium Parathyroid synthesizes (PTH) Parathyroid increases PTH release when calcium falls See for PTH physiology PTH rises when calcium falls, and increases calcium PTH falls when calcium rises, and decreases calcium IV. Pathophysiology See See Images

2018 FP Notebook

4. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

of affected women to men is 1:1 in contrast to primary HPT in which there is a significant female predominance (ratio of 3–4:1).[ ] Anatomy and Histopathology Operatively, parathyroid cancers may be distinguished from adenomas by their firm, stony-hard consistency and lobulation; adenomas tend to be soft, round, or oval in shape, and of a reddish-brown color.[ ] In most series, the median maximal diameter of parathyroid carcinoma is between 3.0 cm and 3.5 cm compared with approximately 1.5 cm for benign (...) Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD

2017 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

5. Parathyroidectomy Without the Utilisation of iPTH: The Gold Standard is Still a Good Operation-How Understanding the Anatomy and a Simple US Can Help. (Abstract)

Parathyroidectomy Without the Utilisation of iPTH: The Gold Standard is Still a Good Operation-How Understanding the Anatomy and a Simple US Can Help. Parathyroid surgery is frequently performed after at least two preoperative localisation studies, in addition to the use of intraoperative ioPTH. The key to performing a successful parathyroidectomy is reliant on the surgeon having an outstanding knowledge of parathyroid embryology and anatomy. With this, it is possible to undertake surgery

2019 World Journal of Surgery

6. Parathyroid Anatomy

Parathyroid Anatomy Parathyroid Anatomy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Parathyroid Anatomy Parathyroid Anatomy Aka (...) : Parathyroid Anatomy , Parathyroid Gland , Parathyroid II. Anatomy Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Four Parathyroid Glands in neck One gland positioned behind each of poles III. Physiology Parathyroid Gland regulates extracellular calcium Parathyroid synthesizes (PTH) Parathyroid increases PTH release when calcium falls See for PTH physiology PTH rises when calcium falls, and increases calcium PTH falls when calcium rises, and decreases calcium IV. Pathophysiology See See Images

2015 FP Notebook

7. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

for This Section Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of a parathyroid gland. The are four pea-sized found in the neck near the . The parathyroid glands make (PTH or parathormone). PTH helps the body use and store to keep the calcium in the at normal levels. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The thyroid gland lies at the base of the throat near the trachea. It is shaped like a butterfly, with the right lobe and left lobe connected by a thin (...) Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ; 2002

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

8. CONCERNING THE SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE THYROID WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PARATHYROID GLANDS Full Text available with Trip Pro

CONCERNING THE SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE THYROID WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PARATHYROID GLANDS 17863480 2007 09 17 2008 11 20 0003-4932 63 1 1916 Jan Annals of surgery Ann. Surg. CONCERNING THE SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE THYROID WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PARATHYROID GLANDS. 71-7 Pool E H EH Falk H C HC eng Journal Article United States Ann Surg 0372354 0003-4932 1916 1 1 0 0 1916 1 1 0 1 1916 1 1 0 0 ppublish 17863480 PMC1406765

1916 Annals of Surgery

9. The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part I Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part I 17232761 2007 02 07 2008 11 20 42 Pt 2 1908 Jan Journal of anatomy and physiology J Anat Physiol The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part I. 141-69 Forsyth D D Charing Cross Hospital. eng Journal Article England J Anat Physiol 7900125 1908 1 1 0 0 1908 1 1 0 1 1908 1 1 0 0 ppublish 17232761 PMC1289173

1908 Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

10. The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part II Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part II 17232773 2007 02 07 2008 11 20 42 Pt 3 1908 Apr Journal of anatomy and physiology J Anat Physiol The Comparative Anatomy, Gross and Minute, of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands in Mammals and Birds: Part II. 302-19 Forsyth D D Charing Cross Hospital. eng Journal Article England J Anat Physiol 7900125 1908 4 1 0 0 1908 4 1 0 1 1908 4 1 0 0 ppublish 17232773 PMC1289166

1908 Journal of Anatomy and Physiology

11. OBSERVATIONS ON TETANY IN DOGS : RELATION OF THE PARATHYROIDS TO THE THYROID; RELATION OF TETANY TO AGE, AMOUNT OF PARATHYROID TISSUE REMOVED, ACCESSORY PARATHYROIDS, PREGNANCY, LACTATION, RICKETS, SULPHUR, AND DIET; RELATION OF PARATHYROIDS TO SUGAR TOLE Full Text available with Trip Pro

