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Pain Sensation

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21. TRPs in Pain Sensation (PubMed)

TRPs in Pain Sensation According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) pain is characterized as an "unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage". The TRP super-family, compressing up to 28 isoforms in mammals, mediates a myriad of physiological and pathophysiological processes, pain among them. TRP channel might be constituted by similar or different TRP subunits, which will result in the formation of homomeric (...) or heteromeric channels with distinct properties and functions. In this review we will discuss about the function of TRPs in pain, focusing on TRP channles that participate in the transduction of noxious sensation, especially TRPV1 and TRPA1, their expression in nociceptors and their sensitivity to a large number of physical and chemical stimuli.

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2017 Frontiers in physiology

22. TFOS DEWS II pain and sensation report (PubMed)

TFOS DEWS II pain and sensation report Pain associated with mechanical, chemical, and thermal heat stimulation of the ocular surface is mediated by trigeminal ganglion neurons, while cold thermoreceptors detect wetness and reflexly maintain basal tear production and blinking rate. These neurons project into two regions of the trigeminal brain stem nuclear complex: ViVc, activated by changes in the moisture of the ocular surface and VcC1, mediating sensory-discriminative aspects of ocular pain (...) , reduced tear secretion leads to inflammation and peripheral nerve damage. Inflammation causes sensitization of polymodal and mechano-nociceptor nerve endings and an abnormal increase in cold thermoreceptor activity, altogether evoking dryness sensations and pain. Long-term inflammation and nerve injury alter gene expression of ion channels and receptors at terminals and cell bodies of trigeminal ganglion and brainstem neurons, changing their excitability, connectivity and impulse firing. Perpetuation

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2017 The ocular surface

23. Assessment of Thermal Pain Sensation in Rats and Mice Using the Hargreaves Test (PubMed)

Assessment of Thermal Pain Sensation in Rats and Mice Using the Hargreaves Test The Hargreaves test is specifically designed to assess thermal pain sensation in rodents such as rats and mice. This test has been used in experiments involving pain sensitization or recovery of thermal pain response following neural injury and regeneration. We present here a step-by-step protocol highlighted with important notes to guide first-time users through the learning process. Additionally, we have also

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2017 Bio-protocol

24. Peripheral and orofacial pain sensation is unaffected by the loss of p39 (PubMed)

Peripheral and orofacial pain sensation is unaffected by the loss of p39 Cdk5 is a key neuronal kinase necessary for proper brain development, which has recently been implicated in modulating nociception. Conditional deletion of Cdk5 in pain-sensing neurons attenuates pain responses to heat in both the periphery and orofacial regions. Cdk5 activity is regulated by binding to the activators p35 and p39, both of which possess a cyclin box. Our previous examination of the nociceptive role (...) effects that result from the deletion of p35. Our data demonstrate different and nonoverlapping roles of Cdk5 activators in the regulation of orofacial as well as peripheral nociception with a crucial role for Cdk5/p35 in pain signaling.

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2017 Molecular pain

25. Impact of Injection Speed, Volume, and Site on Pain Sensation (PubMed)

Impact of Injection Speed, Volume, and Site on Pain Sensation Painful subcutaneous insulin injections may decrease treatment compliance. Improving injection comfort therefore represents a particular area of technological research in which steady progress has been made since the introduction of the insulin pen in 1985. Injection pain can be influenced by many variables, but relatively little is known about their impact. This study investigated the impact of injection volume (range 0-2250 µL (...) ), speed (range 0-800 µL/sec), and site (abdomen vs thigh) on pain sensation.In random order, patients (n = 80) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes received 24 saline injections subcutaneously through a 27G ultra-thin-wall needle. Injections were performed in the abdomen (n = 19) and thigh (n = 5) with predefined speed-volume combinations. For each injected speed-volume combination, patients scored their pain sensation on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS).The mean pain scores for speed-volume combinations

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2017 Journal of diabetes science and technology

26. Tlx3 Function in the Dorsal Root Ganglion is Pivotal to Itch and Pain Sensations (PubMed)

Tlx3 Function in the Dorsal Root Ganglion is Pivotal to Itch and Pain Sensations Itch, a sensation eliciting a desire to scratch, is distinct from but not completely independent of pain. Inspiring achievements have been made in the characterization of itch-related receptors and neurotransmitters, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of pruriceptors remain poorly understood. Here, our RNAseq and in situ hybridization data show that the transcription factor Tlx3 is required (...) and neuropathic pain remain normal. In Tlx3F/F;Nav1.8-cre mice, TRPV1 is derepressed and expands predominantly into IB4+ non-peptidergic (NP) neurons. Collectively, our data reveal a molecular mechanism in regulating the development of pruriceptors and controlling itch and pain sensations.

