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Pain Sensation

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161. Pain Assessment

and radiation; a body diagram can help character; a list of descriptive words may help intensity and severity; a rating scale can help timing and duration exacerbating factors relieving factors, including medication effect on function, sleep and mood response to previous medication and treatment. Use a structured pain assessment tool to record the patient’s pain. Examine the patient to try and determine the cause of pain eg tender hepatomegaly, abnormal sensation. Assess the impact of the pain (...) nerve pain: burning, shooting, tingling, jagging, altered sensation, dermatomal distribution. Consider . liver pain: hepatomegaly, right upper quadrant tenderness, referred pain shoulder tip raised intracranial pressure: headache, or both, often worse in the morning or with lying down colic: intermittent cramping pain. Consider , bladder spasm. Consider adjuvant therapies (see guideline). Treatment-related pain: chemotherapy neuropathy, due to opioids, radiation-induced mucositis. Debility: pressure

2015 Scottish Palliative Care Guidelines

162. Neuropathic pain - drug treatment

Neuropathic pain - drug treatment Neuropathic pain - drug treatment - NICE CKS Share Neuropathic pain - drug treatment: Summary Neuropathic pain is a symptom that develops as a result of damage to, or dysfunction of, the nervous system. The pain may be constant or intermittent, and it is typically described as shooting, stabbing, burning, tingling, numb, prickling, or itching. The causes of neuropathic pain are complex and diverse and include diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, stroke (...) , spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis. In many cases, it is not possible to completely cure the underlying disease or lesion or to reverse the neurological changes. Consequently, neuropathic pain is usually persistent in these cases. The general principles for prescribing drug treatment for neuropathic pain include considering: Contraindications and potential adverse effects, especially for people with comorbid conditions. Interactions with other medications. Comorbid conditions that may benefit

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

163. Scrotal pain and swelling

be a dragging sensation in the scrotum. Pain is present in 20–27% of people with testicular cancer. Most common in men 20–40 years of age, but can occur in older men, when it is usually a lymphoma. Usually presents with testicular enlargement. On palpation, there is a solid, firm swelling involving all or part of testis. There may be associated back or flank pain, breathlessness, supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, abdominal mass (enlarged para-aortic lymph nodes), weight loss, gynaecomastia, epididymo (...) Scrotal pain and swelling Scrotal pain and swelling - NICE CKS Share Scrotal pain and swellings: Summary Common, or important causes of scrotal swelling include: Testicular cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum. Testicular torsion (torsion of spermatic cord). Torsion of a testicular or epididymal appendage. Epididymo-orchitis. Epididymal cyst, or spermatocele. Varicocele. Hydrocele. Haematocele. To identify the cause of scrotal swelling, the man or boy should be asked about: Presence

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

164. Modulation of pain sensation by stress-related testosterone and cortisol. (Abstract)

Modulation of pain sensation by stress-related testosterone and cortisol. Stress increases cortisol and decreases testosterone. It is not known whether pain is affected by stress-related testosterone. Therefore, we investigated whether stress can affect pain perception by decreasing testosterone and increasing cortisol. Pain thresholds, pain and anxiety ratings and salivary testosterone and cortisol levels were measured in 46 healthy men during resting and stressful conditions. Pain was induced (...) by electrical stimulation. Stress was induced by having participants perform a medical test. Stress significantly increased anxiety ratings and salivary cortisol levels, but decreased salivary testosterone levels. Stress also increased pain ratings and decreased pain thresholds. During stress, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with pain thresholds and testosterone levels were positively correlated with pain thresholds. Results indicated that testosterone can decrease and cortisol can increase pain

2012 Anaesthesia

165. Sensation of Abdominal Pain Induced by Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Is Accompanied by Changes in the Expression of Substance P and μ -Opioid Receptors in the Spinal Cord of Mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sensation of Abdominal Pain Induced by Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Is Accompanied by Changes in the Expression of Substance P and μ -Opioid Receptors in the Spinal Cord of Mice. Patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis often report abdominal pain, which is relatively refractory to morphine. It has been considered that a new animal model is required to investigate the mechanism of abdominal pain for the development of optimal treatments for this type of pain.To prepare a peritoneal carcinomatosis (...) model, highly peritoneal-seeding gastric cancer cells, 60As6, were implanted into the abdominal cavity. The nociceptive modality for pain-related behavior was assessed in terms of withdrawal behavior in response to mechanical stimuli and hunching behavior. Tissue samples from mouse dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord were subject to immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Mice with peritoneal dissemination showed significant hypersensitivity of the abdomen

