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Pain Sensation

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9481. Pain and Pain Relief

. Controlling pain, whether acute or chronic, is a common task for every doctor. A survey of 975 people in the UK reported that 21% experienced pain every day or on most days. 67% had visited their GP or a walk-in centre, requesting advice about pain relief. The simplistic view of the pain-producing system ('hard-wiring') in which pain sensations are conducted via the nerves to the spinal cord fails to explain such phenomena as phantom limb pain and pain experienced after cordotomy. Pain specialists now (...) Pain and Pain Relief Muscle Pain Relief. Information on muscle pain relief | Patient TOPICS Try our Symptom Checker TREATMENT RESOURCES Try our Symptom Checker PROFESSIONAL Upgrade to Patient Pro / / Search Pain and Pain Relief Authored by , Reviewed by | Last edited 16 Jan 2015 | Certified by This article is for Medical Professionals Professional Reference articles are designed for health professionals to use. They are written by UK doctors and based on research evidence, UK and European

2008 Mentor

9482. Pain intensity assessment in older adults: use of experimental pain to compare psychometric properties and usability of selected pain scales with younger adults. (Abstract)

to gather data from a sample of 86 younger (age 25-55) and 89 older (age 65-94) adult volunteer subjects. Responses of subjects to experimentally induced thermal stimuli were measured with the following pain intensity rating scales: vertical visual analog scale (VAS), 21-point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS), 11-point Verbal Numeric Rating Scale (VNS), and Faces Pain Scale (FPS).All 5 pain scales were effective in discriminating different levels of pain sensation; however (...) Pain intensity assessment in older adults: use of experimental pain to compare psychometric properties and usability of selected pain scales with younger adults. To determine: (1) the psychometric properties and utility of 5 types of commonly used pain rating scales when used with younger and older adults, (2) factors related to failure to successfully use a pain rating scale, (3) pain rating scale preference, and (4) factors impacting scale preference.A quasi-experimental design was used

2004 Clinical Journal of Pain

9483. Perception of pain after resistance exercise. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and body awareness after exercise.A single bout of resistance exercise is capable of modifying the sensation of experimentally induced pain. (...) Perception of pain after resistance exercise. The main objective was to assess the influence of resistance exercise on pain threshold and pain ratings. Secondary objectives included measuring state anxiety, body awareness, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate responses.Pressure (3 kg force) was applied to the middle digit of the left hand for two minutes using a Forgione-Barber pain stimulator before and after (five minute and 15 minutes) resistance exercise

1998 British Journal of Sports Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9484. Can gingko biloba cause loss of sensation in the perineum in males leading to reduced awareness of urination and ejaculation, and if so, how?

Can gingko biloba cause loss of sensation in the perineum in males leading to reduced awareness of urination and ejaculation, and if so, how? Can gingko biloba cause loss of sensation in the perineum in males leading to reduced awareness of urination and ejaculation, and if so, how? - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Liberating the literature ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only (...) for every single search. As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news. For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com Can gingko biloba cause loss of sensation in the perineum in males leading to reduced awareness of urination

2007 TRIP Answers

9485. Changes of cutaneous sensory thresholds induced by non-painful transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in normal subjects and in subjects with chronic pain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Changes of cutaneous sensory thresholds induced by non-painful transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in normal subjects and in subjects with chronic pain. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) of the nervi cutaneus surae medialis was applied to 59 healthy subjects and 30 patients suffering from chronic myofascial pain in one lower limb, with an intensity of current that induced a well tolerated tingling sensation. Each period of stimulation lasted 24 minutes. The thresholds (...) of the tactile, tingling and painful sensations were tested at fixed intervals before, during and after stimulation. Trains of constant current square waves in the distribution area of the stimulated nerve (local thresholds) and in other areas (general thresholds) were used. In all subjects repeated changes of the current were necessary in order to maintain constant tingling during the first period of TENS (changing phase); after that few if any changes of the current were necessary (steady phase

1981 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

9486. C nociceptor activity in human nerve during painful and non painful skin stimulation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Frey hairs, varied between 2.3 and 13.1 g. The receptive field was circular or elliptical; for 33 units the mean axes were 6 mm and 7 mm. Mechanically evoked C fibre discharge even up to more than 10 spikes/s was not necessarily accompanied by pain sensation. Nettle sting evoked an irregular C fibre discharge (maximum 10 spikes/s) accompanied by a pricking and burning sensation; the sensation of itch which was sometimes reported, was not correlated with the discharge frequency. C fibre activation (...) by a chemical irritant (paint remover) also evoked an irregular discharge (maximum 3 to 6 spikes/s), accompanied by pricking and burning pain sensation. The C threshold for radiant heat usually lay below the subject's pain threshold. Increasing skin temperature produced increasing neural firing rate. The mean spike frequency rarely exceeded two spikes/s even with stimuli evoking strong heat pain. The occurrence of subjective heat pain response could be as well predicted from th C fibre spike frequency