, rachitis, the administration of sulphur, and diet. Pregnancy and lactation tetany in dogs resembles in all essentials parathyroid tetany. Our observations are in harmony with those who hold that the thyroid and parathyroid are independent structures as regards their anatomy, physiology, and pathology. The removal of the parathyroids immediately lowers alimentary sugar tolerance, but rarely to the degree of constant glycosuria. In sharp contrast with thyroid substance in myxedema, the feeding (...) OBSERVATIONS ON TETANY IN DOGS : RELATION OF THE PARATHYROIDS TO THE THYROID; RELATION OF TETANY TO AGE, AMOUNT OF PARATHYROID TISSUE REMOVED, ACCESSORY PARATHYROIDS, PREGNANCY, LACTATION, RICKETS, SULPHUR, AND DIET; RELATION OF PARATHYROIDS TO SUGAR TOLE Accessory parathyroid tissue unassociated with the thyroid lobes is present in 5 to 6 per cent. of dogs. For the determination of the presence of accessory parathyroid tissue there are two tests: (1) the anatomical, often entailing serial

1914 The Journal of experimental medicine

12. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

of affected women to men is 1:1 in contrast to primary HPT in which there is a significant female predominance (ratio of 3–4:1).[ ] Anatomy and Histopathology Operatively, parathyroid cancers may be distinguished from adenomas by their firm, stony-hard consistency and lobulation; adenomas tend to be soft, round, or oval in shape, and of a reddish-brown color.[ ] In most series, the median maximal diameter of parathyroid carcinoma is between 3.0 cm and 3.5 cm compared with approximately 1.5 cm for benign (...) Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf Warning: The NCBI web site requires JavaScript to function. Search database Search term Search NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD

2013 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

13. The Uppsala anatomist Ivar Sandström and the parathyroid gland Full Text available with Trip Pro

History, 19th Century Humans Parathyroid Glands physiology Parathyroidectomy Sweden Sandstrom Ivar I Anatomy endocrinology parathyroid gland 2015 4 28 6 0 2015 4 29 6 0 2016 2 9 6 0 ppublish 25913489 10.3109/03009734.2015.1027426 PMC4463479 Triangle. 1962 Jan;5:171-8 13906306 (...) The Uppsala anatomist Ivar Sandström and the parathyroid gland 25913489 2016 02 08 2018 11 13 2000-1967 120 2 2015 May Upsala journal of medical sciences Ups. J. Med. Sci. The Uppsala anatomist Ivar Sandström and the parathyroid gland. 72-7 10.3109/03009734.2015.1027426 Johansson Henry H Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University , Uppsala , Sweden. eng Biography Historical Article Journal Article 2015 04 27 England Ups J Med Sci 0332203 0300-9734 IM Anatomists Bone Diseases etiology

2015 Upsala journal of medical sciences

14. Parathyroid Cancer

, the United States, and Japan, parathyroid carcinoma has been estimated to cause hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in .017% to 5.2% of the cases; however, many series report this entity to account for less than 1% of patients with primary HPT.[ , - ] The median age in most series is between 45 and 51 years.[ ] The ratio of affected women to men is 1:1 in contrast to primary HPT in which there is a significant female predominance (ratio of 3–4:1).[ ] Anatomy and Histopathology Operatively, parathyroid cancers may (...) Parathyroid Cancer Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version - National Cancer Institute Menu Search Search Search General Information About Parathyroid Cancer Incidence Parathyroid adenomas represent a common endocrine problem, whereas parathyroid carcinomas are very rare tumors. With an estimated incidence of 0.015 per 100,000 population and an estimated prevalence of .005% in the United States, parathyroid cancer is one of the rarest of all human cancers.[ , ] In Europe

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

15. Parathyroid Adenoma

in this study. [ ] False-negative findings result from small or ectopic parathyroid glands, poor visualization of neck structures as a result of streak artifact or distorted neck anatomy due to prior surgery, and misinterpretation of a parathyroid adenoma for a thyroid nodule. Multigland disease, including 4-gland hyperplasia, can be particularly challenging to diagnose, even with modern CT technique. Previous Next: Magnetic Resonance Imaging A typical MRI protocol involves the acquisition of images through (...) Parathyroid Adenoma Parathyroid Adenoma Imaging: Overview, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMzg0MDI0LW92ZXJ2aWV3 processing > Parathyroid Adenoma

