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Pain Sensation

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201. Modulation of pain sensation by stress-related testosterone and cortisol. (PubMed)

Modulation of pain sensation by stress-related testosterone and cortisol. Stress increases cortisol and decreases testosterone. It is not known whether pain is affected by stress-related testosterone. Therefore, we investigated whether stress can affect pain perception by decreasing testosterone and increasing cortisol. Pain thresholds, pain and anxiety ratings and salivary testosterone and cortisol levels were measured in 46 healthy men during resting and stressful conditions. Pain was induced (...) by electrical stimulation. Stress was induced by having participants perform a medical test. Stress significantly increased anxiety ratings and salivary cortisol levels, but decreased salivary testosterone levels. Stress also increased pain ratings and decreased pain thresholds. During stress, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with pain thresholds and testosterone levels were positively correlated with pain thresholds. Results indicated that testosterone can decrease and cortisol can increase pain

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2012 Anaesthesia

202. Thermal grill-evoked sensations of heat correlate with cold pain threshold and are enhanced by menthol and cinnamaldehyde. (PubMed)

Thermal grill-evoked sensations of heat correlate with cold pain threshold and are enhanced by menthol and cinnamaldehyde. Thunberg's thermal grill produces a sensation of strong heat upon skin contact with spatially interlaced innocuous warm and cool stimuli.To examine the classes of peripheral axons that might contribute to this illusion, the effects of topical l-menthol, an activator of TRPM8, and cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist, on the magnitude of thermal sensations were examined during (...) grill stimulation in healthy volunteers.Under control conditions, cutaneous grill stimulation (interlaced 20/40 °C) evoked a sensation of heat, and for individual subjects, the magnitude of this heat sensation was positively correlated with cold pain threshold (CPT). Menthol increased the CPT and enhanced the magnitude of grill-evoked heat. Cinnamaldehyde intensified warm sensations, reduced heat pain threshold and also enhanced grill-evoked heat.Both TRPM8-expressing and TRPA1-expressing afferent

2012 European Journal of Pain

203. Ranking of dental and somatic pain sensations among paediatric dental patients. (PubMed)

Ranking of dental and somatic pain sensations among paediatric dental patients. Children suffer from somatic and dental pain, which may interfere with their everyday life. Pain self-report tools are available for children. Research is needed to better understand the perception of dental pain in comparison with pain in other organs.To investigate relations between the perceptions of dental and somatic pain complaints among school-age children.One hundred and two children, aged 7-17 years (mean (...) age, 11.5 ± 2.65 years), completed questioners regarding their somatic and dental: 1. Memory pain rank (MPR) and 2. Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (FRS).Children reported increased dental pain after school in both scales (P = 0.015 in MPR). In both MPR and FRS, the pattern of pain ranking was similar: Abdominal pain was scored highest (2.75 ± 1.4 and 1.56 ± 1.63, respectively), followed by headache, ear, dental and TMJ (Temporomandibular joint).There was a strong correlation between pain

2012 International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry

204. BOLD responses in somatosensory cortices better reflect heat sensation than pain (PubMed)

BOLD responses in somatosensory cortices better reflect heat sensation than pain The discovery of cortical networks that participate in pain processing has led to the common generalization that blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in these areas indicate the processing of pain. Physical stimuli have fundamental properties that elicit sensations distinguishable from pain, such as heat. We hypothesized that pain intensity coding may reflect the intensity coding of heat sensation during (...) the presentation of thermal stimuli during fMRI. Six 3T fMRI heat scans were collected for 16 healthy subjects, corresponding to perceptual levels of "low innocuous heat," "moderate innocuous heat," "high innocuous heat," "low painful heat," "moderate painful heat," and "high painful heat" delivered by a contact thermode to the face. Subjects rated pain and heat intensity separately after each scan. A general linear model analysis detected different patterns of brain activation for the different phases

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2012 The Journal of Neuroscience

205. Pain Sensation

Pain Sensation Pain Sensation Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Pain Sensation Pain Sensation Aka: Pain Sensation (...) , Allodynia , Hyperpathia From Related Chapters II. Definitions Allodynia Nonpainful stimulus results in perception of pain Hyperpathia Pain out of proportion to pain stimulus Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Pain Sensation." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: Hyperalgesia (C0020429) Definition (MSH) An increased sensation