2012 Anesthesiology

166. Effect of local exposure to inhomogeneous static magnetic field on stomatological pain sensation - a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. (Abstract)

Effect of local exposure to inhomogeneous static magnetic field on stomatological pain sensation - a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Static magnetic field (SMF) exposure was shown experimentally to beneficially affect the healing process. The aim of this randomized, controlled trial was to evaluate the pain-inhibitory effect of local exposure to SMF on temporomandibular disorders, on alveolitis and on aphta in the oral mucosa.Pain perception was evaluated on the basis (...) of ordinary visual analogue scale (VAS) testing before and after exposure. SMF (0-192 mT peak-to-peak magnetic induction and 19 T/m lateral gradient at 3 mm from the magnets) and sham exposure was executed in a double-blind manner. A single intervention took 5 min. Altogether 79 adult patients (22 males and 57 females) with a mean (± standard error of the mean) age of 37.4 ± 1.8 years (70.9% between 20 and 50 years) participated in the study.SMF exposure significantly reduced pain perception (reduction

2012 International journal of radiation biology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

167. Sensations of gas and pain and their relationship with compliance during distension in human colon. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sensations of gas and pain and their relationship with compliance during distension in human colon. Colonic mechanosensory afferents 'in parallel' to circular muscle activate prevertebral ganglion reflexes; 'in series', afferents convey visceral sensation to the central nervous system; and pain receptors are activated with muscle distension. Our aim was to analyze the relationships of gas and pain sensations during graded distensions, and the association of sensations with colonic compliance (...) in conscious humans.The data were acquired in a prior study performed on 60 healthy volunteers (aged 18-75 years) under baseline conditions. Colonic compliance was measured in response to 4 mmHg stepwise balloon distensions to estimate pressure at half-maximum volume (Pr(50%)). Sensation ratings for gas and pain were averaged over distensions at 16, 24, 30 and 36 mmHg above baseline operating pressure. Associations between mean gas and pain ratings, and colonic compliance were assessed with Pearson

2012 Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

168. Ranking of dental and somatic pain sensations among paediatric dental patients. (Abstract)

Ranking of dental and somatic pain sensations among paediatric dental patients. Children suffer from somatic and dental pain, which may interfere with their everyday life. Pain self-report tools are available for children. Research is needed to better understand the perception of dental pain in comparison with pain in other organs.To investigate relations between the perceptions of dental and somatic pain complaints among school-age children.One hundred and two children, aged 7-17 years (mean (...) age, 11.5 ± 2.65 years), completed questioners regarding their somatic and dental: 1. Memory pain rank (MPR) and 2. Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (FRS).Children reported increased dental pain after school in both scales (P = 0.015 in MPR). In both MPR and FRS, the pattern of pain ranking was similar: Abdominal pain was scored highest (2.75 ± 1.4 and 1.56 ± 1.63, respectively), followed by headache, ear, dental and TMJ (Temporomandibular joint).There was a strong correlation between pain

2012 International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry

169. Thermal grill-evoked sensations of heat correlate with cold pain threshold and are enhanced by menthol and cinnamaldehyde. (Abstract)

Thermal grill-evoked sensations of heat correlate with cold pain threshold and are enhanced by menthol and cinnamaldehyde. Thunberg's thermal grill produces a sensation of strong heat upon skin contact with spatially interlaced innocuous warm and cool stimuli.To examine the classes of peripheral axons that might contribute to this illusion, the effects of topical l-menthol, an activator of TRPM8, and cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist, on the magnitude of thermal sensations were examined during (...) grill stimulation in healthy volunteers.Under control conditions, cutaneous grill stimulation (interlaced 20/40 °C) evoked a sensation of heat, and for individual subjects, the magnitude of this heat sensation was positively correlated with cold pain threshold (CPT). Menthol increased the CPT and enhanced the magnitude of grill-evoked heat. Cinnamaldehyde intensified warm sensations, reduced heat pain threshold and also enhanced grill-evoked heat.Both TRPM8-expressing and TRPA1-expressing afferent

