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Pain Sensation

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321. Restored Self: A Phenomenological Study of Pain Relief by Cannabis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of Relief, describing the corporal sensation of using cannabis, including a sense of relaxation and reduction in pain; 2) the Return to Normality, describing the comprehensive effect of using cannabis, including an increased ability to sleep, focus, and function; and 3) the Side Effects of using cannabis.We propose the term Restored Self to conceptualize the effect of medical cannabis. Restored Self is the experience of regaining one's sense of self, sense of normality, and sense of control over one's (...) Restored Self: A Phenomenological Study of Pain Relief by Cannabis. To explore the subjective experience of pain relief by cannabis.Qualitative data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews. Interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA).Nineteen patients, aged 28 to 79, who were treated with medical cannabis under the supervision of a pain clinic in Israel.Three key themes that emerged from the analysis were explored: 1) the Sigh

2018 Pain Medicine

322. Characterization of Neuropathic Pain in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome with Respect to Neurophysiological Evidence of Small-Fiber Neuropathy. (Abstract)

thresholds, sympathetic skin responses, and electrochemical skin conductance) and 15 patients with pSS but no neurophysiological evidence of SFN.The patients with SFN had more intense squeezing and pressure sensations and more frequent dynamic mechanical allodynia (pain provoked by brushing) than the patients without SFN. Restless leg syndrome was also more frequently observed in patients with SFN, who had pain aggravated at rest that improved by moving.These findings are in favor of the sensitization (...) of relatively spared large Aβ-fibers and second-order nociceptive neurons in patients with SFN. On the other hand, burning sensations, which rather reveal sensitization of small nociceptive fibers, were observed whether SFN was present or not. Thus, some discriminating clinical features may help to suggest the presence of SFN in patients with pSS and chronic neuropathic pain.

2018 Pain Medicine

323. Low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation in phantom limb pain: A case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

Low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation in phantom limb pain: A case report Phantom limb pain (PLP) and phantom limb sensations are common complications postamputation. PLP is defined as persistent painful sensations perceived in the missing portion of the amputated limb. Low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation (coblation) technology is a relatively new technology that has shown promise in treating neuropathic pain. This report illustrates the use of coblation technology (...) as a sensory stimulation test. The stimulation induced radiating pain of the stimulated nerve away from the stimulation site to confirm our target nerve. The needle location was redirected based on the reproduction of the patient's symptoms with minimal intensity. A CT-guided cervical nerve root coblation was performed to obtain longer PLP relief. The patient reported pain relief in PLP after the operation. At 1-, 3-, and 6-month postoperative review, PLP relief was achieved. Overall activity was improved

2018 Brain Circulation

324. TRPV1 SUMOylation regulates nociceptive signaling in models of inflammatory pain Full Text available with Trip Pro

TRPV1 SUMOylation regulates nociceptive signaling in models of inflammatory pain Although TRPV1 channels represent a key player of noxious heat sensation, the precise mechanisms for thermal hyperalgesia remain unknown. We report here that conditional knockout of deSUMOylation enzyme, SENP1, in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons exacerbated thermal hyperalgesia in both carrageenan- and Complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation models. TRPV1 is SUMOylated at a C-terminal Lys residue

2018 Nature communications

325. Motor Control and Sensory Feedback Enhance Prosthesis Embodiment and Reduce Phantom Pain After Long-Term Hand Amputation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Motor Control and Sensory Feedback Enhance Prosthesis Embodiment and Reduce Phantom Pain After Long-Term Hand Amputation We quantified prosthesis embodiment and phantom pain reduction associated with motor control and sensory feedback from a prosthetic hand in one human with a long-term transradial amputation. Microelectrode arrays were implanted in the residual median and ulnar arm nerves and intramuscular electromyography recording leads were implanted in residual limb muscles to enable (...) sensory feedback and motor control. Objective measures (proprioceptive drift) and subjective measures (survey answers) were used to assess prosthesis embodiment. For both measures, there was a significant level of embodiment of the physical prosthetic limb after open-loop motor control of the prosthesis (i.e., without sensory feedback), open-loop sensation from the prosthesis (i.e., without motor control), and closed-loop control of the prosthesis (i.e., motor control with sensory feedback

2018 Frontiers in human neuroscience

326. Clinical Trial of the Virtual Integration Environment to Treat Phantom Limb Pain With Upper Extremity Amputation Full Text available with Trip Pro