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2017 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

27. Reduced Pain Sensation and Reduced BOLD Signal in Parietofrontal Networks during Religious Prayer (PubMed)

Reduced Pain Sensation and Reduced BOLD Signal in Parietofrontal Networks during Religious Prayer Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping. Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer (...) and their dependency on the opioidergic system. Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions. Naloxone or saline was administered prior to scanning. Results show that pain intensity was reduced by 11% and pain unpleasantness by 26% during religious prayer compared to secular prayer. Expectancy predicted large amounts (70-89%) of the variance in pain intensity. Neuroimaging results revealed reduced neural activity

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2017 Frontiers in human neuroscience

28. Increasing Pain Sensation Eliminates the Inhibitory Effect of Depression on Evoked Pain in Rats (PubMed)

Increasing Pain Sensation Eliminates the Inhibitory Effect of Depression on Evoked Pain in Rats Although previous studies have suggested that depression may be associated with inhibition of evoked pain but facilitation of spontaneous pain, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are unclear. The present study investigated whether the difference between evoked and spontaneous pain on sensory (descending inhibition) and affective (avoidance motivation) components contributes (...) to the divergent effects of depression on them. Depressive-like behavior was produced in male Wistar rats by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). Tone-laser conditioning and formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA) were used to explore avoidance motivation in evoked and spontaneous pain, respectively. Behavioral pharmacology experiments were conducted to examine descending inhibition of both evoked (thermal stimulation) and spontaneous pain behavior (formalin pain). The results revealed

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2016 Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience

29. Why Harmless Sensations Might Hurt in Individuals with Chronic Pain: About Heightened Prediction and Perception of Pain in the Mind (PubMed)

Why Harmless Sensations Might Hurt in Individuals with Chronic Pain: About Heightened Prediction and Perception of Pain in the Mind In individuals with chronic pain harmless bodily sensations can elicit anticipatory fear of pain resulting in maladaptive responses such as taking pain medication. Here, we aim to broaden the perspective taking into account recent evidence that suggests that interoceptive perception is largely a construction of beliefs, which are based on past experience (...) and that are kept in check by the actual state of the body. Taking a Bayesian perspective, we propose that individuals with chronic pain display a heightened prediction of pain [prior probability p(pain)], which results in heightened pain perception [posterior probability p(pain|sensation)] due to an assumed link between pain and a harmless bodily sensation [p(sensation|pain)]. This pain perception emerges because their mind infers pain as the most likely cause for the sensation. When confronted with a mismatch

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2016 Frontiers in psychology

30. Viewing the body modulates both pain sensations and pain responses (PubMed)

Viewing the body modulates both pain sensations and pain responses Viewing the body can influence pain perception, even when vision is non-informative about the noxious stimulus. Prior studies used either continuous pain rating scales or pain detection thresholds, which cannot distinguish whether viewing the body changes the discriminability of noxious heat intensities or merely shifts reported pain levels. In Experiment 1, participants discriminated two intensities of heat-pain stimulation (...) were presented in separate blocks of trials. Viewing the hand shifted perceived pain levels irrespective of actual stimulus intensity, biasing responses toward 'high pain' judgments. In Experiment 3, participants saw the noxious stimulus as it approached and touched their hand or the object. Seeing the pain-inducing event counteracted the reduction in discriminability found when viewing the hand alone. These findings show that viewing the body can affect both perceptual processing of pain

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2016 Experimental Brain Research

31. Arthropathy-related pain in a patient with congenital impairment of pain sensation due to hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II with a rare mutation in the WNK1/HSN2 gene: a case report. (PubMed)