1981 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

9487. Positron Emission Tomography to Measure Pain and Pain Control

that do not normally cause pain Ischemic stimulation - inflation of a blood pressure cuff on the arm or leg for up to 30 minutes These stimuli will be applied both before and during positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. This test shows which parts of the brain are active and which are not and is important for studying how different parts of the brain work together to feel and react to specific sensations. For this procedure, the subject lies on a table in the PET scanner while a series of scans (...) device is placed on the gel. The device emits high-frequency sound waves to produce a picture of the speed of blood flow in the artery and the diameter of the vessel. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Healthy Hyperalgesia Pain Peripheral Nervous System Disease Drug: Oxygen-15 Water Drug: Capsaicin Detailed Description: Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) will be measured while normal subjects, patients with post-operative pain, and patients with neuropathic abnormalities of pain sensation

1999 Clinical Trials

9488. Systemic adenosine infusion alleviates spontaneous and stimulus evoked pain in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. (Abstract)

of sensibility and quantitative sensory testing (QST), i.e., assessments of perception thresholds for touch, touch-evoked pain, cold, warmth, painful heat, and cold, were performed. In the neuropathic area, sensation magnitude was rated by a visual analog scale (100 mm VAS) using a pin and at perception threshold for touch-evoked pain using von Frey filaments. Adenosine infusion reduced spontaneous pain (P < 0.05), and caused an increase of the touch-evoked pain threshold from 10.8 +/- 5.3 to 22.2 +/- 6.9 g (...) Systemic adenosine infusion alleviates spontaneous and stimulus evoked pain in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. In seven patients with peripheral neuropathic pain, the effect of systemic adenosine infusion on pain symptoms was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study. The study infusions, adenosine (50 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) or placebo, were given intravenously (IV) during 45-60 min at two separate occasions. Before and during infusions, bedside examination

1995 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9489. Underpredicted pain disrupts more than correctly predicted pain, but does not hurt more. (Abstract)

were informed that they would receive some painful (correct prediction) or non-painful tingling (underprediction) stimuli during the discrimination task. Starting just before five of the following 20 discrimination trials, 2 s of painful electrical stimulation was given. Subjects rated sensations and painfulness of the electrical stimulation, subjective anxiety, and degree of distraction from the task, after each pain stimulus. Reaction times of the discrimination task and heart rate were measured (...) Underpredicted pain disrupts more than correctly predicted pain, but does not hurt more. One of the explanations for the negative effects of underpredicted aversive experiences is that they have more impact than correctly predicted aversive experiences. In a laboratory experiment 40 normal female subjects executed an auditory discrimination task. Subjects were randomly assigned to a correct information condition and an underprediction information condition. After ten trials (baseline) subjects

1998 Behaviour research and therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9490. Site and mechanism of pain perception with oesophageal balloon distension and intravenous edrophonium in patients with oesophageal chest pain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Site and mechanism of pain perception with oesophageal balloon distension and intravenous edrophonium in patients with oesophageal chest pain. Ten healthy volunteers and 13 patients with oesophageal motility disorders whose primary presenting complaint was chest pain were studied by distending an intraoesophageal balloon in 1 ml steps to the point of a sensation of discomfort. The net balloon pressure (intra-balloon pressure when inflated within the oesophagus minus the pressure recorded (...) differences between patients and controls of distending volume at perception of discomfort. Edrophonium, however, resulted in a significant reduction in distension threshold for pain (p less than 0.03) in patients. A similar though non-significant trend was seen in controls. In both controls and patients, distension volume for pain production after atropine was significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than after edrophonium. From these results and other published data, we suggest that the pain receptor

1992 Gut

9491. Do fetuses feel pain? "Fetal pain" is a misnomer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

19;314(7088):1201 9146416 Fetus physiology Gestational Age Humans Pain physiopathology Perception physiology Sensation physiology Stress, Psychological Uncertainty 52097 Genetics and Reproduction KIE BoB Subject Heading: fetuses Full author name: Derbyshire, Stuart WG Full author name: Furedi, Ann Full author name: Glover, Vivette Full author name: Fisk, Nicholas Full author name: Szawarski, Zbigniew Full author name: Lloyd-Thomas, Adrian R Full author name: Fitzgerald, Maria 1996 9 28 1996 9 28 0 1 (...) Do fetuses feel pain? "Fetal pain" is a misnomer. 8842074 1996 11 05 2018 11 13 0959-8138 313 7060 1996 Sep 28 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Do fetuses feel pain? "Fetal pain" is a misnomer. 795 Derbyshire S W SW University of Manchester Rheumatic Diseases Centre, Hope Hospital, Salford. Furedi A A eng Journal Article England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 AIM E IM BMJ. 1997 Jan 25;314(7076):302-3 9022510 BMJ. 1997 Jan 25;314(7076):303 9022511 BMJ. 1997 Apr 19;314(7088):1201 9146415 BMJ. 1997 Apr