2015 FP Notebook

206. Effect of local exposure to inhomogeneous static magnetic field on stomatological pain sensation - a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. (PubMed)

Effect of local exposure to inhomogeneous static magnetic field on stomatological pain sensation - a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Static magnetic field (SMF) exposure was shown experimentally to beneficially affect the healing process. The aim of this randomized, controlled trial was to evaluate the pain-inhibitory effect of local exposure to SMF on temporomandibular disorders, on alveolitis and on aphta in the oral mucosa.Pain perception was evaluated on the basis (...) of ordinary visual analogue scale (VAS) testing before and after exposure. SMF (0-192 mT peak-to-peak magnetic induction and 19 T/m lateral gradient at 3 mm from the magnets) and sham exposure was executed in a double-blind manner. A single intervention took 5 min. Altogether 79 adult patients (22 males and 57 females) with a mean (± standard error of the mean) age of 37.4 ± 1.8 years (70.9% between 20 and 50 years) participated in the study.SMF exposure significantly reduced pain perception (reduction

2012 International journal of radiation biology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

207. Sensations of gas and pain and their relationship with compliance during distension in human colon. (PubMed)

Sensations of gas and pain and their relationship with compliance during distension in human colon. Colonic mechanosensory afferents 'in parallel' to circular muscle activate prevertebral ganglion reflexes; 'in series', afferents convey visceral sensation to the central nervous system; and pain receptors are activated with muscle distension. Our aim was to analyze the relationships of gas and pain sensations during graded distensions, and the association of sensations with colonic compliance (...) in conscious humans.The data were acquired in a prior study performed on 60 healthy volunteers (aged 18-75 years) under baseline conditions. Colonic compliance was measured in response to 4 mmHg stepwise balloon distensions to estimate pressure at half-maximum volume (Pr(50%)). Sensation ratings for gas and pain were averaged over distensions at 16, 24, 30 and 36 mmHg above baseline operating pressure. Associations between mean gas and pain ratings, and colonic compliance were assessed with Pearson

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2012 Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

208. How can we assess the intensity of non-painful events as well as painful events?

be frustrating. At the same time, the researcher loses potentially valuable information by restricting the participant’s response options. What about putting both non-painful and painful experiences onto a single scale? OK sure, it would violate the age-old traditions of psychophysiology, but it could be useful. We tentatively developed this ‘Sensation and Pain Rating Scale’ (SPARS) (Figure 1). Figure 1: The Sensation and Pain Rating Scale (SPARS) We piloted it to determine whether people intuitively (...) presented separately. We chose a conventional NRS (0 = no pain; 100 = worst pain you can imagine) to represent the ‘painful’ end of the SPARS, and an invented ‘Sensation Rating Scale’ (SRS) (0 = no sensation; 100 = pain) to represent the non-painful end of the SPARS. In this Experiment 2, our participants rated a range of intensities of laser stimulation. In each block, they used only the SPARS, only the NRS, or only the SRS. We asked participants a whole heap of questions and we [1] Here’s what we

2019 Body in Mind blog

209. Aptiva for painful diabetic neuropathy

of each treatment session, the electrical dose is set by the clinician, based on the sensation felt by the patient: the electrical stimulation should be felt but should not be painful. The duration of a treatment session is 35 minutes with a treatment cycle comprising 10 daily sessions. The company's suggested treatment frequency is 3 cycles per year, depending on the response to treatment. The device was formerly known as PhysioFlog ETS 501. Innovations Aptiva is designed to provide a non-drug (...) in the change in nerve conductance velocity (NCV) between groups. Night-time and daytime pain was significantly reduced in the intervention group up to 37 weeks after initial treatment. T otal follow-up was 51 weeks. The difference in pain between groups was not significant 3 months after the last treatment. There was no significant difference in the change in tactile sensation between groups. There was a significant increase in cold sensation threshold in the intervention group compared with the placebo

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

210. Comparison of Two Lidocaine Administration Techniques on Perceived Pain From Bedside Procedures: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Comparison of Two Lidocaine Administration Techniques on Perceived Pain From Bedside Procedures: A Randomized Clinical Trial Lidocaine is used to alleviate procedural pain but paradoxically increases pain during injection. Pain perception can be modulated by non-noxious stimuli such as temperature or touch according to the gate control theory of pain. We postulated that lidocaine dripped onto the skin prior to injection would cool or add the sensation of touch at the skin surface to reduce pain (...) (severity of pain from the procedure) using a visual analog scale.A total of 481 patients provided consent and were randomized to treatment. There was a significant improvement in the primary outcome of procedural pain (control, 16.6 ± 24.8 mm vs 12.2 ± 19.4 mm; P = .03) with the intervention group as assessed by using the visual analog scale score. Pain scores were primarily improved for peripherally inserted central catheters (control, 18.8 ± 25.6 mm vs 12.2 ± 18.2 mm; P = .02) upon subgroup