Arthropathy-related pain in a patient with congenital impairment of pain sensation due to hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II with a rare mutation in the WNK1/HSN2 gene: a case report. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type II with WNK1/HSN2 gene mutation is a rare disease characterized by early-onset demyelination sensory loss and skin ulceration. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of an autonomic disorder have been reported clearly in a patient with WNK (...) /HSN2 gene mutation and only one case of a Japanese patient with the WNK/HSN2 gene mutation of HSAN type II was previously reported.Here we describe a 54-year-old woman who had an early childhood onset of insensitivity to pain; superficial, vibration, and proprioception sensation disturbances; and several symptoms of autonomic failure (e.g., orthostatic hypotension, fluctuation in body temperature, and lack of urge to defecate). Genetic analyses revealed compound homozygous mutations in the WNK1

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2016 BMC Neurology

32. Pulsatile Mass Sensation with Intense Abdominal Pain; Atypical Presentation of the Nutcracker Syndrome (PubMed)

Pulsatile Mass Sensation with Intense Abdominal Pain; Atypical Presentation of the Nutcracker Syndrome Patients with Nutcracker syndrome generally present with nonspecific abdominal pain, with the left renal vein (LRV) lodged between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. In rare cases this can result in atypical gastrointestinal symptoms, making the diagnosis of Nutcracker syndrome challenging.A 28-year-old female patient presented with complaints of severe abdominal pain and palpable

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2016 Polish Journal of Radiology

33. Central Poststroke Pain Can Occur With Normal Sensation. (PubMed)

Central Poststroke Pain Can Occur With Normal Sensation. In view of the paucity of studies on central poststroke pain (CPSP), in this hospital-based prospective study, we evaluated the frequency, the spectrum, imaging, and quantitative sensory testing in a cohort of stroke patients with CPSP.Stroke patients who developed CPSP at onset or during follow-up were included. Patients were subjected to clinical evaluation and sensory testing. The severity of stroke was defined by the Modified Rankin (...) , and imaging findings.A total of 319 patients with stroke were evaluated. CPSP occurred in 66 (20.7%) of them. The median age of the CPSP patients was 55 years (range, 25 to 80 y). About 31.8% patients were female. The onset, the duration, and the distribution of pain were variable. The severity of symptoms did not correlate with demographic variables and the site of lesion. Spinothalamic sensations were normal in 42.3% patients. On treatment with pregabalin (150 to 600 mg), half of the patients had a good

2016 Clinical Journal of Pain

34. Why individual thermo sensation and pain perception varies? Clue of disruptive mutations in TRPVs from 2504 human genome data (PubMed)

Why individual thermo sensation and pain perception varies? Clue of disruptive mutations in TRPVs from 2504 human genome data Every individual varies in character and so do their sensory functions and perceptions. The molecular mechanism and the molecular candidates involved in these processes are assumed to be similar if not same. So far several molecular factors have been identified which are fairly conserved across the phylogenetic tree and are involved in these complex sensory functions (...) . Among all, members belonging to Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have been widely characterized for their involvement in thermo-sensation. These include TRPV1 to TRPV4 channels which reveal complex thermo-gating behavior in response to changes in temperature. The molecular evolution of these channels is highly correlative with the thermal response of different species. However, recent 2504 human genome data suggest that these thermo-sensitive TRPV channels are highly variable and carry

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2016 Channels

35. Cognitive Coping Style and the Effectiveness of Distraction or Sensation-Focused Instructions in Chronic Pain Patients (PubMed)

Cognitive Coping Style and the Effectiveness of Distraction or Sensation-Focused Instructions in Chronic Pain Patients This study set out to investigate whether cognitive coping strategies that match participants' preferred coping style effectively reduce pain intensity and situational anxiety in a population of people with chronic pain.Chronic pain patients (N = 43) completed questionnaires on coping style, pain intensity, self-efficacy, and situational/trait anxiety. Participants were (...) classified as Monitors (n = 16) or Blunters (n = 19) based on their Miller Behavioural Style Scale score. Participants were then provided with an audiotaped intervention in which they were instructed to focus on pain sensations or to engage in a distraction task and then to rate the pain intensity and their anxiety during and after the attentional focus and distraction conditions. The two interventions were each completed by all participants, having been presented in counterbalanced order.Findings

