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Pain Sensation

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9541. Temporal summation of pain from mechanical stimulation of muscle tissue in normal controls and subjects with fibromyalgia syndrome. (Abstract)

summation was greatly exaggerated for FMS subjects. Temporal summation for FMS subjects occurred at substantially lower forces and at a lower frequency of stimulation. Furthermore, painful after-sensations were greater in amplitude and more prolonged for FMS subjects. These observations complement a previous demonstration that temporal summation of pain and after-sensations elicited by thermal stimulation of the skin are moderately enhanced for FMS subjects. Abnormal input from muscle nociceptors (...) Temporal summation of pain from mechanical stimulation of muscle tissue in normal controls and subjects with fibromyalgia syndrome. Individuals diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) report chronic pain that is frequently worsened by physical activity and improved by rest. Palpation of muscle and tendinous structures suggests that nociceptors in deep tissues are abnormally sensitive in FMS, but methods of controlled mechanical stimulation of muscles are needed to better characterize

2003 Pain

9542. Neurophysiology of pruritus: interaction of itch and pain. (Abstract)

Neurophysiology of pruritus: interaction of itch and pain. The discovery of an itch-specific neuronal pathway, which is distinct from the pain-processing pathway, has clarified the neuronal basis for the itch sensation. Albeit being distinct, there are complex interactions between pain and itch. The inhibition of itch by pain is well known and can explain the antipruritic effect of scratching. However, the opposite effect also exists and has major clinical implications: inhibition of pain (...) processing (eg, by spinal opioids) can generate itch. Conversely, blockade of spinal opioid receptors can be used as an antipruritic therapy. Moreover, the spinal processing of pain and itch can be modulated, resulting in a hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity to pain or itch: similar to chronic painful conditions, ongoing activity of pruriceptors can induce a spinal hypersensitivity for itch in patients with chronic pruritus. Therapeutic antipruritic approaches therefore should target both local

2003 Archives of Dermatology

9543. Comparison between Lidocaine and Bupivacaine as Local Anesthetics with Diflunisal for Postoperative Pain Control after Lower Third Molar Surgery Full Text available with Trip Pro

of numbness with lidocaine.Although diflunisal was given preoperatively, the postoperative course was not complicated by alveolitis in any case.While bupivacaine plus diflunisal resulted in less postoperative pain than lidocaine plus diflunisal, some patients were willing to sustain some pain after oral surgery if sensation was regained sooner. (...) Comparison between Lidocaine and Bupivacaine as Local Anesthetics with Diflunisal for Postoperative Pain Control after Lower Third Molar Surgery The effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on postoperative pain were compared in a double blind crossover study. Diflunisal (500 mg) was used as an analgesic and given before commencement of the surgical procedure.Bilateral impactions of lower third molars were removed on two occasions, four weeks apart, in a sample of 26 Chinese patients. One local

1988 Anesthesia progress

9544. Does acute hyperglycaemia influence heat pain thresholds? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Does acute hyperglycaemia influence heat pain thresholds? The influence of acute hyperglycaemia on pain sensation was assessed in eight young adult non-diabetic subjects. Acute hyperglycaemia was induced with IV glucose in a double blind fashion, with IV saline as a control. Pain thresholds were assessed by a painful heat stimulus delivered by a Marstock thermode on the thenar eminence. Heat pain thresholds did not significantly alter during either acute hyperglycaemia or the control saline (...) infusion. Previous work demonstrating a lowering of electrical pain thresholds by hyperglycaemia has therefore not been confirmed using a natural painful stimulus.

1988 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

9545. Peripheral nerve function in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

control was confirmed by significantly improved levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (11.7 +/- 0.3% at entry to the study, to 8.7 +/- 0.3% after 12 months; mean +/- SEM). Symptomatic relief was confirmed by significantly improved pain scores. Thresholds for thermal cutaneous sensation improved significantly from 6.0 +/- 0.8 degrees C at entry to the study to 2.7 +/- 0.7 degrees C after 12 months (mean +/- SEM). These findings suggest a selective improvement of peripheral small nerve fibre function after (...) Peripheral nerve function in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. In order to study the effects of improved metabolic control on painful diabetic polyneuropathy, 15 patients were treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion over a 12 month period. Polyneuropathy was assessed by pain score, neurological examinations, nerve conduction studies and determination of sensory thresholds and cardiovascular reflexes. Improved metabolic