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2018 EvidenceUpdates

211. Pain Assessment

and radiation; a body diagram can help character; a list of descriptive words may help intensity and severity; a rating scale can help timing and duration exacerbating factors relieving factors, including medication effect on function, sleep and mood response to previous medication and treatment. Use a structured pain assessment tool to record the patient’s pain. Examine the patient to try and determine the cause of pain eg tender hepatomegaly, abnormal sensation. Assess the impact of the pain (...) nerve pain: burning, shooting, tingling, jagging, altered sensation, dermatomal distribution. Consider . liver pain: hepatomegaly, right upper quadrant tenderness, referred pain shoulder tip raised intracranial pressure: headache, or both, often worse in the morning or with lying down colic: intermittent cramping pain. Consider , bladder spasm. Consider adjuvant therapies (see guideline). Treatment-related pain: chemotherapy neuropathy, due to opioids, radiation-induced mucositis. Debility: pressure

2015 Scottish Palliative Care Guidelines

212. A 54 yo male with sudden chest pain. Computer says normal. Paramedic disagrees.

learned. I am sure that MDs can learn too! Posted by Steve Smith at Labels: , , Reactions: 18 comments: This is almost exactly how I presented when I called for EMS and I'm a 30 year Paramedic. I did not have "pain", just a slight pressure sensations across my chest with diaphoresis. EKG interpretation was just "abnormal", no suspected MI indicated. On arrival at the E.D. my CPKs were elevated slightly and troponin was barely elevated (E.R. Doc's words). Cardiologist came to evaluate me and suggested (...) A 54 yo male with sudden chest pain. Computer says normal. Paramedic disagrees. Dr. Smith's ECG Blog: A 54 yo male with sudden chest pain. Computer says normal. Paramedic disagrees. Monday, November 27, 2017 Announcement! There is now an Android app for the 3- and 4-variable formulas. It is of course free (#FOAMed). It was written by Yannick Schäfer (a medical student in France): Remember there is also an iPhone app called "SubtleSTEMI" Case This was sent by a very astute paramedic. A 54 year

2017 Dr Smith's ECG Blog

213. Hand Pain and Sensory Deficits: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

: Clinical Practice Guidelines ICF body structure code Structure of the nervous system other specified s198 Structure of hand s7302 Muscles of the hand s73022 ICF body function codes Sleep functions b134 Maintenance of sleep cycle b1342 Proprioceptive function b260 T ouch function b265 Sensory functions related to temperature and other stimuli b270 Sensitivity to vibration b2701 Sensitivity to pressure b2702 Sensation of pain b280 Radiating pain in a segment or region b2804 Pain in upper limb b28014 (...) Hand Pain and Sensory Deficits: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Clinical Practice Guidelines MIA ERICKSON, PT , EdD • MARSHA LAWRENCE, PT , DPT • CAROLINE W. STEGINK JANSEN, PT , PhD DIANE COKER, PT , DPT • PETER AMADIO, MD • CARLA CLEARY, PT , DPT Hand Pain and Sensory Deficits: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Clinical Practice Guidelines Linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health From the Academy of Hand and Upper Extremity Physical Therapy and the Academy of Orthopaedic

2019 The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), Inc.

214. A decision aid for women having their first baby and considering their choices for labour pain relief

decisions. 54 7 Sue’s story I’d planned to let my labour take its natural course for as long as I could without drugs, but was willing to accept them if I felt overwhelmed. After reading the “Pain relief for labour” book, I remembered my experience with gas for a dental procedure and was adamant that I wouldn’t use it. I didn’t like the sensation, and if I needed something, I planned to use pethidine rather than gas or an epidural, but still wanted to avoid drugs if possible. At 39 weeks very early (...) Most effective pain relief Chance of caesarean section More likely to have an instrumental birth Satisfaction with pain relief Chance of nausea/vomiting May still require further pain relief for actual birth Long term back pain May lengthen labour More likely to need artificial oxytocin More likely to have a fever Increased risk of hypotension May experience an itching sensation May experience severe headache Some rare side effects Now go to your notes page and place a mark in the box to show how

