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Pain Sensation

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9481. [The treatment of the phantom pain syndrome with tizanidine]. (Abstract)

of patients. Tisanidin had a significant analgetic influence on all type of phantom limb pain: "neuralgic"--acute, shooting, transitory, "causalgic"--hot, burning, searing, "cramping" pain. Pain sensation did not decrease only in one of 14 patients treated with tisanidin. The authors explain the effectivity of the drug for treatment of phantom limb pain of different sensory modality by variety of the mechanisms of its therapeutic action, the capacity to decrease the releasing of excitatory (...) [The treatment of the phantom pain syndrome with tizanidine]. The authors carried out estimation of analgetic effect of tisanidin by double blind test in patients with phantom limb pain syndrome. 14 patients took the medicine in a dose of 12 mg/day and 5 patients took placebo at the same dose. Characteristics and intensity of pain were estimated in accordance with McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scale. Pain possessed more than one sensory characteristics in the majority

1997 Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova / Ministerstvo zdravookhraneniia i meditsinskoi promyshlennosti Rossiiskoi Federatsii, Vserossiiskoe obshchestvo nevrologov [i] Vserossiiskoe obshchestvo psikhiatrov Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9482. Comparison of postoperative bupivacaine with lidocaine on pain and analgesic use following periodontal surgery. (Abstract)

and prescriptions for Peridex and Tylenol #3. They were told not to take the analgesic unless pain or discomfort occurred. They were given a self-administered questionnaire and asked to assess pain and/or discomfort 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after the procedure, the amount of analgesic taken, and time when complete sensation returned. Results showed that the quadrants which received lidocaine maintained postoperative anesthesia an average of 2.47 hours while the Marcaine quadrants had a significantly longer (...) Comparison of postoperative bupivacaine with lidocaine on pain and analgesic use following periodontal surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative administration of bupivacaine, a long-acting local anesthetic, with lidocaine, a short-acting local anesthetic, on pain perception and analgesic use following periodontal surgery. Ten male subjects were selected on the basis of having similar bilateral mandibular quadrants with moderate to severe periodontal disease requiring

1997 The Journal of the Western Society of Periodontology/Periodontal abstracts Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9483. Comparative study of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory eyedrops, 0.1% indomethacin versus 0.1% diclofenac in pain control post photorefractive keratectomy. (Abstract)

to either indomethacin or diclofenac treatment. Subjective preoperative evaluation of individual susceptibility to pain evoked by topical application of 1% tetracaine vs saline served as reference for further post-operative pain measurement using a visual analog rating scale. Ocular and cephalic pain, itching, foreign body sensation, insomnia, photophobia, blepharospasm as well as systemic analgesic medication and alcohol intake were monitored for 3 days following photoablation as well as the re (...) Comparative study of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory eyedrops, 0.1% indomethacin versus 0.1% diclofenac in pain control post photorefractive keratectomy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of 0.1% indomethacin and 0.1% diclofenac solutions, in controlling pain post excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). After written consent, 61 informed patients (23 males, 38 females; mean age = 33.5 +/- 8.4 yrs) were enrolled in a double-masked, randomized, comparative study and assigned

1997 Bulletin de la Société belge d'ophtalmologie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9484. Local heat effect on sympathetic skin responses after pain of electrical stimulus. (Abstract)

on the heated hand compared with those on the contralateral hand (p < .05).Therapeutic local heat application reduces the sudomotor response to a painful stimulus. This analgesic effect may be due to suppression of cortical pain sensation resulting from increased levels of endorphins, and may also be a result of local inhibition of both afferent and efferent C fibres. (...) Local heat effect on sympathetic skin responses after pain of electrical stimulus. To investigate the analgesic effort of local superficial heating by studying sympathetic skin responses.Randomized trial.Electromyography laboratory in the department of physical therapy and rehabilitation of a university hospital.Twenty healthy volunteers participated with informed consent.Sympathetic skin response (SSR) amplitudes following electrical stimulation of the right peroneal nerve and skin

1997 Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9485. Topical capsaicin in painful diabetic neuropathy. Controlled study with long-term follow-up. (Abstract)

analogue scale was 44.6 and 23.2%, respectively. In a follow-up open-label study, approximately 50% of subjects reported improved pain control or were cured, and 25% each were unchanged or worse. A burning sensation at the application site was noted by some subjects but both its magnitude and duration decreased with time.Results from this preliminary study suggest that topical 0.075% capsaicin may be of value in subjects with diabetic neuropathy and intractable pain. (...) Topical capsaicin in painful diabetic neuropathy. Controlled study with long-term follow-up. We conducted an 8-wk controlled study with topical 0.075% capsaicin in subjects with chronic severe painful diabetic neuropathy who were unresponsive or intolerant to conventional therapy. Capsaicin is an alkaloid found in capsicum peppers and produces desensitization to noxious thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli when applied topically.In 22 randomly assigned subjects, either capsaicin or vehicle

