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Pain Sensation

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9661. Fentanyl reduces the intensity of painful tooth pulp sensations: controlling for detection of active drugs. (Abstract)

Fentanyl reduces the intensity of painful tooth pulp sensations: controlling for detection of active drugs. This study assessed whether experimentally determined narcotic analgesia in human subjects represents a pharmacologic effect or a psychological effect of detecting the administration of an active medication. Forty dental patients used a verbal descriptor procedure to assess both the intensity and unpleasantness of sensations produced by electrical stimulation of intact teeth. Stimuli were (...) that the reduction in pain intensity following fentanyl administration represents an analgesic effect and not an artifact of detecting the administration of an active medication. They also suggest that diazepam at this dose does not alter pain sensations produced by electrical tooth pulp stimulation.

1982 Anesthesia and analgesia

9662. The assessment of pain sensation during local anesthesia using a computerized local anesthesia (Wand) and a conventional syringe. (Abstract)

The assessment of pain sensation during local anesthesia using a computerized local anesthesia (Wand) and a conventional syringe. The purpose of this study was to compare the behavior reaction of children who received local anesthesia with a conventional syringe injection and a computerized device (Wand).One hundred and two children ages 3 to 10 years were selected for this study. In 1 group there were 55 children between the ages of 3 to 5 years old, and in the other group there were 47 (...) was found when the Wand was delivered during the first or second visit.The results suggested there was no difference in the pain behavior of children during the administration of local anesthesia with a conventional injection or a computerized device when the operator was an experienced pediatric dentist. This was true for maxillary infiltration and mandibular block. For other techniques, such as palatal injection and periodontal ligament injection, more studies should be conducted.

2003 Journal of dentistry for children (Chicago, Ill.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9663. Rectal sensation test helps avoid pain of apical prostate biopsy. (Abstract)

Rectal sensation test helps avoid pain of apical prostate biopsy. Apical cores obtained during transrectal prostate biopsy are associated with greater pain than cores obtained from the remainder of the gland. We present a method to minimize this pain.During 30 consecutive apical biopsies the needle was purposefully placed above all rectal pain fibers, which are anatomically present only below the dentate line. All patients received a periprostatic nerve block prior to biopsy. The patient (...) was asked if he felt the sharp sensation of the needle as it was placed lightly against the rectal mucosa when the needle was aimed at apex (the rectal sensation test). If so, the needle was advanced cranially 2 to 3 mm or until he could no longer detect its light touch. The probe handle was then rotated dorsally, pulling the rectal mucosa downward until the needle was again aimed at the apex. Patients were asked to report a visual analog pain score for each biopsy. These results were compared to those

2003 The Journal of urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9664. [Semiquantitative detection of pain and heat sensations in evaluation of contrast media in pelvic/leg angiography. Intraindividual double-blind study with iomeprol 350 and iopentol 350]. (Abstract)

[Semiquantitative detection of pain and heat sensations in evaluation of contrast media in pelvic/leg angiography. Intraindividual double-blind study with iomeprol 350 and iopentol 350]. The effect on pain and heat sensation of monomere non-ionic contrast media with different osmolality was assessed in a randomized double-blind study. Peripheral angiography was performed in 29 patients who suffered from chronic occlusive vessel disease. The two non-ionic contrast media iomeprol and iopentol (...) ). The median after the first injection was calculated as 40 for iomeprol and 70 for iopentol. The comparison of heat and pain sensations after the second injection showed a less distinct difference with a scale rating of 60 for iomeprol and of 65 for iopentol. The statistical variance was highly significant (p < 0.01) in favor of iomeprol.