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2016 PloS one

36. Pain Sensation

Pain Sensation Pain Sensation Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Pain Sensation Pain Sensation Aka: Pain Sensation (...) , Allodynia , Hyperpathia From Related Chapters II. Definitions Allodynia Nonpainful stimulus results in perception of pain Hyperpathia Pain out of proportion to pain stimulus Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Pain Sensation." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: Hyperalgesia (C0020429) Definition (MSH) An increased sensation

2018 FP Notebook

37. Dorsal root ganglion neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase – An intriguing association with implications for sensation and pain (PubMed)

Dorsal root ganglion neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase – An intriguing association with implications for sensation and pain 26447702 2016 10 13 2018 11 13 1872-6623 157 2 2016 Feb Pain Pain Dorsal root ganglion neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase--an intriguing association with implications for sensation and pain. 314-20 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000381 Brumovsky Pablo R PR aInstitute of Research on Translational Medicine, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET (...) ) - Austral University, Pilar, Buenos Aires, ArgentinabDepartment of Anesthesiology, Pittsburgh Center for Pain Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. eng R01 DK093525 DK NIDDK NIH HHS United States R01 NS035790 NS NINDS NIH HHS United States DK093525 DK NIDDK NIH HHS United States NS035790 NS NINDS NIH HHS United States Journal Article Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review United States Pain 7508686 0304-3959 EC 1.14.16.2 Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase

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2016 Pain

38. Distinct BOLD fMRI Responses of Capsaicin-Induced Thermal Sensation Reveal Pain-Related Brain Activation in Nonhuman Primates (PubMed)

Distinct BOLD fMRI Responses of Capsaicin-Induced Thermal Sensation Reveal Pain-Related Brain Activation in Nonhuman Primates Approximately 20% of the adult population suffer from chronic pain that is not adequately treated by current therapies, highlighting a great need for improved treatment options. To develop effective analgesics, experimental human and animal models of pain are critical. Topically/intra-dermally applied capsaicin induces hyperalgesia and allodynia to thermal and tactile (...) stimuli that mimics chronic pain and is a useful translation from preclinical research to clinical investigation. Many behavioral and self-report studies of pain have exploited the use of the capsaicin pain model, but objective biomarker correlates of the capsaicin augmented nociceptive response in nonhuman primates remains to be explored.Here we establish an aversive capsaicin-induced fMRI model using non-noxious heat stimuli in Cynomolgus monkeys (n = 8). BOLD fMRI data were collected during thermal

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2016 PloS one

39. Thermal temporal summation and decay of after-sensations in temporomandibular myofascial pain patients with and without comorbid fibromyalgia (PubMed)

Thermal temporal summation and decay of after-sensations in temporomandibular myofascial pain patients with and without comorbid fibromyalgia Chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) may have multiple etiological and maintenance factors. One potential factor, central pain sensitization, was quantified here as the response to the temporal summation (TS) paradigm, and that response was compared between case and control groups.As previous research has shown that fibromyalgia (FM (...) ) is diagnosed iñ20% of TMD patients, Aim 1 determined whether central sensitization is found preferentially in myofascial TMD cases that have orofacial pain as a regional manifestation of FM. Aim 2 determined if the report of after-sensations (AS) following TS varied depending on whether repeated stimuli were rated as increasingly painful.One hundred sixty-eight women, 43 controls, 100 myofascial TMD-only cases, and 25 myofascial TMD + FM cases, were compared on thermal warmth and pain thresholds, thermal

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2016 Journal of pain research

40. Making sense of bodily sensations: Do shared cancer narratives influence symptom appraisal? (PubMed)

Making sense of bodily sensations: Do shared cancer narratives influence symptom appraisal? Though new or altered bodily sensations are a common occurrence they rarely transition to biomedically defined symptoms. When they do, sensations are subject to an appraisal process that can culminate in help-seeking. The transition has particular relevance for cancer diagnoses. Studies of 'symptom appraisal' in cancer patients typically conclude that failure to regard sensations as serious or 'symptom (...) -monitoring strategies and severe or painful changes prompted help-seeking. Far from misattributing symptoms, responses to bodily changes were sensible and measured; responses are particularly apt in relation to current policy rhetoric, which urges measured use of services. Our findings have resonance across healthcare settings as patients are required to negotiate a narrow and challenging space when making decisions to seek help. There is a pressing need for a more realistic approach to symptom appraisal

2019 Social Science & Medicine

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