1992 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9486. Pain in extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy: a comparison of different lithotripters in volunteers. (Abstract)

Pain in extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy: a comparison of different lithotripters in volunteers. The aim of the present study was to investigate pain sensations experienced during extracorporeal shock-wave application, comparing an electrohydraulic (MPL 9000; Dornier Medizintechnik, Germering, Germany), an electromagnetic (Lithostar Plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), and a piezoelectric (Piezolith 2300; Wolf, Knittlingen, Germany) shock-wave system. In nine healty volunteers, three (...) evoked potentials caused by shock-wave stimulation were recorded. Some of the volunteers were unable to bear the pain caused by the highest shock-wave intensity of the electrohydraulic (n = 3) and the electromagnetic system (n = 4). Estimates using the visual analogue scale showed increased pain sensations with increasing energy settings for each lithotripter. The amplitudes of the somatosensory evoked potentials became larger, and latencies shortened with increasing stimulus intensities (P less than

1992 Gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9487. Persistent low-back pain is real. However, diagnostic spinal injections are not helpful in its evaluation. (Abstract)

volume (1.4 ml): cerebrospinal fluid, fentanyl 25 micrograms, and lidocaine 70 mg. Pain and symptom assessments were performed preinjection (baseline), and at regular intervals up to and including 4 h postinjection. Pain was evaluated by verbal patient response using a numerical pain-rating system of 0 to 10. Duration of analgesia, sensation of warmth, and adverse effects were noted. Statistical analyses were performed using nonparametric tests. Subjects' average age was 56 years, with a median low (...) Persistent low-back pain is real. However, diagnostic spinal injections are not helpful in its evaluation. We endeavored to assess the short-term effects of intrathecal fentanyl and lidocaine in chronic-pain patients by ascertaining whether the opioid fentanyl, by virtue of its lack of sensory and motor paralysis, conferred any diagnostic advantages over lidocaine, a local anesthetic whose effects include sensory and motor paralysis. Neuraxial administration of fentanyl has been touted

1992 Clinical Journal of Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9488. Effect of topical capsaicin in the therapy of painful osteoarthritis of the hands. (Abstract)

, joint swelling and tenderness (dolorimeter) were performed before randomization. Treatment was applied to each painful hand joint 4 times daily with reassessment at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after entry. One subject did not complete the study. Capsaicin reduced tenderness (p less than 0.02) and pain (p less than 0.02) associated with OA, but not RA as compared with placebo. A local burning sensation was the only adverse effect noted. These findings suggest that topical capsaicin is a safe and potentially (...) Effect of topical capsaicin in the therapy of painful osteoarthritis of the hands. Topical capsaicin 0.075% was evaluated for the treatment of the painful joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) in a 4 week double blind, placebo controlled randomized trial. Twenty-one patients were selected, all of whom had either RA (n = 7) or OA (n = 14) with painful involvement of the hands. Assessments of pain (visual analog scale), functional capacity, morning stiffness, grip strength

1992 The Journal of rheumatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9489. The postmastectomy pain syndrome and topical capsaicin: a randomized trial. (Abstract)

The postmastectomy pain syndrome and topical capsaicin: a randomized trial. This paper describes a randomized parallel trial of topical 0.075% capsaicin versus vehicle (placebo) in the postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS). The study was double-blind in design; however, this was compromised by the burning sensation induced by capsaicin. We could not demonstrate a significant difference in the visual analogue scale (VAS) for steady pain although a trend was present. A significant difference (...) was found, however, in the VAS for jabbing pain, in category pain severity scales, and in overall pain relief scales in favour of capsaicin. Five of 13 patients on capsaicin were categorized as good-to-excellent responses with 8 (62%) having 50% or greater improvement. Only 1 of 10 cases had a good response to vehicle with 3 rated as 50% or better.