1996 Der Radiologe Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9665. Music reduces sensation and distress of labor pain. (Abstract)

Music reduces sensation and distress of labor pain. Labor pain is often severe, and analgesic medication may not be indicated. In this randomized controlled trial we examined the effects of music on sensation and distress of pain in Thai primiparous women during the active phase of labor. The gate control theory of pain was the theoretical framework for this study. Randomization with a computerized minimization program was used to assign women to a music group (n = 55) or a control group (n (...) = 55). Women in the intervention group listened to soft music without lyrics for 3 hours starting early in the active phase of labor. Dual visual analog scales were used to measure sensation and distress of pain before starting the study and at three hourly posttests. While controlling for pretest scores, one-way repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated that those in the music group had significantly less sensation and distress of pain than did the control group (F (1, 107) = 18.69, p

2003 Pain management nursing : official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9666. Biofeedback of somatosensory event-related potentials: can individual pain sensations be modified by biofeedback-induced self-control of event-related potentials? (Abstract)

Biofeedback of somatosensory event-related potentials: can individual pain sensations be modified by biofeedback-induced self-control of event-related potentials? This study investigates the effects of biofeedback based upon event-related brain potentials evoked by nociceptive electrical stimuli. In a visual and monetary feedback paradigm, 10 subjects received positive feedback within one training session when systematically showing two different behavior patterns: one pattern correlated (...) with a decrease (down-training) and one with an increase (up-training) of the peak-to-peak size of the N150-P260 complex, respectively. Training conditions were changed randomly from trial to trial over 300 trials. All subjects achieved control on both behavior patterns resulting in a simultaneous modification of the size of this complex according to the training conditions. Furthermore, the individual pain report measured with a visual analogue scale was altered in accordance with the biofeedback-induced

1988 Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9667. Effects of midazolam on pain sensations in the face. (Abstract)

Effects of midazolam on pain sensations in the face. This study investigated the effects of midazolam, a sedative, on tactile and pain sensations on the skin of the chin.Thirty-seven volunteers were segregated into four groups; the first group was the control group; the second to fourth groups were administered 0.025 mg/kg, 0.05 mg/kg, and 0.075 mg/kg of midazolam, respectively, as a bolus injection. All volunteers reclined in a dental chair for the experiment. Tactile and pain sensations were (...) determined over time after injection of midazolam, the former using von Fray thread, the latter using an esthesiometer.Thresholds of tactile sensitivity and of pain were statistically significantly different from control values at 10 minutes after injection of midazolam in the 0.05 mg/kg group and in the 0.075 mg/kg group.Although 0.025 mg/kg of midazolam produced sedation, at least 0.05 mg/kg of this agent was required to alter the thresholds for perception of tactile and painful stimulation.

1997 Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9668. Suppression of pain sensation caused by millimeter waves: a double-blinded, cross-over, prospective human volunteer study. (Abstract)

Suppression of pain sensation caused by millimeter waves: a double-blinded, cross-over, prospective human volunteer study. We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, cross-over, prospective trial to evaluate the pain relief effect of millimeter waves (MW) under experimental conditions. The cold pressor test was used as a model of tonic aching pain. Twelve healthy male volunteers were exposed to an active medical MW generator and to a disabled sham generator with at least 24 h between exposures (...) . Characteristics of continuous-wave electromagnetic output from the active generator were: wavelength 7.1 mm, incident power density 25 +/- 5 mW/cm2, and duration of exposure 30 min. MW produced a significant (P < 0.05) suppression of pain sensation, with an average 37.7% gain in pain tolerance and a 49.3% increase in pain sensitivity range (the latter being the difference between pain tolerance and pain threshold values). Of the 12 volunteers, 7 (58.3%) reacted to the active MW generator with an increased

1999 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9669. Increase in the threshold of pain and touch sensation in the human face with clonidine plus 30% nitrous oxide. (Abstract)

Increase in the threshold of pain and touch sensation in the human face with clonidine plus 30% nitrous oxide. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of clonidine combined with 30% nitrous oxide on tactile and pain sensations in the human face.Thirty-three subjects were involved in the study. The subjects were divided into 4 groups: 100% oxygen with placebo; 30% N2O with placebo; 100% oxygen with clonidine (0.075 mg), and 30% N2O with clonidine. Three tests for the threshold of pain (...) sensation and tactile sensation were made at 60 minutes before and 0, 15, and 30 minutes during N2O or O2 inhalation.(1) The N2O with clonidine significantly increased the threshold of pain and tactile sensation in comparison with the other 3 treatments. (2) In terms of pain sensation, both N2O and clonidine showed significant increases in threshold of pain in comparison with the control values.These results indicate that the analgesic effects of 30% nitrous oxide are enhanced when use of the gas