2014 eMedicine Radiology

16. Embryology of the Thyroid and Parathyroids

stages and concurrent embryonic anatomy. Curr Top Dev Biol . 2013. 106:123-70. . Mohebati A, Shaha AR. Anatomy of thyroid and parathyroid glands and neurovascular relations. Clin Anat . 2012 Jan. 25(1):19-31. . Henry JF. Applied embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Randolph GW, ed. Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands . Philadelphia: Saunders; 2003. 12-20. Akerström G, Malmaeus J, Bergström R. Surgical anatomy of human parathyroid glands. Surgery . 1984 Jan. 95(1):14-21 (...) . . Thompson NW, Eckhauser FE, Harness JK. The anatomy of primary hyperparathyroidism. Surgery . 1982 Nov. 92(5):814-21. . Media Gallery Superior parathyroids. Inferior parathyroids. of 2 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Philip E Zapanta, MD, FACS Associate Professor of Surgery, Otolaryngology Residency Program Director and Medical Education Fellowship Co-Director, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences; Staff Surgeon, Division of Otolaryngology-Head

2014 eMedicine Surgery

17. Parathyroid Physiology

. For a detailed discussion of surgical anatomy and technique, please refer to the article . Preoperative evaluation For a discussion of preoperative localization studies for parathyroid adenoma and their impact on operative management, please refer to the article . Preoperative screening should include a serum calcium level and a confirmed elevated or inappropriately high normal intact parathyroid hormone level. Intact parathyroid hormone assay differentiates primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) from (...) is approved, however, primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) remains a surgical disease. Previous Next: Anatomy For a detailed discussion of the anatomy of parathyroid glands, please refer to the article . Previous References Vaidya A, Curhan GC, Paik JM, Wang M, Taylor EN. Physical Activity and the Risk of Primary Hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2016 Jan 26. jc20153836. . Maeda SS, Moreira CA, Borba VZC, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of hypoparathyroidism: a position statement from

2014 eMedicine Surgery

18. Salient Anatomical Landmarks of Thyroid and Their Practical Significance in Thyroid Surgery: a Pictorial Review of Thyroid Surgical Anatomy (Revisited) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Salient Anatomical Landmarks of Thyroid and Their Practical Significance in Thyroid Surgery: a Pictorial Review of Thyroid Surgical Anatomy (Revisited) Thyroid surgery is a prototype of operations requiring thorough knowledge of surgical anatomy. There are many vital and delicate anatomical structures such as recurrent laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve, parathyroid glands, and distinct fascial planes surrounding the thyroid gland. A protean range of pathologies such as goiter, nodules (...) in the surgical management of thyroid disorders. Surgeons attempting thyroidectomy need to have thorough knowledge of embryology and surgical anatomy of the thyroid gland. In this context, we highlight through a pictorial assay the embryological and anatomical aspects of the thyroid gland emphasizing on their clinical and surgical importance.

2013 The Indian journal of surgery

19. The local action of the parathyroid and other tissues on bone in intracerebral grafts Full Text available with Trip Pro

The local action of the parathyroid and other tissues on bone in intracerebral grafts 17105062 2007 07 27 2018 11 13 0021-8782 82 Pt 4 1948 Oct Journal of anatomy J. Anat. The local action of the parathyroid and other tissues on bone in intracerebral grafts. 233-248.2 Barnicot N A NA University College, London. eng Journal Article England J Anat 0137162 0021-8782 1948 10 1 0 0 1948 10 1 0 1 1948 10 1 0 0 ppublish 17105062 PMC1273067 J Clin Invest. 1929 Jun;7(2):183-201 16693857 J Clin Invest

1948 Journal of anatomy

20. Fine structural appearances in the rat parathyroid Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fine structural appearances in the rat parathyroid 13405816 2002 05 01 2018 12 01 0021-8782 91 1 1957 Jan Journal of anatomy J. Anat. Fine structural appearances in the rat parathyroid. 73-81 LEVER J D JD eng Journal Article England J Anat 0137162 0021-8782 OM Animals Electrons Histological Techniques Microscopy Microscopy, Electron Parathyroid Glands anatomy & histology Rats 5732:3655 MICROSCOPY, ELECTRON PARATHYROID GLANDS/anatomy and histology 1957 1 1 1957 1 1 0 1 1957 1 1 0 0 ppublish

1957 Journal of anatomy

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