1992 Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9490. The effects of immediate continuous passive motion on pain during the inflammatory phase of soft tissue healing following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (Abstract)

the inflammatory phase of soft tissue healing. Acute pain was measured by assessing the amount of pain medication (amount of narcotic delivered from the patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump during the first postoperative 24 hours and the total intake of oral medication during the second and third postoperative days), the need for pain medication (number of times the patient pushed the PCA button during the first postoperative 24 hours), and perceived pain (graphic pain scale measuring antalgic sensation (...) The effects of immediate continuous passive motion on pain during the inflammatory phase of soft tissue healing following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Continuous passive motion (CPM) may have potential application as a physical modality in decreasing acute pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CPM immediately following an arthroscopically-assisted anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction utilizing bone-patella-bone autograft on acute pain during

1993 The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9491. Effect of intraesophageal location and muscarinic blockade on balloon distension-induced chest pain. (Abstract)

consistently higher with the balloon located at the proximal site versus the distal site. This was not associated with any differences in intraballoon pressures between the two sites; however, contraction amplitude orad to the balloon was greater with balloon distension at the proximal site. Atropine significantly decreased pain sensation scores with the balloon located distally but not proximally. This attenuation was not associated with significant changes in intraballoon pressures; however, contractions (...) Effect of intraesophageal location and muscarinic blockade on balloon distension-induced chest pain. Intraesophageal balloon distension has been introduced recently as a provocative test in the assessment of patients with noncardiac chest pain. In order to examine the effect of balloon location and muscarinic blockade on distension-induced pain, 10 asymptomatic male volunteers were studied on two separate days using a low-compliance perfused manometry system that incorporated a silicone rubber

1991 Digestive diseases and sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9492. Effectiveness of different benfotiamine dosage regimens in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(DNP). In a 6-week open clinical trial, 36 patients (aged 40 to 70 yrs) having acceptable metabolic control (HbA1c < 8.0%) were randomly assigned to three groups, each of them comprising 12 participants. Neuropathy was assessed by five parameters: the pain sensation (evaluated by a modified analogue visual scale), the vibration sensation (measured with a tuning fork using the Riedel-Seyfert method) and the current perception threshold (CPT) on the peroneal nerve at 3 frequencies: 5, 250 and 2000 Hz (...) Effectiveness of different benfotiamine dosage regimens in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. The therapeutic effectiveness of a benfotiamine (CAS 22457-89-2)-vitamin B combination (Milgamma-N), administered in high (4 x 2 capsules/day, = 320 mg benfotiamine/day) and medium doses (3 x 1 capsules/day), was compared to a monotherapy with benfotiamine (Benfogamma) (3 x 1 tablets/day, = 150 mg benfotiamine/day) in diabetic patients suffering from painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy

1999 Arzneimittel-Forschung Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9493. Relief of postoperative pain with jaw relaxation, music and their combination. (Abstract)

. Pain was measured with the visual analogue sensation and distress of pain scales. Demographic and surgical variables, and milligrams of parenteral or oral opioids in effect at the time of testing were not significantly different between the groups, nor did they correlate with pain scores. Controlling for pretest sensation and distress, orthogonal a priori contrasts and multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that the three treatment groups had significantly less pain than the controls, (P (...) = 0.028-0.000) which was confirmed by the univariate analysis of covariance (P = 0.018-0.000). Post hoc multivariate analysis revealed that the combination group had significantly less sensation and distress of pain than the control group on all post-tests (P = 0.035-0.000), and the relaxation and music groups had significantly less on all tests (P = 0.022-0.000) except after ambulation. At post ambulation those using relaxation did not have significantly less pain than the controls on both days

1999 Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9494. The effect of repeated epidural sympathetic nerve block on "failed back surgery syndrome" associated chronic low back pain. (Abstract)

performed twice daily (09H00 and 14H00) for 4 days. Sympathetic blockade was confirmed by the presence of peripheral vasodilatation. Sensory blockade was assessed using loss of pin prick and temperature sensation. SLR as well as patient-generated 100-mm visual analog score (VAS) for pain were performed prior to each injection, at 15 minutes after injection, and hourly for 2 hours thereafter. Similar parameters were measured 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after discharge.46 patients completed the study (...) The effect of repeated epidural sympathetic nerve block on "failed back surgery syndrome" associated chronic low back pain. To assess the therapeutic benefits of repeated epidural local anesthetic administration on pain perception and straight leg raise (SLR) in patients suffering from chronic low back pain.Prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind study protocol.50 ASA physical status I, II, and III patients at least 18 years of age, who had previously undergone spine surgery.All

1999 Journal of clinical anesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9495. The effects of ketamine on the temporal summation (wind-up) of the R(III) nociceptive flexion reflex and pain in humans. (Abstract)

of ketamine on the temporal summation (i.e., wind-up) of both the nociceptive flexion (R(III)) reflex and sensations of pain in six healthy volunteers. The R(III) reflex was recorded from the biceps femoris and was elicited by electrical stimulation of the sural nerve. First, the recruitment (stimulus/response) curve for the reflex was built using stimuli up to the pain tolerance threshold (applied once every 6 s). A series of 15 stimuli was then applied once a second at an intensity of 1.2 times (...) the reflex threshold. These procedures were performed both before and after the randomized IV injection of either 0.15 mg/kg ketamine or a placebo. The R(III) reflex threshold and its recruitment curve were not significantly altered after the injection of ketamine or placebo. By contrast, the significant increases (i.e., wind-up) in both the reflex responses and the sensations of pain observed during the higher frequency stimulation were significantly reduced after the administration of ketamine

