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Pain Sensation

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341. Chronic inflammatory pain induced GABAergic synaptic plasticity in the adult mouse anterior cingulate cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chronic inflammatory pain induced GABAergic synaptic plasticity in the adult mouse anterior cingulate cortex Background Chronic pain is a persistent unpleasant sensation that produces pathological synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. Both human imaging study and animal studies consistently demonstrate that the anterior cingulate cortex is a critical cortical area for nociceptive and chronic pain processing. Thus far, the mechanisms of excitatory synaptic transmission (...) and plasticity have been well characterized in the anterior cingulate cortex for various models of chronic pain. By contrast, the potential contribution of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex, in models of chronic pain, is not fully understood. Methods Chronic inflammation was induced by complete Freund adjuvant into the adult mice left hindpaw. We performed in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from layer II/III pyramidal neurons in two to three days after the complete

2018 Molecular pain

342. Low back pain, obesity, and inflammatory markers: exercise as potential treatment Full Text available with Trip Pro

effects. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines are sensitizers of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of acute inflammation that can be linked to the musculoskeletal pain sensation individuals with back pain. Another inflammatory marker deserves mention, prostaglandin E2. Prostaglandin E2 is important in the process of triggering actions such as pyrexia, sensation of pain and inflammation, which are exhibited in low back pain condition. The potential for exercises and physical activity to control (...) Low back pain, obesity, and inflammatory markers: exercise as potential treatment Low back pain is a health issue with significant impact to patients and society. This narrative review aims to synthesize the relationship between obesity, low-grade inflammation and low back pain. It is known that a sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for obesity and related disorders. The adipose tissue of obese people secretes a range of cytokines of character pro- and anti-inflammatory, with many molecular

2018 Journal of exercise rehabilitation

343. Chronic inflammatory pain decreases the glutamate vesicles in presynaptic terminals of the nucleus accumbens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chronic inflammatory pain decreases the glutamate vesicles in presynaptic terminals of the nucleus accumbens Reward system has been proved to be important to nociceptive behavior, and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key node in reward circuitry. It has been further revealed that dopamine system modulates the NAc to influence the pain sensation, whereas the role of glutamatergic projection in the NAc in the modulation of chronic pain is still elusive. In this study, we used a complete Freund's (...) adjuvant-induced chronic inflammatory pain model to explore the changes of the glutamatergic terminals in the NAc, and we found that following the chronic inflammation, the protein level of vesicular glutamate transporter1 (VGLUT1) was significantly decreased in the NAc. Immunofluorescence staining further showed a reduced expression of VGLUT1-positive terminals in the dopamine receptor 2 (D2R) spiny projection neurons of NAc after chronic inflammatory pain. Furthermore, using a whole-cell recording

2018 Molecular pain

344. Treatment of Painful Nerves in the Abdominal Wall Using Processed Nerve Allografts Full Text available with Trip Pro

report of this concept to treat a painful neuroma of the abdominal wall that developed following a laparoscopic gastric bypass. The neuroma was excised, and the affected nerve was reconstructed using a processed nerve allograft as an interposition graft, with resolution of pain and gradual return of normal sensation. Patient-reported outcomes were measured using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Neuroma excision with concurrent interposition grafting using processed nerve (...) Treatment of Painful Nerves in the Abdominal Wall Using Processed Nerve Allografts Neuromas can be a debilitating cause of pain and often negatively affect patients' quality of life. One effective method of treatment involves surgical resection of the painful neuroma and use of a processed nerve allograft to repair the injured nerve segment. Giving the nerve "somewhere to go and something to do" has been shown to effectively alleviate pain in upper and lower extremities. We present the first

2018 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open

345. Comparison the Pain Relief of Amitriptyline Mouthwash with Benzydamine in Oral Mucositis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison the Pain Relief of Amitriptyline Mouthwash with Benzydamine in Oral Mucositis A significant proportion of patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy suffer from mucositis. The first symptom of oral mucositis is pain. Severe pain, burning sensation, and discomfort in the oral cavity make it difficult to continue treatment and even continue living in these patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of amitriptyline mouthwash (in two forms of simple (...) sensation were evaluated with VAS at different time intervals: before use and one, five, ten, and thirty minutes and one hour after using mouthwash. T-test was used to compare the intensity of pain between the two groups. ANOVA and Tukey test were used to compare the intensity of pain between groups.Statistical analyses showed the maximum reduction in pain intensity at two different time intervals (p= 0.04). Ten minutes after the use of niosomal form of amitriptyline, a 95% decrease in pain was observed