. PLP and phantom limb sensations were assessed at baseline and following each session using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), respectively. In addition, both measures were used to assess residual limb pain (RLP) at baseline and at each study session. In total, 14 male, active duty military personnel were recruited for the study. Results: Of the 14 individuals recruited to the study, nine reported PLP at the time of screening. Eight of these individuals (...) Clinical Trial of the Virtual Integration Environment to Treat Phantom Limb Pain With Upper Extremity Amputation Background: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is commonly seen following upper extremity (UE) amputation. Use of both mirror therapy, which utilizes limb reflection in a mirror, and virtual reality therapy, which utilizes computer limb simulation, has been used to relieve PLP. We explored whether the Virtual Integration Environment (VIE), a virtual reality UE simulator, could be used

2018 Frontiers in neurology

327. Autoalgometry: An Important Tool for Pressure Pain Threshold Evaluation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Autoalgometry: An Important Tool for Pressure Pain Threshold Evaluation The term "pain threshold" refers to the measurement of the intensity of a physical stimulus that evokes pain. To estimate the pain threshold, a mechanical or electrical stimulus with increasing intensity is usually applied until the subject under evaluation refers to a pain sensation. This study aims to evaluate the autoalgometric pain threshold as a perfect technique to determine the effects of stimulation rate in relation (...) to both gender and the site of stimulation. In this experimental model, pressure algometry was applied: the subject under evaluation pushed a finger against a small round metal tip, producing and at the same time controlling the intensity of the noxious stimulus. Through autoalgometry, the stimulus intensity was recorded over time, measuring the force change rate applied and studying the subject's behavior on approaching pain. This test was performed with 50 healthy volunteers on two days, applying

2018 Journal of clinical medicine

328. Interleukin-27 controls basal pain threshold in physiological and pathological conditions Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interleukin-27 controls basal pain threshold in physiological and pathological conditions Numerous studies have shown that pain sensation is affected by various immune molecules, such as cytokines, in tissues comprising the sensory pathway. Specifically, it has been shown that interleukin (IL)-17 promotes pain behaviour, but IL-10 suppresses it. IL-27 has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory effect through regulation of T cell differentiation, resulting in reduced IL-17 and induction (...) of IL-10. Thus, we hypothesised that IL-27 would have some regulatory role in pain sensation. Here, we provide evidence that endogenous IL-27 constitutively controls thresholds for thermal and mechanical sensation in physiological and pathological conditions. Mice lacking IL-27 or its receptor WSX-1 spontaneously showed chronic pain-like hypersensitivity. Reconstitution of IL-27 in IL-27-deficient mice reversed thermal and mechanical hypersensitive behaviours. Thus, unlike many other cytokines

2018 Scientific reports

329. Visceral pain: gut microbiota, a new hope? Full Text available with Trip Pro

this review we describe the neuroanatomical basis of visceral pain signaling and the existing evidence of its manipulation exerted by the gut microbiota. We included an updated overview of the potential therapeutic effects of dietary intervention, specifically probiotics and prebiotics, in alleviating hypersensitivity to visceral pain stimuli.The gut microbiota dramatically impacts normal visceral pain sensation and affects the mechanisms mediating visceral nociception. Furthermore, manipulation (...) Visceral pain: gut microbiota, a new hope? Visceral pain is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, which can range from the mild discomfort of indigestion to the agonizing pain of renal colic. Regulation of visceral pain involves the spinal cord as well as higher order brain structures. Recent findings have linked the microbiota to gastrointestinal disorders characterized by abdominal pain suggesting the ability of microbes to modulate visceral hypersensitivity and nociception to pain.In

2018 Journal of biomedical science

330. Systemic Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pain Sensitivity and Spinal Inflammation Were Reduced by Minocycline in Neonatal Rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

(phosphate buffer saline; PBS) was administered (i.p.) 5 min after LPS injection. The von Frey filament and tail-flick tests were performed to determine mechanical allodynia (a painful sensation caused by innocuous stimuli, e.g., light touch) and thermal hyperalgesia (a condition of altered perception of temperature), respectively, and spinal cord inflammation was examined 24 h after the administration of drugs. Systemic LPS administration resulted in a reduction of tactile threshold in the von Frey (...) Systemic Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pain Sensitivity and Spinal Inflammation Were Reduced by Minocycline in Neonatal Rats In this study, we investigated the effects of minocycline, a putative suppressor of microglial activation, on systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced spinal cord inflammation, allodynia, and hyperalgesia in neonatal rats. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of LPS (2 mg/kg) or sterile saline was performed in postnatal day 5 (P5) rat pups and minocycline (45 mg/kg) or vehicle