1987 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

9546. Different patterns of intestinal transit time and anorectal motility in painful and painless chronic constipation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

constipation was reported to have begun at 7.9 +/- 2.2 years previously. In the group presenting painful constipation higher values of the anal maximum resting pressure, of the amplitude of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex, lower values of sensation threshold, need to evacuate, maximum tolerable volume were recorded, in comparison with those registered in the painless constipation group. All these differences were significant. In the latter group the total transit time was always very slow (186.0 +/- 4.7 h (...) Different patterns of intestinal transit time and anorectal motility in painful and painless chronic constipation. Anorectal motility and gastrointestinal transit time were studied in 25 patients complaining of non-organic constipation. Colonic pain was reported by 14 patients, it was absent in the remaining 11. The group with painful constipation was composed of four men and 10 women and age onset of the symptom was 22.1 +/- 5.1 years. The other group was composed only of women and painless

1984 Gut

9547. Flexibility of lower limb reflex responses to painful cutaneous stimulation in standing humans: evidence of load-dependent modulation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

sensation (mean value, 1.05 times). Estimation of the afferent conduction velocity gave a mean value of 26.5 m s-1, suggesting that a contribution from A delta fibres was necessary to evoke the reflex response. The TA reflex response was then used as the pain test reflex. 2. Changes in the TA excitatory pain reflex response (elicited at 1.2 times the pain threshold) were investigated while the subjects maintained different postures in upright stance. Standing on the ipsilateral leg produced (...) Flexibility of lower limb reflex responses to painful cutaneous stimulation in standing humans: evidence of load-dependent modulation. 1. In six human subjects standing without support, the reflex response of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) was elicited by painful electrical stimulation (500 Hz, 20 ms) of the anterior sole of the foot and analysed by post-stimulus averages of rectified electromyography. The threshold intensity for the reflex response was very close to the subjective pain

1994 The Journal of physiology

9548. John Hunter and pain referred. Full Text available with Trip Pro

John Hunter and pain referred. 7853313 1995 03 15 2018 11 13 0141-0768 87 12 1994 Dec Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine J R Soc Med John Hunter and pain referred. 786-9 Breathnach C S CS Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University College, Dublin 2, Eire. eng Biography Historical Article Journal Article England J R Soc Med 7802879 0141-0768 IM Q Electrophysiology General Surgery history History, 18th Century History, 19th Century History, 20th Century Humans Pain history (...) physiopathology Sensation United Kingdom Hunter J J 1994 12 1 1994 12 1 0 1 1994 12 1 0 0 ppublish 7853313 PMC1294999 J Physiol. 1958 Mar 11;140(3):462-78 13514718 J Physiol. 1983 Apr;337:51-67 6875945

1994 Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine

9549. Does a neuroimmune interaction contribute to the genesis of painful peripheral neuropathies? Full Text available with Trip Pro

that involves no more than trivial structural damage to the nerve. This experimental focal neuritis produces neuropathic pain sensations (heat- and mechano-hyperalgesia, and cold- and mechano-allodynia) in the ipsilateral hind paw. The abnormal pain sensations begin in 1-2 days and last for 4-6 days, with a subsequent return to normal. These results suggest that there is a neuroimmune interaction that occurs at the outset of nerve injury (and perhaps episodically over time in slow developing conditions like (...) Does a neuroimmune interaction contribute to the genesis of painful peripheral neuropathies? Painful peripheral neuropathies are precipitated by nerve injury from disease or trauma. All such injuries will be accompanied by an inflammatory reaction, a neuritis, that will mobilize the immune system. The role of the inflammation itself is difficult to determine in the presence of structural damage to the nerve. A method has been devised to produce a focal neuritis in the rat sciatic nerve

1999 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

9550. A Study of Sativex® for Pain Relief of Peripheral Neuropathic Pain, Associated With Allodynia

Hyperalgesia Neuromuscular Diseases Nervous System Diseases Pain Neurologic Manifestations Signs and Symptoms Somatosensory Disorders Sensation Disorders Nabiximols Analgesics Sensory System Agents Peripheral Nervous System Agents Physiological Effects of Drugs (...) A Study of Sativex® for Pain Relief of Peripheral Neuropathic Pain, Associated With Allodynia A Study of Sativex® for Pain Relief of Peripheral Neuropathic Pain, Associated With Allodynia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one