2012 European Journal of Pain

170. BOLD responses in somatosensory cortices better reflect heat sensation than pain Full Text available with Trip Pro

BOLD responses in somatosensory cortices better reflect heat sensation than pain The discovery of cortical networks that participate in pain processing has led to the common generalization that blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in these areas indicate the processing of pain. Physical stimuli have fundamental properties that elicit sensations distinguishable from pain, such as heat. We hypothesized that pain intensity coding may reflect the intensity coding of heat sensation during (...) the presentation of thermal stimuli during fMRI. Six 3T fMRI heat scans were collected for 16 healthy subjects, corresponding to perceptual levels of "low innocuous heat," "moderate innocuous heat," "high innocuous heat," "low painful heat," "moderate painful heat," and "high painful heat" delivered by a contact thermode to the face. Subjects rated pain and heat intensity separately after each scan. A general linear model analysis detected different patterns of brain activation for the different phases

2012 The Journal of Neuroscience

171. CGRPα-Expressing Sensory Neurons Respond to Stimuli that Evoke Sensations of Pain and Itch Full Text available with Trip Pro

CGRPα-Expressing Sensory Neurons Respond to Stimuli that Evoke Sensations of Pain and Itch Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRPα, encoded by Calca) is a classic marker of nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Despite years of research, it is unclear what stimuli these neurons detect in vitro or in vivo. To facilitate functional studies of these neurons, we genetically targeted an axonal tracer (farnesylated enhanced green fluorescent protein; GFP) and a LoxP-stopped cell ablation (...) study provides direct evidence that CGRPα(+) DRG neurons respond to agonists that evoke pain and itch and constitute a sensory circuit that is largely distinct from nonpeptidergic circuits and TRPM8(+)/cool temperature circuits. In future studies, it should be possible to conditionally ablate CGRPα-expressing neurons to evaluate sensory and non-sensory functions for these neurons.

2012 PloS one

172. Comparison of Two Lidocaine Administration Techniques on Perceived Pain From Bedside Procedures: A Randomized Clinical Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of Two Lidocaine Administration Techniques on Perceived Pain From Bedside Procedures: A Randomized Clinical Trial Lidocaine is used to alleviate procedural pain but paradoxically increases pain during injection. Pain perception can be modulated by non-noxious stimuli such as temperature or touch according to the gate control theory of pain. We postulated that lidocaine dripped onto the skin prior to injection would cool or add the sensation of touch at the skin surface to reduce pain (...) (severity of pain from the procedure) using a visual analog scale.A total of 481 patients provided consent and were randomized to treatment. There was a significant improvement in the primary outcome of procedural pain (control, 16.6 ± 24.8 mm vs 12.2 ± 19.4 mm; P = .03) with the intervention group as assessed by using the visual analog scale score. Pain scores were primarily improved for peripherally inserted central catheters (control, 18.8 ± 25.6 mm vs 12.2 ± 18.2 mm; P = .02) upon subgroup

2018 EvidenceUpdates

173. Evaluation of Pressure Sense Threshold and Tactile Sensation After Lidocaine Iontophoresis Using Interferential Current

in mm. Pain and tactile thresholds were investigated using an electrical stimulator.The intensity was gradually increased to the extent that the participant reported a tingling sensation. The displayed intensity was considered as the tactile sense threshold. Then, the intensity was increased to the extent to be intolerable for the participant and this intensity was considered as the maximum pain threshold. The thresholds were recorded in milliampere. Lidocaine iontophoresis using interferential (...) Evaluation of Pressure Sense Threshold and Tactile Sensation After Lidocaine Iontophoresis Using Interferential Current Evaluation of Pressure Sense Threshold and Tactile Sensation After Lidocaine Iontophoresis Using Interferential Current - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum

2015 Clinical Trials

174. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation. Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All (...) subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data

2015 Journal of rehabilitation research and development Controlled trial quality: uncertain

175. Comparing Ways to Freeze the Nerve That Provides Thigh Sensation

Information provided by (Responsible Party): Gaurav Gupta, Canadian Forces Health Services Centre Ottawa Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Background The sensation on the outside of portion of our thighs is provided by a nerve called the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN). The investigators can inject freezing around the nerve to reduce the feeling around the thigh (i.e. anesthesia). Anesthesia, or freezing, of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve can reduce pain for patients having (...) Comparing Ways to Freeze the Nerve That Provides Thigh Sensation Comparing Ways to Freeze the Nerve That Provides Thigh Sensation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Comparing Ways to Freeze