2018 International journal of molecular sciences

331. Pain Control by Proprioceptive and Exteroceptive Stimulation at the Trigeminal Level Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pain Control by Proprioceptive and Exteroceptive Stimulation at the Trigeminal Level The Gate Control Theory of pain, published more than half a century ago to explain nociceptive modulation of peripheral sensory input, assumes inhibition of incoming nociceptive (pain) information produced by mechanical stimulation. To verify the presence of such a gate control mechanism at the level of the human trigeminal system, we evaluated the effects on pain sensation of a proprioceptive trigeminal (...) stimulation induced by mandibular extension. We found that such a stimulation, applied for 7 min, was effective in increasing both the threshold and tolerance of tooth pain induced by electrical activation of dental nociceptors. Moreover the antinociceptive effect lasted for several minutes after the proprioceptive stimulus had ceased. We also tested whether an exteroceptive palatal stimulation superimposed on the proprioceptive stimulation would increase the effects on tooth pain perception of human

2018 Frontiers in physiology

332. Chronic inflammatory pain induced GABAergic synaptic plasticity in the adult mouse anterior cingulate cortex Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chronic inflammatory pain induced GABAergic synaptic plasticity in the adult mouse anterior cingulate cortex Background Chronic pain is a persistent unpleasant sensation that produces pathological synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. Both human imaging study and animal studies consistently demonstrate that the anterior cingulate cortex is a critical cortical area for nociceptive and chronic pain processing. Thus far, the mechanisms of excitatory synaptic transmission (...) and plasticity have been well characterized in the anterior cingulate cortex for various models of chronic pain. By contrast, the potential contribution of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex, in models of chronic pain, is not fully understood. Methods Chronic inflammation was induced by complete Freund adjuvant into the adult mice left hindpaw. We performed in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from layer II/III pyramidal neurons in two to three days after the complete

2018 Molecular pain

333. Low back pain, obesity, and inflammatory markers: exercise as potential treatment Full Text available with Trip Pro

effects. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines are sensitizers of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of acute inflammation that can be linked to the musculoskeletal pain sensation individuals with back pain. Another inflammatory marker deserves mention, prostaglandin E2. Prostaglandin E2 is important in the process of triggering actions such as pyrexia, sensation of pain and inflammation, which are exhibited in low back pain condition. The potential for exercises and physical activity to control (...) Low back pain, obesity, and inflammatory markers: exercise as potential treatment Low back pain is a health issue with significant impact to patients and society. This narrative review aims to synthesize the relationship between obesity, low-grade inflammation and low back pain. It is known that a sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for obesity and related disorders. The adipose tissue of obese people secretes a range of cytokines of character pro- and anti-inflammatory, with many molecular

2018 Journal of exercise rehabilitation

334. Chronic inflammatory pain decreases the glutamate vesicles in presynaptic terminals of the nucleus accumbens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chronic inflammatory pain decreases the glutamate vesicles in presynaptic terminals of the nucleus accumbens Reward system has been proved to be important to nociceptive behavior, and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key node in reward circuitry. It has been further revealed that dopamine system modulates the NAc to influence the pain sensation, whereas the role of glutamatergic projection in the NAc in the modulation of chronic pain is still elusive. In this study, we used a complete Freund's (...) adjuvant-induced chronic inflammatory pain model to explore the changes of the glutamatergic terminals in the NAc, and we found that following the chronic inflammation, the protein level of vesicular glutamate transporter1 (VGLUT1) was significantly decreased in the NAc. Immunofluorescence staining further showed a reduced expression of VGLUT1-positive terminals in the dopamine receptor 2 (D2R) spiny projection neurons of NAc after chronic inflammatory pain. Furthermore, using a whole-cell recording

2018 Molecular pain

335. Treatment of Painful Nerves in the Abdominal Wall Using Processed Nerve Allografts Full Text available with Trip Pro

report of this concept to treat a painful neuroma of the abdominal wall that developed following a laparoscopic gastric bypass. The neuroma was excised, and the affected nerve was reconstructed using a processed nerve allograft as an interposition graft, with resolution of pain and gradual return of normal sensation. Patient-reported outcomes were measured using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Neuroma excision with concurrent interposition grafting using processed nerve (...) Treatment of Painful Nerves in the Abdominal Wall Using Processed Nerve Allografts Neuromas can be a debilitating cause of pain and often negatively affect patients' quality of life. One effective method of treatment involves surgical resection of the painful neuroma and use of a processed nerve allograft to repair the injured nerve segment. Giving the nerve "somewhere to go and something to do" has been shown to effectively alleviate pain in upper and lower extremities. We present the first