1999 Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9670. Pain sensation in transurethral microwave thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia: the rationale for prophylactic sedation. (Abstract)

Pain sensation in transurethral microwave thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia: the rationale for prophylactic sedation. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) can be painful. Pain sensation limits treatment tolerance and consequently also treatment efficacy. Of our population of patients treated with TUMT, 22% (63/288) needed intravenous analgesia and, nevertheless, 6% (17/288) needed definitive treatment interruption. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism of pain (...) tolerance in group B in comparison with group A was found. Pain sensation during TUMT seemed to be mostly due to anxiety. It is concluded that the prophylactic use of a sedative drug is advisable in patients undergoing TUMT in order to improve treatment tolerance.

1994 European urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9671. Comparison of pain and heat sensation of contrast media in aortofemoral angiography: meglumine-amidotrizoate (Angiografin) mixed with lidocaine versus sodium-meglumine-ioxaglate (Hexabrix). (Abstract)

Comparison of pain and heat sensation of contrast media in aortofemoral angiography: meglumine-amidotrizoate (Angiografin) mixed with lidocaine versus sodium-meglumine-ioxaglate (Hexabrix). A total of 116 translumbar aortofemoral angiograms were performed in 92 patients. At random, 58 contrast injections were done with Hexabrix and 58 with Angiografin mixed with lidocaine. Pain and heat sensation was evaluated by a verbal rating system. Most patients in both groups had no or mild pain sensation (...) . There was, however, a slight but statistically significant difference (p less than 0.05) in favor of Hexabrix. No difference was found in heat sensation in either of the groups.

1983 Diagnostic imaging Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9672. Chronic pain and nonpainful sensations after spinal cord injury: is there a relation? (Abstract)

Chronic pain and nonpainful sensations after spinal cord injury: is there a relation? First, to define the clinical characteristics of nonpainful sensations (NP) that commonly appear after spinal cord injury (SCI); and second, to compare the clinical characteristics of NP and chronic pain (CP) after SCI.Two sets of questions concerning CP and NP were mailed to 330 subjects. Responses from 197 persons experiencing CP as well as NP were analyzed.The most common locations for CP and NP were back

2003 Clinical Journal of Pain

9673. Inward currents in primary nociceptive neurons of the rat and pain sensations in humans elicited by infrared diode laser pulses. (Abstract)

Inward currents in primary nociceptive neurons of the rat and pain sensations in humans elicited by infrared diode laser pulses. Radiant heat is often used to study nociception in vivo. We now used infrared radiation generated by a diode laser stimulator (wavelength 980 nm) to investigate transduction mechanisms for noxious heat stimuli in acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats in vitro. The laser stimulator offered the unique opportunity to test whether the same stimuli (...) also elicit pain sensations in humans. A specific heat-induced current (I(heat)) was elicited in six of 13 small DRG neurons (diameter < or =30 microm) tested in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp mode. Current responses in the seven heat-insensitive neurons were within the range explainable by the temperature dependence of the recording setup. I(heat) was characterized by: (1) non-linearity of its amplitude during a suprathreshold heat ramp as well as with stimuli of increasing

2002 Pain

9674. Evaluation of thermal, pain, and vibration sensation thresholds in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of thermal, pain, and vibration sensation thresholds in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients. Small and large fibre function was studied in 40 non-ketotic, newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 48 age-matched controls, using 12 quantitative tests for assessment of cutaneous sensation. Patients were aged 10-39 years and had been treated with insulin for 4-31 days. Thermal discrimination (foot), warm and cold thermal perception (thenar eminence and foot), and heat and cold (...) pain perception thresholds (thenar eminence) were significantly elevated in the patients as compared with the controls (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001). No significant differences in thermal discrimination (thenar), heat and cold pain perception (foot), and metacarpal as well as malleolar vibration perception thresholds were noted between the groups. The rates of abnormalities among the individual tests ranged from 0% to 27.5%, being lowest for vibration perception and highest for thermal

