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Parasympathetic Nervous System

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1. The underlying mechanism of prodromal PD: insights from the parasympathetic nervous system and the olfactory system (PubMed)

The underlying mechanism of prodromal PD: insights from the parasympathetic nervous system and the olfactory system Neurodegeneration of Parkinson's disease (PD) starts in an insidious manner, 30-50% of dopaminergic neurons have been lost in the substantia nigra before clinical diagnosis. Prodromal stage of the disease, during which the disease pathology has started but is insufficient to result in clinical manifestations, offers a valuable window for disease-modifying therapies. The most (...) focused underlying mechanisms linking the pathological pattern and clinical characteristics of prodromal PD are the prion hypothesis of alpha-synuclein and the selective vulnerability of neurons. In this review, we consider the two potential portals, the vagus nerve and the olfactory bulb, through which abnormal alpha-synuclein can access the brain. We review the clinical, pathological and neuroimaging evidence of the parasympathetic nervous system and the olfactory system in the neurodegenerative

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2017 Translational neurodegeneration

2. The role of the baroreflex and parasympathetic nervous system in fructose-induced cardiac and metabolic alterations (PubMed)

The role of the baroreflex and parasympathetic nervous system in fructose-induced cardiac and metabolic alterations It is well-established that baroreflex sensitivity is essential for blood pressure control, and also plays a key role in the modulation of disease-induced metabolic alterations. In order to investigate the role of the baroreflex in the cardiometabolic and inflammatory derangements promoted by fructose overload, Wistar rats underwent sinoaortic denervation (SAD) or sham surgery (...) to that observed in SAD rats, which is accompanied by cardiometabolic dysfunctions; (2) the compensatory enhancement in parasympathetic function in SAD rats submitted to fructose intake may point out the possibility of use of approaches that improve vagal function as therapeutic target to attenuate fructose-induced cardiometabolic dysfunctions.

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2018 Scientific reports

3. Aging Alters the Relative Contributions of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System to Blood Pressure Control in Women. (PubMed)

Aging Alters the Relative Contributions of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System to Blood Pressure Control in Women. Autonomic support of blood pressure increases with age in humans. Large differences exist in the dose of trimethaphan (TMP) required for ganglionic blockade in young and older women. We asked whether differences in the dose of TMP required to achieve ganglionic blockade are because of differences in the relative contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic (...) nervous system in control of blood pressure with age. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography, peroneal nerve), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure were recorded before and during incremental doses of TMP camsylate until ganglionic blockade was achieved (absence of muscle sympathetic nerve activity and <5-bpm increase in HR during a valsalva maneuver; final TMP dose, 1-7 mg/min). HR variability was analyzed from the ECG waveform (WinCPRS). The dose of TMP required to achieve ganglionic

2018 Hypertension

4. The cold pressor test in interictal migraine patients - different parasympathetic pupillary response indicates dysbalance of the cranial autonomic nervous system. (PubMed)

The cold pressor test in interictal migraine patients - different parasympathetic pupillary response indicates dysbalance of the cranial autonomic nervous system. Data on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activations in migraine patients are quite controversial, with previous studies reporting over- and underactivation of the sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nervous system. In the present study, we explicitly aimed to assess the cranial ANS in migraine patients compared to healthy controls (...) reflex (PLR) constriction velocity was significantly higher in migraineurs than in controls (5.59 ± 0.73 mm/s vs. 5.16 ± 0.53 mm/s; unpaired t-test p < 0.05), while both cardiovascular parameters and PLR dilatation velocity were similar in both groups at this time point.Our findings of an increased PLR constriction velocity after sustained sympathetic stimulation in interictal migraine patients suggest an exaggerated parasympathetic response of the cranial ANS. This indicates that brainstem