2018 Journal of dentistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

346. Quantitative Evaluation of Pain during Electrocutaneous Stimulation using a Log-Linearized Peripheral Arterial Viscoelastic Model Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and propose a method for evaluating pain sensation, including intensity, sharpness, and dullness, using the arterial stiffness index. In the experiment, electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and photoplethysmograms were obtained, and an arterial viscoelastic model was applied to estimate arterial stiffness. The relationships among the stiffness index, self-reported pain sensation, and electrocutaneous stimuli were examined and modelled. The relationship between the stiffness index and pain sensation could (...) Quantitative Evaluation of Pain during Electrocutaneous Stimulation using a Log-Linearized Peripheral Arterial Viscoelastic Model In clinical practice, subjective pain evaluations, e.g., the visual analogue scale and the numeric rating scale, are generally employed, but these are limited in terms of their ability to detect inaccurate reports, and are unsuitable for use in anesthetized patients or those with dementia. We focused on the peripheral sympathetic nerve activity that responds to pain

2018 Scientific reports

347. Glial cell type-specific changes in spinal dipeptidyl peptidase 4 expression and effects of its inhibitors in inflammatory and neuropatic pain Full Text available with Trip Pro

Glial cell type-specific changes in spinal dipeptidyl peptidase 4 expression and effects of its inhibitors in inflammatory and neuropatic pain Altered pain sensations such as hyperalgesia and allodynia are characteristic features of various pain states, and remain difficult to treat. We have shown previously that spinal application of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors induces strong antihyperalgesic effect during inflammatory pain. In this study we observed low level of DPP4 mRNA

2018 Scientific reports

348. Zinc Inhibits TRPV1 to Alleviate Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain Full Text available with Trip Pro

Zinc Inhibits TRPV1 to Alleviate Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain Zinc is a transition metal that has a long history of use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It also soothes pain sensations in a number of animal models. However, the effects and mechanisms of zinc on chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy remain unknown. Here we show that locally injected zinc markedly reduces neuropathic pain in male and female mice induced by paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug, in a TRPV1-dependent manner (...) . Extracellularly applied zinc also inhibits the function of TRPV1 expressed in HEK293 cells and mouse DRG neurons, which requires the presence of zinc-permeable TRPA1 to mediate entry of zinc into the cytoplasm. Moreover, TRPA1 is required for zinc-induced inhibition of TRPV1-mediated acute nociception. Unexpectedly, zinc transporters, but not TRPA1, are required for zinc-induced inhibition of TRPV1-dependent chronic neuropathic pain produced by paclitaxel. Together, our study demonstrates a novel mechanism

2018 The Journal of Neuroscience

349. Physiotherapy for pelvic pain and female sexual dysfunction: an untapped resource Full Text available with Trip Pro

Physiotherapy for pelvic pain and female sexual dysfunction: an untapped resource Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in women is a complex syndrome. Pain sensation and intensity often do not correspond with the identified lesion location but are felt elsewhere, leading to muskuloskeletal and myofascial disorders and sexual dysfunction (SD). Although physical aspects are prevalent, they are often underdiagnosed and undertreated due to lack of understanding regarding its origin and distribution (...) . Frequently, patients experience pelvic pain as psychological distress resulting in physical complaints, leading clinicians to prescribe medication or surgical intervention to correct or alleviate these symptoms, often with insufficient results. Because pelvic floor muscle disorders contribute significantly to CPP and SD, there is rationale for physiotherapy. However, physiotherapy is a widely underused and untapped resource, which has its place in the multidisciplinary approach to these health

2018 International urogynecology journal

350. Fractured styloid process masquerading as neck pain: Cone-beam computed tomography investigation and review of the literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fractured styloid process masquerading as neck pain: Cone-beam computed tomography investigation and review of the literature Historically, Eagle syndrome is a term that has been used to describe radiating pain in the orofacial region, foreign body sensation, and/or dysphagia due to a unilateral or bilateral elongated styloid process impinging upon the tonsillar region. Because elongated styloid processes-with or without associated Eagle syndrome-can present with various symptoms (...) and radiographic findings, it can be challenging for healthcare practitioners to formulate an accurate diagnosis. Abnormal styloid anatomy can lead to a multitude of symptoms, including chronic orofacial/neck pain, thus masquerading as more commonly diagnosed conditions. In this report, we describe a patient who presented to our department with styloid process elongation and fracture. A careful history, physical examination, and a conebeam computed tomography (CBCT) investigation led to the diagnosis