2015 Clinical Trials

176. PK2/PKR1 Signaling Regulates Bladder Function and Sensation in Rats with Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

time points (4 h, 48 h, and 8 d) after CYP treatment. Combining a nonselective antagonist of prokineticin receptors (PKRA), we further evaluated the regulatory role of PK2 in modulating bladder function and visceral pain sensation via conscious cystometry and pain behavioral scoring. PK2 and prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1), but not prokineticin receptor 2, were detected in normal and upregulated in CYP-treated rat bladders at several levels. Immunohistochemistry staining localized PKR1 primarily (...) in the urothelium. Blocking PKRs with PKRA showed no effect on micturition reflex activity and bladder sensation in control rats while it increased the voiding volume, prolonged voiding interval, and ameliorated visceral hyperalgesia in rats suffering from CYP-induced cystitis. In conclusion, PK2/PKR1 signaling pathway contributes to the modulation of inflammation-mediated voiding dysfunction and spontaneous visceral pain. Local blockade of PKRs may represent a novel and promising therapeutic strategy

2015 Mediators of inflammation

177. A Pilot Study of the Effect of Daikenchuto on Rectal Sensation in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and postprandial), bowel pattern, abdominal pain (average and worst severity) and bloating scores, IBS quality of life and safety profile.Rectal sensation ratings post-treatment were significantly associated with baseline (pre-treatment) ratings and with level of anxiety or stress recorded at the time of the sensation testing. There were no effects of TU-100 treatment on rectal sensation ratings, sensation thresholds, rectal fasting or postprandial tone, rectal compliance, bowel function, abdominal pain (...) A Pilot Study of the Effect of Daikenchuto on Rectal Sensation in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Daikenchuto (TU 100), a botanical agent that modulates gastrointestinal nerves, is used in the treatment of motility and functional disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of TU-100 on rectal compliance and sensation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).In 20 patients per treatment arm, we conducted a single-center, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled

2015 Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility Controlled trial quality: uncertain

178. Altered thermal grill response and paradoxical heat sensations after topical capsaicin application. (Abstract)

thresholds, PHS, and warm, cold, and pain sensations to alternating cold (10°C) and warm (40°C) bars (the thermal grill [TG]) in the primary area (application site) after topical application with capsaicin and vehicle control (ethanol) on the volar forearms in randomized order in 80 healthy participants. As expected, capsaicin induced heat allodynia and hyperalgesia and decreased cold and cold pain sensation. In addition, we found that after capsaicin application, the TG caused less pain and burning than (...) the 40°C bars alone in contrast to the control side where the TG caused more pain and burning, consistent with the thermal grill illusion. In both situations, the pain intensity during the TG correlated inversely with both cold and warm pain thresholds but not with detection thresholds. Paradoxical heat sensation was only seen in 3 participants after control application but in 19 participants after capsaicin. Those with PHS after capsaicin application had higher detection thresholds to both cold

2015 Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

179. Placebo-induced somatic sensations: a multi-modal study of three different placebo interventions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

stimulation. The quality and intensity of evoked sensations were assessed using the McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS), while subjects' sensation drawings processed by a geographic information system (GIS) were used to measure their spatial characteristics. We found that all three interventions are capable of producing robust sensations most frequently described as "tingling" and "warm" that can reach consider-able spatial extent (≤ 205 mm²) and intensity (≤ 80/100 VAS). Sensations (...) from placebo stimulation were often referred to areas remote from the stimulation site and exhibit considerable similarity with referred pain. Interestingly, there was considerable similarity of qualitative features as well as spatial patterns across subjects and placebos. However, placebo laser stimulation elicited significantly stronger and more widespread sensations than placebo irritant solution. Finally, novelty seeking, a character trait assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory

2015 PloS one

180. The effect of analgesic drugs on the sensation of thermal pain in man Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effect of analgesic drugs on the sensation of thermal pain in man 14954117 2004 02 15 2018 12 01 0366-0826 7 2 1952 Jun British journal of pharmacology and chemotherapy Br J Pharmacol Chemother The effect of analgesic drugs on the sensation of thermal pain in man. 203-14 JACKSON H H eng Journal Article England Br J Pharmacol Chemother 0154627 0366-0826 0 Analgesics OM Analgesics pharmacology Humans Male Pain Sensation 5222:40575:23:326 ANALGESICS/effects PAIN 1952 6 1 1952 6 1 0 1 1952 6 1

1952 British journal of pharmacology and chemotherapy

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