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2018 BMC Neurology

5. DNA methylation of OXTR is associated with parasympathetic nervous system activity and amygdala morphology (PubMed)

DNA methylation of OXTR is associated with parasympathetic nervous system activity and amygdala morphology Oxytocin has anxiolytic properties whose mechanisms of action are still being identified. DNA methylation in the promoter region of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), an epigenetic modification that putatively reflects a downtuning of the oxytocin system, has previously been implicated in the regulation of fear-related responses through the amygdala. In this study, we attempted (...) to characterize the relationship between methylation of OXTR and anxiogenesis using two distinct endophenotypes: autonomic nervous system activity and subcortical brain structure. In 79 participants, we found that increased OXTR methylation is associated with attenuated resting parasympathetic tone, measured using high-frequency heart rate variability. Further, we found that this relationship is mediated by brain morphology, such that OXTR methylation is associated with increased gray matter of the central

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2018 Social cognitive and affective neuroscience

6. Parasympathetic nervous system response to acidosis: evaluation in an experimental fetal sheep model. (PubMed)

Parasympathetic nervous system response to acidosis: evaluation in an experimental fetal sheep model. Heart rate variability and fetal heart rate decelerations are impacted by parasympathetic function and reflect acid-base status. Our team developed a new heart rate variability index, the fetal stress index (FSI), which has lower interindividual variability and higher sensitivity for detecting fluctuations in parasympathetic nervous system activity. The aim of this study was to explore (...) ).This experimental protocol allowed the development of progressive acidosis in a good model of the physiology of labor. Parasympathetic nervous system activity increased during acidosis and could be measured using our index, the FSI, and the magnitude of fetal heart rate decelerations.© 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

2018 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

7. Electroacupuncture brain protection during ischemic stroke: A role for the parasympathetic nervous system. (PubMed)

Electroacupuncture brain protection during ischemic stroke: A role for the parasympathetic nervous system. The demand for using parasympathetic activation for stroke therapy is unmet. In the current study, we investigated whether the neuroprotection provided by electroacupuncture (EA) in an experimental stroke model was associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The results showed that parasympathetic dysfunction (PD), performed as unilateral vagotomy combined (...) with peripheral atropine, attenuated both the functional benefits of EA and its effects in improving cerebral perfusion, reducing infarct volume, and hindering apoptosis, neuronal and peripheral inflammation, and oxidative stress. Most importantly, EA rats showed a dramatically less reduction in the mRNA level of choline acetyltransferase, five subtypes of muscarinic receptors and α7nAChR, suggesting the inhibition of the impairment of the central cholinergic system; EA also activated dorsal motor nucleus

2017 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

8. Kamikihito improves cancer-related fatigue by restoring balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (PubMed)

Kamikihito improves cancer-related fatigue by restoring balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most prevalent symptoms that patients with cancer experience, but the mechanisms underlying it are unknown. We aimed to quantify and mechanistically evaluate the improvement in fatigue related to administration of the Kampo medicine, Kamikihito.Initially, we recruited outpatients with urological diseases and compared fatigue levels (...) Depression scale, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. Serum levels of derivatives of reactive oxygen species and biological antioxidant potential were also measured.Patients in the cancer treatment group experienced more fatigue compared with the control patients when evaluated using an autonomic function analyzer. The group of 35 patients who were administered Kamikihito showed improved scores for fatigue, depression, and sleepiness. Autonomic nervous system balance was also improved with Kamikihito

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2017 Prostate international

9. Acute Stress Impairs Inhibitory Control based on Individual Differences in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity (PubMed)

Acute Stress Impairs Inhibitory Control based on Individual Differences in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity Identifying environmental influences on inhibitory control (IC) may help promote positive behavioral and social adjustment. Although chronic stress is known to predict lower IC, the immediate effects of acute stress are unknown. The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) may be a mechanism of the stress-IC link, given its psychophysiological regulatory role and connections