1996 BMJ : British Medical Journal

9492. Do fetuses feel pain? Reflex responses do not necessarily signify pain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Perception physiology Reflex physiology Sensation physiology 21 1996 9 28 1996 9 28 0 1 1996 9 28 0 0 ppublish 8842077 PMC2352206 Early Hum Dev. 1985 Nov;12(2):173-82 3905349 Dev Med Child Neurol. 1988 Apr;30(2):208-14 3384200 J Comp Neurol. 1988 May 15;271(3):355-86 2454966 J Comp Neurol. 1991 Aug 15;310(3):285-99 1787174 Pain. 1993 Mar;52(3):287-99 8460047 Lancet. 1993 Aug 7;342(8867):319-20 8101580 Pain. 1994 Jan;56(1):95-101 8159446 Lancet. 1994 Jul 9;344(8915):77-81 7912391 Pain. 1994 Mar;56(3):353 (...) Do fetuses feel pain? Reflex responses do not necessarily signify pain. 8842077 1996 11 05 2018 11 13 0959-8138 313 7060 1996 Sep 28 BMJ (Clinical research ed.) BMJ Do fetuses feel pain? Reflex responses do not necessarily signify pain. 797-8 Lloyd-Thomas A R AR Department of Anaesthesia, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London. Fitzgerald M M eng Journal Article Review England BMJ 8900488 0959-8138 AIM IM Fetus physiology Gestational Age Humans Pain physiopathology

1996 BMJ : British Medical Journal

9493. The postoperative pain experience: a description based on the McGill Pain Questionnaire. (Abstract)

pain tended to reflect greater intensity. The overall experience was characterized by 16 descriptors, selected by more than 30% of the sample and reflecting sensory, affective, and evaluative dimensions of the pain experience. Comparison of the findings from this combined sample drawn from hospitals in the northeastern United States were remarkably similar to those reported by Taenzer in Canada. The descriptors selected support, extend, and validate the kind of "sensation information" needed (...) The postoperative pain experience: a description based on the McGill Pain Questionnaire. In surgical nursing practice, postoperative pain is of particular concern because of its documented effect on recovery and behaviors associated with recovery. Yet, little is known about the nature of this pain, other than its intensity. In this study, a description of the nature of the postoperative pain experience was generated from analysis of patient responses to the McGill Pain Questionnaire in four

1992 Clinical nursing research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9494. Different lipid profiles as constituencies of liquid formula diets do not influence pain perception and the efficacy of opioids in a human model of acute pain and hyperalgesia. (Abstract)

for 2 h. Ongoing pain ratings as well as extension of pinprick-hyperalgesia and allodynia were compared between both liquid formula diets. In a second series of experiments, alfentanil (4.1+/-0.5 mg) was administered for 90 min using target-controlled infusions and measurements were performed as stated above. Oral administration of LCT as well as MCT may lead to different CCK blood levels, but we found no evidence for CCK-induced effects on pain sensation, touch-evoked allodynia, secondary (...) Different lipid profiles as constituencies of liquid formula diets do not influence pain perception and the efficacy of opioids in a human model of acute pain and hyperalgesia. Nutritional support and pain control by medication are often used concomitantly, but interactions are hardly investigated. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study in ten right-handed volunteers was performed evaluating the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK)-excretion on the perception of pain in a standardised model

2003 Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9495. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: nonparallel antinociceptive effects on chronic clinical pain and acute experimental pain. (Abstract)

stimulation to the lumbosacral region for 60 minutes. The flexion reflex was elicited by an electrical stimulation applied to the subject's right sole and recorded electromyographically from the biceps femoris and the tibialis anterior muscles.Subjective sensation of low back pain and the electrically induced pain were measured by two separate visual analog scales, termed VAS(LBP) and VAS(FR), respectively. Data obtained before, during, and 60 minutes after TENS and placebo stimulations were analyzed (...) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: nonparallel antinociceptive effects on chronic clinical pain and acute experimental pain. To investigate to what extent a single 60-minute session of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) would modify chronic clinical pain, acute experimental pain, and the flexion reflex evoked in chronic low back pain patients.Thirty young subjects with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups, receiving either TENS or placebo