2018 Imaging Science in Dentistry

351. Does a Better Perfusion of Deconditioned Muscle Tissue Release Chronic Low Back Pain? Full Text available with Trip Pro

remodeling of skeletal muscle, inflammation, and pain sensation. The genetic profile may help to explain the individual predisposition to nsCLBP, thus identifying subgroups of patients, which could benefit from ad hoc treatment types. Future therapeutic approaches aimed at relieving the pain associated with nsCLBP should be based on the verification of mechanistic processes of activity-induced angio-adaptation and muscle-perfusion. (...) Does a Better Perfusion of Deconditioned Muscle Tissue Release Chronic Low Back Pain? Non-specific chronic low back pain (nsCLBP) is a multifactorial condition of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Physical and genetic factors may influence the predisposition of individuals to CLBP, which in many instances share a musculoskeletal origin. A reduced pain level in low back pain patients that participate in exercise therapy highlights that disuse-related muscle deconditioning may predispose

2018 Frontiers in medicine

352. Sensitization of P2X3 receptors in insular cortex contributes to visceral pain of adult rats with neonatal maternal deprivation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sensitization of P2X3 receptors in insular cortex contributes to visceral pain of adult rats with neonatal maternal deprivation Aims Insular cortex is a brain region critical for processing of the sensation. Purinergic receptors are involved in the formation of chronic pain. The aim of the present study was to explore the role and mechanism of P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) in insular cortex in chronic visceral pain. Methods Chronic visceral pain in adult rats was induced by neonatal maternal (...) of neonatal maternal deprivation rats, while injection of α,β-mATP into right but not left insular cortex markedly decreased the colorectal distension threshold in healthy control rats. Conclusions Overall, our data provide integrated pharmacological, biochemical, and functional evidence demonstrating that P2X3Rs are physically and functionally interconnected at the presynaptic level to control synaptic activities in the right insular cortex, thus contributing to visceral pain of neonatal maternal

2018 Molecular pain

353. Immersive Low-Cost Virtual Reality Treatment for Phantom Limb Pain: Evidence from Two Cases Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immersive Low-Cost Virtual Reality Treatment for Phantom Limb Pain: Evidence from Two Cases Up to 90% of amputees experience sensations in their phantom limb, often including strong, persistent phantom limb pain (PLP). Standard treatments do not provide relief for the majority of people who experience PLP, but virtual reality (VR) has shown promise. This study provides additional evidence that game-like training with low-cost immersive VR activities can reduce PLP in lower-limb amputees (...) . The user of our system views a real-time rendering of two intact legs in a head-mounted display while playing a set of custom games. The movements of both virtual extremities are controlled by measurements from inertial sensors mounted on the intact and residual limbs. Two individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation underwent multiple sessions of the VR treatment over several weeks. Both participants experienced a significant reduction of pain immediately after each VR session, and their pre

2018 Frontiers in neurology

354. Development of a Multimodal Analgesia Protocol for Perioperative Acute Pain Management for Lower Limb Amputation Full Text available with Trip Pro

in these patients presents a particular challenge considering the multiple sources and pathways for acute and chronic pain that are involved, such as chronic ischemic limb pain, postoperative residual limb pain, coexisting musculoskeletal pain, phantom limb sensations, and chronic phantom limb pain. These pain mechanisms are explored and a proposed protocol for multimodal analgesia is outlined taking into account the common patient comorbidities found in this patient population. (...) Development of a Multimodal Analgesia Protocol for Perioperative Acute Pain Management for Lower Limb Amputation Multimodal analgesia may include pharmacological components such as regional anesthesia, opioid and nonopioid systemic analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and a variety of adjuvant agents. Multimodal analgesia has been reported for a variety of surgical procedures but not yet for lower limb amputation in vasculopathic patients. Perioperative pain management

2018 Pain research & management

355. Selective cold pain inhibition by targeted block of TRPM8-expressing neurons with quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 Full Text available with Trip Pro

that localized injection of QX-314 with agonists for the menthol receptor TRPM8 specifically blocks cold-evoked behaviors in mice, including cold allodynia and hyperalgesia. Remarkably, cooling stimuli also promotes QX-314-mediated inhibition of cold behaviors, and can be used to block cold allodynia, while retaining relatively normal cold sensation. The effects of both agonist and thermally evoked uptake of QX-314 are TRPM8-dependent, results demonstrating an effective approach to treat localized cold pain (...) Selective cold pain inhibition by targeted block of TRPM8-expressing neurons with quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 Treatment of pain with local anesthetics leads to an unfavorable decrease in general sensory acuity due to their indiscriminate block of both pain sensing (nociceptors) and non-pain sensing nerves. However, the cell impermeant lidocaine derivative QX-314 can be selectively targeted to only nociceptors by permeation through ligand-gated cation channels. Here we show