1988 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

9675. [The correspondence between pain stimulus and pain sensation.]. (Abstract)

[The correspondence between pain stimulus and pain sensation.]. The relationship between painful pressure stimuli and induced pain intensity was examined. For experimental pain stimulation in 26 subjects, randomized local pressure on the middle phalanxes of fingers II-IV was used (pressure area 2.56 mm(2), six different pressure levels, three different pressure times). The induced pain intensity was measured by the category splitting procedure. Our results demonstrate that the pain intensity (...) is proportional to the logarithm of the pressure stimulus. This finding is predicted by Fechner's law. The intraindividual and interindividual deviations are normally distributed. The retest reliability between measurements in the morning and in the evening amount to 0.98. Thus, the procedure can be used to objectify the pain intensity experienced.

1988 Schmerz (Berlin, Germany) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9676. Increasing pain sensation to repeated esophageal balloon distension in patients with chest pain of undetermined etiology. (Abstract)

Increasing pain sensation to repeated esophageal balloon distension in patients with chest pain of undetermined etiology. Previous studies have demonstrated lowered sensory thresholds to esophageal balloon distension in patients with chest pain of undetermined etiology. Whether this finding is specific to patients with chest pain or is simply related to an underlying esophageal motility disorder is unclear. In the present study, distension-induced pain-sensation scores and the effect (...) of repeated balloon distension were compared in patients with chest pain, dysphagia secondary to esophageal dysmotility, and healthy controls. All subjects underwent standard esophageal manometry followed by mid-esophageal balloon distension. Volumes 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 ml (each volume repeated three times) were applied in random order in a single-blind fashion, and the pain-sensation score was recorded after each distension. Pain-sensation scores varied directly with balloon volume. Mean pain scores were

1995 Digestive diseases and sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9677. Induction of non-painful and painful intestinal sensations by hypertonic saline: a new human experimental model. (Abstract)

Induction of non-painful and painful intestinal sensations by hypertonic saline: a new human experimental model. To develop a pain model for chemical stimulation of the human gut.In a double-blind experimental study 10 subjects with a previously performed sigmoidostomy were randomised to receive injections with either isotonic or hypertonic saline in the colonic mucosa. In the hypertonic experimental arm, 0.1 ml of 0.9%, 2%, 4%, and 6% and 0.2 ml of 2% and 4% saline were given. In the placebo (...) arm, six 0.9% saline injections of the same quantities were given. In a separate experiment 0.8 ml 4% saline was infused into the mucosa by a pump over a period of 2min. The pain intensity was rated on a 0-10 visual analogue scale with 5 as the pain threshold.The hypertonic saline injections resulted in local as well as referred non-painful and painful sensations in 9 out of the 10 subjects. The evoked sensations were mostly described as a smarting sensation with an intensity of median 1 (range 0

2003 European Journal of Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9678. Caregivers' beliefs regarding pain in children with cognitive impairment: relation between pain sensation and reaction increases with severity of impairment. (Abstract)

Caregivers' beliefs regarding pain in children with cognitive impairment: relation between pain sensation and reaction increases with severity of impairment. To determine whether caregivers of children with cognitive impairment (CI) have systematic beliefs regarding the pain of this special group of children and whether these beliefs are related to their general attitudes towards people with mental challenges, or their experience with, or knowledge about, children with CI .Sixty-five caregivers (...) (52 parents and 13 health care providers) of children with significant CI.Caregivers completed the Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory-Revised and provided information regarding their previous experience and learning about children with CI. They also completed the Pain Opinion Questionnaire, indicating the percentage of children with mild, moderate, or severe/profound CI that they believe experience 5 facets of pain "less than", "the same as", or "more than" children without CI: sensation

2003 Clinical Journal of Pain

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