2000 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9496. Attitudes towards pain and return to work in young immigrants on long- term sick leave. (Abstract)

as having no capacity to work and two-thirds reported pain anxiety. The shared characteristics of the attitude to pain were that rest is the best treatment and that occupational work is the main etiological factor for the pain. A difference was found regarding the meaning of the pain, with one cluster of interviewees focusing on a disorder (Type I attitudes) and the other cluster focusing on the pain sensation itself (Type II attitudes). These clusters were equally large and there were no significant (...) Attitudes towards pain and return to work in young immigrants on long- term sick leave. To explore attitudes towards pain and returning to work in young immigrants on long-term sick leave because of chronic pain.As a part of a randomised-controlled rehabilitation programme for immigrants 16-45 years of age on sick leave > 6 weeks, the participants in the experimental group were interviewed about their attitudes towards their pain.A primary health care centre in an immigrant district

1999 Scandinavian journal of primary health care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9497. Pressure pain threshold with and without iontophoretic anesthesia of the masseter muscle in asymptomatic males. (Abstract)

Pressure pain threshold with and without iontophoretic anesthesia of the masseter muscle in asymptomatic males. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) in the superficial masseter muscle was measured with and without cutaneous anesthesia to determine whether there would be a difference in PPT scores.In 14 healthy male subjects, cutaneous tissues in the target areas were anesthetized with lidocaine with the help of an iontophoretic device. As a control, physiologic saline solution was applied (...) iontophoretically to the contralateral masseter site. The subject and the PPT examiner did not know which side contained anesthesia, and the selection of which side to anesthetize was done in a random fashion. Multiple PPT measurements were made in the target sites before and immediately after the iontophoretic anesthesia.The PPT level on the lidocaine side was not statistically different from the PPT level recorded on the control side (339.0 +/- 87.6 kPa and 337.5 +/- 77.7 kPa, respectively).Pressure pain

1999 Journal of orofacial pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9498. Health anxiety moderates the effects of distraction versus attention to pain. (Abstract)

and completed measures of pain, anxiety and cognition following an active physiotherapy session in which they either: (1) attended to physical sensations; (2) distracted from physical sensations or (3) completed the session as usual. Health anxious, compared to non-health anxious, individuals worried more about their health and injury during the session and attended to and catastrophically misinterpreted sensations more frequently. A complex interaction between health anxiety and coping strategy emerged (...) . Among health anxious patients, attention to sensations resulted in lower anxiety and pain than did distraction. It appears as though attention had a short-term anxiety reducing effect for health anxious patients. Among non-health anxious patients, attention resulted in greater worry about health than distraction. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

2000 Behaviour research and therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9499. Comparison of ketorolac tromethamine, diclofenac sodium, and moist drops for ocular pain after radial keratotomy. (Abstract)

Comparison of ketorolac tromethamine, diclofenac sodium, and moist drops for ocular pain after radial keratotomy. To compare the 2 most popular commercially available topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the treatment of ocular pain following radial keratotomy (RK).Multicenter clinical trial.Ninety-seven RK patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: ketorolac tromethamine, diclofenac sodium, and moist drops as a control. The patients used 1 drop (...) that tested as significant, the significant differences (7 of 210 measurements) observed among the 3 treatment groups probably occurred by chance, although the improved foreign-body sensation, functionality, and compliance scores in the ketorolac group during the first 4 hours might be clinically important.

1999 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9500. Imipramine decreases oesophageal pain perception in human male volunteers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Imipramine decreases oesophageal pain perception in human male volunteers. Visceral hyperalgesia is a hallmark of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Antidepressants improve symptoms in these patients, although their mode of action is unclear. Antidepressant, anticholinergic, and analgesic mechanisms have been proposed.To investigate whether imipramine, which has a visceral analgesic effect, increases pain thresholds to experimental visceral pain.Visceral perception for first sensation (...) and pain was measured with intraoesophageal balloon distension in 15 male volunteers. The effect of imipramine was studied in a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Imipramine was given in ascending doses for 12 days (25 mg days 1-3, 50 mg days 4-6, 75 mg days 7-12), with oesophageal perception studied on day 13.Inflation volumes and intraballoon pressures at first sensation were not different between placebo and imipramine. Balloon inflation volume at pain threshold was higher

1998 Gut Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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