1999 Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9496. Pain coping strategies play a role in the persistence of pain in post-herpetic neuralgia. (Abstract)

weeks later. Higher levels of ignoring pain sensations at baseline were prospectively correlated with more depressive symptoms 8 weeks later. These findings support a role for the continued investigation of cognitive-behavioral factors affecting the adaptation of elderly individuals experiencing PHN. (...) Pain coping strategies play a role in the persistence of pain in post-herpetic neuralgia. Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a neuropathic pain state that is often difficult to treat. Although frequently discussed in the clinical literature, little is known about the impact of pain on daily function and the extent to which psychosocial factors, in particular pain coping strategies, influence adaptation to this chronic illness. In the context of a crossover pharmacological trial, 68 patients

2003 Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9497. Pain sensitization in male chronic pelvic pain syndrome: why are symptoms so difficult to treat? (Abstract)

thermode programmed to deliver 2 series of 4 rapid bursts of noxious heat stimuli to the perineum and the anterior thigh. The subjects reported sensation on a computerized visual analog scale (COVAS) with a manual sliding lever. The average peak COVAS values and time to peak values from thigh and perineum of each series of thermal bursts were compared between CPPS and controls.The mean pain score on questionnaires was 9.7 (4 or greater indicating significant pain), mean urinary score was 4.7 (range 0 (...) to 10) and mean quality of life impact score was 7.3 (range 3 to 13). Compared to controls men with CPPS reported higher mean peak COVAS values in the perineum. There was no difference between groups in the peak COVAS value on the thigh.Men with CPPS have altered heat sensation/pain sensitization in the perineum compared to controls. This finding is another that supports the resemblance of CPPS to other chronic pain syndromes and may help explain why CPPS is often refractory to treatment. Further

2003 Journal of Urology

9498. Laser-evoked potential abnormalities in central pain patients: the influence of spontaneous and provoked pain. (Abstract)

, relative to stimulation of the homologous normal territory. LEP attenuation concerned not only patients with decreased pain/heat sensation, but also those with allodynia or hyperalgesia to laser pulses. In contrast, LEPs were never attenuated in patients with non-organic forms of pain, in whom LEPs could even be enhanced to stimulation of the painful territory. Increased responses in non-organic pain were a reminder of the cognitive modulation observed in normal subjects who direct attention to a laser (...) recorded, LEPs essentially reflect the activity of a 'lateral' pain system subserved at the periphery by rapidly conducting A-delta fibres. They are useful to document the sensorial deficits (deafferentation) leading to neuropathic pain syndromes. Conversely, in the case of deafferentation, they fail to index adequately the affective aspects of pain sensation. On practical grounds, chronic pain coupled with reduced LEPs substantiates the diagnosis of neuropathic pain, whereas the finding of normal

2002 Brain

9499. Comparison of the pain suppressive effects of clinical and experimental painful conditioning stimuli. (Abstract)

patients presenting with a traumatic peripheral nerve injury associated with dynamic mechano-allodynia (i.e. pain triggered by brushing) or static mechano-allodynia (i.e. pain triggered by light pressure stimuli) were included in this study. To investigate counterirritation mechanisms in these patients, we analysed the RIII nociceptive flexion reflex and concomitant painful sensation elicited by electrical stimulation of the sural nerve. We compared the effects of heterotopic 'clinical' conditioning (...) stimuli (i.e. pain evoked by brushing or pressure within the allodynic area located in the upper limb or chest) to those of experimental heterotopic noxious stimuli (HNCS) consisting of a cold pressor test or tourniquet test applied to the normal upper limb. Static mechano-allodynia induced inhibitions of both the RIII reflex and the concomitant painful sensation. These effects were similar to those induced by HNCS and were probably due to an increased activation of DNIC. In contrast, in patients

2003 Brain

9500. Selective attention to pain-related information in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients. (Abstract)

Selective attention to pain-related information in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients. Cognitive-behavioural models of chronic pain contend that appraisals of harm affect the individual's response to pain. It has been suggested that fear of pain and/or anxiety sensitivity predispose individuals to chronicity. According to this view, pain is maintained through hypervigilance towards painful sensations and subsequent avoidance. The present study investigates the nature of cognitive biases (...) in chronic pain patients. A sample of 169 consecutive patients referred to a specialist pain management centre participated in the study. Questionnaires measuring different aspects of pain and a computerised version of the Dot-Probe Task were administered. Four types of words related to different dimensions of pain and matched, neutral words were used as stimuli. Reaction times in response to the stimuli were recorded. A factorial design 3 x 4 x 2 x 2 and ANOVAs were employed to analyse the data. Chronic

2003 Pain

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