2018 Communications Biology

356. Superior and Middle Cluneal Nerve Entrapment as a Cause of Low Back Pain Full Text available with Trip Pro

Superior and Middle Cluneal Nerve Entrapment as a Cause of Low Back Pain Low back pain (LBP) is encountered frequently in clinical practice. The superior and the middle cluneal nerves (SCN and MCN) are cutaneous nerves that are purely sensory. They dominate sensation in the lumbar area and the buttocks, and their entrapment around the iliac crest can elicit LBP. The reported incidence of SCN entrapment (SCN-E) in patients with LBP is 1.6%-14%. SCN-E and MCN entrapment (MCN-E) produce leg (...) symptoms in 47%-84% and 82% of LBP patients, respectively. In such patients, pain is exacerbated by lumbar movements, and the symptoms mimic radiculopathy due to lumbar disorder. As patients with failed back surgery or Parkinson disease also report LBP, the differential diagnosis must include those possibilities. The identification of the trigger point at the entrapment site and the disappearance of symptoms after nerve block are diagnostically important. LBP due to SCN-E or MCN-E can be treated less

2018 Neurospine

357. Effects of explicit cueing and ambiguity on the anticipation and experience of a painful thermal stimulus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of explicit cueing and ambiguity on the anticipation and experience of a painful thermal stimulus. Many factors can influence the way in which we perceive painful events and noxious stimuli, but less is known about how pain perception is altered by explicit knowledge about the impending sensation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of explicit cueing on anxiety, arousal, and pain experience during the anticipation and delivery of noxious thermal heat stimulations. Fifty-two (...) healthy volunteers were randomised to receive explicit instructions about visual cue-stimulus temperature pairings, or no explicit instructions about the cue-stimulus pairs. A pain anxiety task was used to investigate the effects of explicit cueing on anticipatory anxiety, pain experience and electrophysiological responses. Participants who received explicit instructions about the cue-stimulus pairs (i.e., the relationship between the colour of the cue and the temperature of the associated stimuli

2017 PLoS ONE

358. Negative correlation of cortical thickness with the severity and duration of abdominal pain in Asian women with irritable bowel syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and sexes experience different pain sensations and have different pain responses. Accordingly, we aimed to identify the specific changes in the cortical thickness of Asian women with IBS and to compare these data to those of non-Asian women with IBS.Thirty Asian female IBS patients (IBS group) and 39 healthy individuals (control group) were included in this study. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed. We used FreeSurfer to analyze the differences in the cortical thickness (...) Negative correlation of cortical thickness with the severity and duration of abdominal pain in Asian women with irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) manifests as chronic abdominal pain. One pathophysiological theory states that the brain-gut axis is responsible for pain control in the intestine. Although several studies have discussed the structural changes in the brain of IBS patients, most of these studies have been conducted in Western populations. Different cultures

2017 PLoS ONE

359. Weakness with left elbow flexion · left anterior shoulder pain · Dx? (Abstract)

Weakness with left elbow flexion · left anterior shoulder pain · Dx? A 41-year-old, right-hand dominant man sought care at our facility one day after trying to pull his boat out of the water. He'd tried to lift the boat with his hands while his forearms were fully supinated and his elbows were flexed to about 90 degrees. He then felt a sharp burning sensation in his left anterior shoulder and was unable to lift the boat. The patient denied feeling a popping sensation at the time of the injury (...) . He had mild pain at night, but was able to sleep. He said that he had mild diminished strength with elbow flexion, but denied having any numbness, tingling, or discoloration of his skin.

2018 Journal of Family Practice

360. Sensory sensitivity and symptom severity represent unique dimensions of chronic pain: a MAPP Research Network study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sensory sensitivity and symptom severity represent unique dimensions of chronic pain: a MAPP Research Network study. Chronic overlapping pain conditions (COPCs) are characterized by aberrant central nervous system processing of pain. This "centralized pain" phenotype has been described using a large and diverse set of symptom domains, including the spatial distribution of pain, pain intensity, fatigue, mood imbalances, cognitive dysfunction, altered somatic sensations, and hypersensitivity (...) to internal somatic sensations,environmental stimuli, and diffuse pain, termed Generalized Sensory Sensitivity, and one characterized by constitutional symptoms-Sleep, Pain, Affect, Cognition, Energy (SPACE). Longitudinal analyses in the urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome cohort found the same 2-factor structure at month 6 and 1 year, suggesting that the 2-factor structure is reproducible over time. In secondary analyses, we found that Generalized Sensory Sensitivity particularly is associated

2018 Pain

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