2008 Clinical Trials

9551. Effects of Testosterone Replacement on Pain Sensitivity and Pain Perception

represent better tolerance of pain. Ice Water-induced Cold Pain and Its After-sensation at Week 14 [ Time Frame: Week 14 after intervention ] Cold-pressor tests measure cold-induced pain and its sensation. Time was measured when a participant reached pain tolerance in cold water and after sensation. Higher values of time in Cold pain tolerance and lower values of time in Cold pain after-sensation (30 seconds) represent better tolerance of pain. Secondary Outcome Measures : Sexual Functioning as Assessed (...) Effects of Testosterone Replacement on Pain Sensitivity and Pain Perception Effects of Testosterone Replacement on Pain Sensitivity and Pain Perception - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2006 Clinical Trials

9552. The role of threat-expectancy in acute pain: effects on attentional bias, coping strategy effectiveness and response to pain. (Abstract)

pressor task while engaging in the relevant coping strategy. There was a significant effect of threat on bias towards affective vs sensory pain words. Participants in the threat condition showed a stronger bias towards affective pain words. In contrast, the no-threat condition displayed a stronger bias towards sensory pain words. Significant interaction effects were observed between threat and coping strategy for threshold and tolerance. These results indicated that focusing on sensory pain sensations (...) The role of threat-expectancy in acute pain: effects on attentional bias, coping strategy effectiveness and response to pain. The aims of this study were threefold. Firstly, to investigate the effect of increasing threat-expectancy on attentional biases towards pain-related words. Secondly, to determine the interaction between threat-expectancy and the effectiveness of two coping strategies on pain threshold and tolerance. Thirdly, to investigate the relationship between fear of pain

2005 Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9553. The validity of the neuropathic pain scale for assessing diabetic neuropathic pain in a clinical trial. (Abstract)

The validity of the neuropathic pain scale for assessing diabetic neuropathic pain in a clinical trial. In controlled trials of analgesics for the treatment of neuropathic pain, the primary outcome variable is most often a measure of global pain intensity. However, because neuropathic pain is associated with a variety of pain sensations, the effects of analgesic treatments on different sensations could go undetected if specific pain qualities are not assessed. This study sought to evaluate (...) decreases in global pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and sharp, dull, and deep pain sensations. Responder analyses indicated a higher rate of responding to the opioid condition, relative to placebo, for intense, unpleasant, deep, and surface pain. The opioid analgesic did not significantly reduce hot, cold, itchy, or sensitive pain sensations compared with placebo in either analysis.These findings support the utility of the NPS for characterizing the multidimensional nature of the neuropathic pain

2006 Clinical Journal of Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9554. The impact of threatening information about pain on coping and pain tolerance. (Abstract)

of cognitive coping strategies (reinterpreting pain sensations, ignoring pain, diverting attention away from pain to other experiences, and using coping self-statements) than other respondents. A path analysis indicated that the relation between threat and pain tolerance was fully mediated by catastrophizing and cognitive coping. Together, findings suggest that pain appraised as threatening contributes to a specific pattern of coping responses associated with a reduced capacity to bear pain. (...) The impact of threatening information about pain on coping and pain tolerance. This study examined the impact of threatening information on coping and pain tolerance in a healthy adult sample. Prior to engaging in a Cold Pressor Test (CPT), 121 college students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a threat condition in which they read an orienting passage warning them about symptoms and consequences of frostbite (pain as a signal for nociception), a reassurance condition in which

2005 British journal of health psychology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9555. Glutamate-evoked jaw muscle pain as a model of persistent myofascial TMD pain? Full Text available with Trip Pro

, decrease, diverting attention, increase of behavioural activities and somatization. The peak VAS pain, NRS of unpleasantness and MPQ scores were not significantly different between groups, but PPT and PPTOL were significantly lower in the TMD patients. Significant positive correlations were found in the TMD patients between peak VAS pain and CSQ catastrophizing score and SCL-90 somatization. The scores of PPTs and PPTOLs, in patients showed positive correlations with CSQ reinterpreting pain sensations (...) Glutamate-evoked jaw muscle pain as a model of persistent myofascial TMD pain? Compare pain-related measures and psychosocial variables between glutamate-evoked jaw muscle pain in healthy subjects (HS) and patients with persistent myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain.Forty-seven female HS and 10 female patients with persistent myofascial TMD pain participated. The HS received an injection of glutamate into the masseter muscle to model persistent myofascial TMD pain. Participants

2008 Archives of oral biology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9556. Pain relief by rTMS: differential effect of current flow but no specific action on pain subtypes. (Abstract)