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2017 Biological psychology

10. Altitude exposure and increased heart rate: the role of the parasympathetic nervous system (PubMed)

Altitude exposure and increased heart rate: the role of the parasympathetic nervous system 28409829 2018 12 24 2018 12 24 1469-7793 595 14 2017 07 15 The Journal of physiology J. Physiol. (Lond.) Altitude exposure and increased heart rate: the role of the parasympathetic nervous system. 4589-4590 10.1113/JP274220 Attias Julia J 0000-0003-3420-7977 Centre of Human and Aerospace Physiological Sciences, King's College London, London, UK. Bieles Julie J Centre of Human and Aerospace Physiological (...) . O'Brien Katie K Centre of Human and Aerospace Physiological Sciences, King's College London, London, UK. Ruchaya Prashant P Centre of Human and Aerospace Physiological Sciences, King's College London, London, UK. eng Journal Article Comment 2017 05 14 England J Physiol 0266262 0022-3751 IM J Physiol. 2017 Mar 1;595(5):1619-1626 27966225 Altitude Autonomic Nervous System Heart Rate Humans Parasympathetic Nervous System Tachycardia heart rate hypoxia parasympathetic 2017 4 15 6 0 2018 12 26 6 0 2017 4

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2017 The Journal of physiology

11. A role of the parasympathetic nervous system in cognitive training (PubMed)

A role of the parasympathetic nervous system in cognitive training Vision-based speed of processing (VSOP) training can result in broad cognitive improvements in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). What remains unknown, however, is what neurophysiological mechanisms account for the observed training effect. Much of the work in this area has focused on the central nervous system, neglecting the fact that the peripheral system can contributes to changes of the central (...) nervous system and vice versa.We examined the prospective relationship between an adaptive parasympathetic nervous system response to cognitive stimuli and VSOP training-induced plasticity.Twenty-one participants with aMCI (10 for VSOP training, and 11 for mental leisure activities (MLA) control) were enrolled. We assessed high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) during training sessions, and striatum-related neural networks and cognition at baseline and post-training.Compared to MLA, the VSOP

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2017 Current Alzheimer research

12. Parasympathetic nervous system activity predicts mood repair use and its effectiveness among adolescents with and without histories of major depression (PubMed)

Parasympathetic nervous system activity predicts mood repair use and its effectiveness among adolescents with and without histories of major depression Depressive disorders that onset in the juvenile years have been linked to far-reaching adverse consequences, making it imperative to elucidate key mechanisms and contributory factors. Excessive use of regulatory responses that exacerbate sadness (maladaptive mood repair) or insufficient use of regulatory responses that reduce it (adaptive mood

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2016 Journal of abnormal psychology

13. Parasympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction, as Identified by Pupil Light Reflex, and Its Possible Connection to Hearing Impairment (PubMed)

Parasympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction, as Identified by Pupil Light Reflex, and Its Possible Connection to Hearing Impairment Although the pupil light reflex has been widely used as a clinical diagnostic tool for autonomic nervous system dysfunction, there is no systematic review available to summarize the evidence that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive method to detect parasympathetic dysfunction. Meanwhile, the relationship between parasympathetic functioning and hearing impairment (...) is relatively unknown.To 1) review the evidence for the pupil light reflex being a sensitive method to evaluate parasympathetic dysfunction, 2) review the evidence relating hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity and 3) seek evidence of possible connections between hearing impairment and the pupil light reflex.Literature searches were performed in five electronic databases. All selected articles were categorized into three sections: pupil light reflex and parasympathetic dysfunction, hearing

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2016 PloS one

14. Parasympathetic Nervous System

Parasympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Parasympathetic Nervous (...) System Parasympathetic Nervous System Aka: Parasympathetic Nervous System , Parasympathetic System , Parasympathetic Nerve II. Definitions Parasympathetic Nervous System Part of with activity that typically counters the Energy conserving (anabolic) system activated in rest and relaxation situations Contrast with the , an energy expending system activated in times of stress III. Physiology: Activity Decreases pupil size ( ) and contracts ciliary muscle (accommodation) Stimulates ry WATERY secretion

2018 FP Notebook

15. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise (PubMed)

Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty (...) -six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity

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2016 PloS one

16. Lost your nerve? Modulating the parasympathetic nervous system to treat inflammatory bowel disease (PubMed)

Lost your nerve? Modulating the parasympathetic nervous system to treat inflammatory bowel disease 27477606 2017 12 28 2018 12 02 1469-7793 594 15 2016 08 01 The Journal of physiology J. Physiol. (Lond.) Lost your nerve? Modulating the parasympathetic nervous system to treat inflammatory bowel disease. 4097-8 10.1113/JP272372 Costantini Todd W TW Division of Trauma, Surgical Critical Care, Burns and Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CA, USA. Baird Andrew (...) A 0000-0003-0027-9905 Division of Trauma, Surgical Critical Care, Burns and Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CA, USA. eng Journal Article Comment England J Physiol 0266262 0022-3751 IM J Physiol. 2016 Aug 1;594(15):4309-23 26939757 Humans Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Parasympathetic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System 2016 03 16 2016 04 15 2016 8 2 6 0 2016 8 2 6 0 2017 12 29 6 0 ppublish 27477606 10.1113/JP272372 PMC4967743 Am J Physiol Gastrointest

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2016 The Journal of physiology

17. Aromatherapy Improves Work Performance Through Balancing the Autonomic Nervous System. (PubMed)

Aromatherapy Improves Work Performance Through Balancing the Autonomic Nervous System. This study analyzed the efficacy of aromatherapy in improving work performance and reducing workplace stress.The initial sample comprised 42 administrative university workers (Mage = 42.21 years, standard deviation = 7.12; 10 male).All sessions were performed in a university computer classroom. The participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group (AG) and a control group (CG), and they were (...) on the Web site as "performance time."Before and after the intervention, participants completed anxiety and mood state questionnaires (the Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] and the Profile of Mood States [POMS]). Heart-rate variability (HRV) was measured before (PRE), during (20-25 min), and after (POS) the intervention to analyze autonomic nervous system regulation.The AG performed the Web site task 2.28 min faster than the CG (p = 0.05). The two groups showed differences in the following HRV

2017 Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)

18. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity. (PubMed)

Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity. This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram signal was used to derive (...) PEP. Overall, our findings are consistent with a predominant role of the parasympathetic nervous system in restorative effects of viewing green space.

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2015 International journal of environmental research and public health

19. Meta-analytic evidence for decreased heart rate variability in chronic pain implicating parasympathetic nervous system dysregulation. (PubMed)

Meta-analytic evidence for decreased heart rate variability in chronic pain implicating parasympathetic nervous system dysregulation. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are involved in regulating pain states. The activity of these systems seems to become disturbed in states of chronic pain. This disruption in autonomic balance can be measured through the assessment of heart rate variability (HRV), that is, the variability of the interval between consecutive heart beats (...) -frequency HRV in chronic pain, implicating a decrease in parasympathetic activation. These effects were heavily influenced by fibromyalgia studies. Future research would benefit from wider use of standardised definitions of measurement, and also investigating the synergistic changes in pain state and HRV throughout the development and implementation of mechanism-based treatments for chronic pain.

2015 Pain

20. Altered parasympathetic nervous system regulation of the sinoatrial node in Akita diabetic mice. (PubMed)

Altered parasympathetic nervous system regulation of the sinoatrial node in Akita diabetic mice. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus that impairs autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR). This has been attributed to damage to the nerves that modulate spontaneous pacemaker activity in the sinoatrial node (SAN). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that impaired parasympathetic regulation of HR in diabetes is due to reduced responsiveness (...) of the SAN to parasympathetic agonists. We used the Akita mouse model of type 1 diabetes to study the effects of the parasympathetic agonist carbachol (CCh) on SAN function using intracardiac programmed stimulation, high resolution optical mapping and patch-clamping of SAN myocytes. CCh decreased HR by 30% and increased corrected SAN recovery time (cSNRT) by 123% in wildtype mice. In contrast, CCh only decreased HR by 12%, and only increased cSNRT by 37% in Akita mice. These alterations were due

2015 Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology

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