2018 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open

336. Comparison the Pain Relief of Amitriptyline Mouthwash with Benzydamine in Oral Mucositis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison the Pain Relief of Amitriptyline Mouthwash with Benzydamine in Oral Mucositis A significant proportion of patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy suffer from mucositis. The first symptom of oral mucositis is pain. Severe pain, burning sensation, and discomfort in the oral cavity make it difficult to continue treatment and even continue living in these patients.The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of amitriptyline mouthwash (in two forms of simple (...) sensation were evaluated with VAS at different time intervals: before use and one, five, ten, and thirty minutes and one hour after using mouthwash. T-test was used to compare the intensity of pain between the two groups. ANOVA and Tukey test were used to compare the intensity of pain between groups.Statistical analyses showed the maximum reduction in pain intensity at two different time intervals (p= 0.04). Ten minutes after the use of niosomal form of amitriptyline, a 95% decrease in pain was observed

2018 Journal of dentistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

337. Quantitative Evaluation of Pain during Electrocutaneous Stimulation using a Log-Linearized Peripheral Arterial Viscoelastic Model Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and propose a method for evaluating pain sensation, including intensity, sharpness, and dullness, using the arterial stiffness index. In the experiment, electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and photoplethysmograms were obtained, and an arterial viscoelastic model was applied to estimate arterial stiffness. The relationships among the stiffness index, self-reported pain sensation, and electrocutaneous stimuli were examined and modelled. The relationship between the stiffness index and pain sensation could (...) Quantitative Evaluation of Pain during Electrocutaneous Stimulation using a Log-Linearized Peripheral Arterial Viscoelastic Model In clinical practice, subjective pain evaluations, e.g., the visual analogue scale and the numeric rating scale, are generally employed, but these are limited in terms of their ability to detect inaccurate reports, and are unsuitable for use in anesthetized patients or those with dementia. We focused on the peripheral sympathetic nerve activity that responds to pain

2018 Scientific reports

338. Glial cell type-specific changes in spinal dipeptidyl peptidase 4 expression and effects of its inhibitors in inflammatory and neuropatic pain Full Text available with Trip Pro

Glial cell type-specific changes in spinal dipeptidyl peptidase 4 expression and effects of its inhibitors in inflammatory and neuropatic pain Altered pain sensations such as hyperalgesia and allodynia are characteristic features of various pain states, and remain difficult to treat. We have shown previously that spinal application of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors induces strong antihyperalgesic effect during inflammatory pain. In this study we observed low level of DPP4 mRNA

2018 Scientific reports

339. Zinc Inhibits TRPV1 to Alleviate Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain Full Text available with Trip Pro

Zinc Inhibits TRPV1 to Alleviate Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain Zinc is a transition metal that has a long history of use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It also soothes pain sensations in a number of animal models. However, the effects and mechanisms of zinc on chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy remain unknown. Here we show that locally injected zinc markedly reduces neuropathic pain in male and female mice induced by paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug, in a TRPV1-dependent manner (...) . Extracellularly applied zinc also inhibits the function of TRPV1 expressed in HEK293 cells and mouse DRG neurons, which requires the presence of zinc-permeable TRPA1 to mediate entry of zinc into the cytoplasm. Moreover, TRPA1 is required for zinc-induced inhibition of TRPV1-mediated acute nociception. Unexpectedly, zinc transporters, but not TRPA1, are required for zinc-induced inhibition of TRPV1-dependent chronic neuropathic pain produced by paclitaxel. Together, our study demonstrates a novel mechanism

2018 The Journal of Neuroscience

340. Physiotherapy for pelvic pain and female sexual dysfunction: an untapped resource Full Text available with Trip Pro

Physiotherapy for pelvic pain and female sexual dysfunction: an untapped resource Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in women is a complex syndrome. Pain sensation and intensity often do not correspond with the identified lesion location but are felt elsewhere, leading to muskuloskeletal and myofascial disorders and sexual dysfunction (SD). Although physical aspects are prevalent, they are often underdiagnosed and undertreated due to lack of understanding regarding its origin and distribution (...) . Frequently, patients experience pelvic pain as psychological distress resulting in physical complaints, leading clinicians to prescribe medication or surgical intervention to correct or alleviate these symptoms, often with insufficient results. Because pelvic floor muscle disorders contribute significantly to CPP and SD, there is rationale for physiotherapy. However, physiotherapy is a widely underused and untapped resource, which has its place in the multidisciplinary approach to these health

2018 International urogynecology journal

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