, but rather reduced the global pain sensation whatever its type. This is in accord with recent models of motor cortex neurostimulation, postulating that its analgesic effects may derive in part from modulation of the affective appraisal of pain, rather than a decrease of its sensory components. (...) Pain relief by rTMS: differential effect of current flow but no specific action on pain subtypes. To assess, against placebo, the pain-relieving effects of high-rate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on neuropathic pain.Double-blind, randomized, cross-over study of high-rate rTMS against placebo in 28 patients. The effect of a change in coil orientation (posteroanterior vs lateromedial) on different subtypes of neuropathic pain was further tested in a subset of 16 patients

2008 Neurology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9557. Neurectomy to prevent persistent pain after inguinal herniorraphy: a prospective study using objective criteria to assess pain. (Abstract)

pain, we prospectively studied 100 male patients with bilateral inguinal hernia who underwent tension-free surgical repair, combined with iliohypogastric neurectomy on the right side alone. Pain was evaluated postoperatively on days 1 and 7 and at 1 and 2 years by means of a visual analog scale. Patients were given a questionnaire including coded terms for describing pain. These terms were designed to compare pain on the neurectomized and non-neurectomized sides and assess altered sensation (...) Neurectomy to prevent persistent pain after inguinal herniorraphy: a prospective study using objective criteria to assess pain. Although tension-free mesh repair has markedly improved the outcome of inguinal hernia surgery, it has only minimally reduced the incidence of persistent postoperative pain. The pathogenesis of this complication and treatment remain unclear.In order to objectively assess whether iliohypogastric neurectomy reduces the incidence and intensity of persistent postoperative

2007 World Journal of Surgery

9558. Central representation of cold-evoked pain relief in capsaicin induced pain: An event-related fMRI study. (Abstract)

stimulus. The 43 degrees C-stimulus was perceived as excessively painful on capsaicin-treated skin as opposed to an unpleasant sensation on normal skin. In contrast, the 0 degrees C-stimulus was perceived unpleasant when applied on untreated skin while subjects rated the same stimulus pleasant in the capsaicin-treated condition. When neural responses to the 0 degrees C-stimulus were compared between the untreated and capsaicin-treated skin condition there were stronger BOLD-responses in prefrontal (...) Central representation of cold-evoked pain relief in capsaicin induced pain: An event-related fMRI study. The termination of an unpleasant or painful somatic condition can produce a rewarding sense of relief, even if the stimulus that causes the termination is itself unpleasant or painful under normal circumstances. We aimed to identify central neural mechanisms of pain relief from capsaicin-elicited heat-hyperalgesia by administering cold stimuli. We hypothesized that cooling might facilitate

2008 Pain

9559. Cortical correlates of an attentional bias to painful and innocuous somatic stimuli in children with recurrent abdominal pain. (Abstract)

Cortical correlates of an attentional bias to painful and innocuous somatic stimuli in children with recurrent abdominal pain. Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common gastrointestinal problem during childhood. It is not only a pediatric health problem, but may represent a risk factor for chronic pain, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychopathological problems later in life. Alterations in central pain processing and an attentional bias to potentially aversive somatic sensations could contribute (...) to the unfavorable outcome of RAP during childhood. Fourteen children with RAP and 15 control children (age: 10-15 year) participated in an attentional task. Children had to respond to rare targets (tones) and ignore frequent either painful (pain threshold) or non-painful mechanical stimuli delivered at the hand. Event-related cortical potentials in response to the somatic stimuli and the tones were measured and stimulus intensity ratings, reaction time and number of errors were obtained. Painful as compared

2008 Pain

9560. Motor cortex rTMS in chronic neuropathic pain: pain relief is associated with thermal sensory perception improvement. (Abstract)

, first-perception thresholds for thermal (cold, warm) and mechanical (vibration, pressure) sensations were quantified in the painful zone and in the painless homologue contralateral territory, before and after rTMS of the motor cortex corresponding to the painful side. Ongoing pain level was also scored before and after rTMS. Three types of rTMS session, performed at 1 Hz or 10 Hz using an active coil, or at 10 Hz using a sham coil, were compared. The relationships between rTMS-induced changes (...) Motor cortex rTMS in chronic neuropathic pain: pain relief is associated with thermal sensory perception improvement. Improvement in sensory detection thresholds was found to be associated with neuropathic pain relief produced by epidural motor cortex stimulation with surgically implanted electrodes.To determine the ability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex to produce similar sensory changes.In 46 patients with chronic neuropathic pain of various origins

2008 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

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