2015 SickKids Supportive Care Guidelines

215. Acute pain management: scientific evidence (3rd Edition)

and preventive analgesia 12 1.5 Adverse physiological and psychological effects of acute pain 15 1.5.1 Acute pain and the injury response 15 1.5.2 Adverse physiological effects 16 1.5.3 Pain and analgesia: effects on injury-induced organ dysfunction 19 1.5.4 Acute rehabilitation and ‘fast-track’ surgery 20 1.5.5 Adverse psychological effects 21 1.6 Pharmacogenomics and acute pain 21 1.6.1 Loss of pain sensation 22 1.6.2 Reduced sensitivity to pain 22 1.6.3 Drug metabolism 23 References 25 2. ASSESSMENT (...) Acute pain management: scientific evidence (3rd Edition) ? ? ? ? Acute Pain Management: Scientific Evidence Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists and Faculty of Pain Medicine ? ? ? Endorsed by: Faculty?of?Pain?Medicine,?Royal?College?of? Anaesthetists,?United?Kingdom?? Royal?College?of?Anaesthetists,? United?Kingdom?? Australian?Pain?Society? Australasian?Faculty?of?Rehabilitation?Medicine? College?of?Anaesthesiologists,?? Academy?of?Medicine,?Malaysia? College

2015 National Health and Medical Research Council

216. Comparing Ways to Freeze the Nerve That Provides Thigh Sensation

Information provided by (Responsible Party): Gaurav Gupta, Canadian Forces Health Services Centre Ottawa Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Background The sensation on the outside of portion of our thighs is provided by a nerve called the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN). The investigators can inject freezing around the nerve to reduce the feeling around the thigh (i.e. anesthesia). Anesthesia, or freezing, of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve can reduce pain for patients having (...) Comparing Ways to Freeze the Nerve That Provides Thigh Sensation Comparing Ways to Freeze the Nerve That Provides Thigh Sensation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Comparing Ways to Freeze

2015 Clinical Trials

217. Evaluation of Pressure Sense Threshold and Tactile Sensation After Lidocaine Iontophoresis Using Interferential Current

in mm. Pain and tactile thresholds were investigated using an electrical stimulator.The intensity was gradually increased to the extent that the participant reported a tingling sensation. The displayed intensity was considered as the tactile sense threshold. Then, the intensity was increased to the extent to be intolerable for the participant and this intensity was considered as the maximum pain threshold. The thresholds were recorded in milliampere. Lidocaine iontophoresis using interferential (...) Evaluation of Pressure Sense Threshold and Tactile Sensation After Lidocaine Iontophoresis Using Interferential Current Evaluation of Pressure Sense Threshold and Tactile Sensation After Lidocaine Iontophoresis Using Interferential Current - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum

2015 Clinical Trials

218. PK2/PKR1 Signaling Regulates Bladder Function and Sensation in Rats with Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis (PubMed)

time points (4 h, 48 h, and 8 d) after CYP treatment. Combining a nonselective antagonist of prokineticin receptors (PKRA), we further evaluated the regulatory role of PK2 in modulating bladder function and visceral pain sensation via conscious cystometry and pain behavioral scoring. PK2 and prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1), but not prokineticin receptor 2, were detected in normal and upregulated in CYP-treated rat bladders at several levels. Immunohistochemistry staining localized PKR1 primarily (...) in the urothelium. Blocking PKRs with PKRA showed no effect on micturition reflex activity and bladder sensation in control rats while it increased the voiding volume, prolonged voiding interval, and ameliorated visceral hyperalgesia in rats suffering from CYP-induced cystitis. In conclusion, PK2/PKR1 signaling pathway contributes to the modulation of inflammation-mediated voiding dysfunction and spontaneous visceral pain. Local blockade of PKRs may represent a novel and promising therapeutic strategy

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2015 Mediators of inflammation

219. Placebo-induced somatic sensations: a multi-modal study of three different placebo interventions. (PubMed)

stimulation. The quality and intensity of evoked sensations were assessed using the McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS), while subjects' sensation drawings processed by a geographic information system (GIS) were used to measure their spatial characteristics. We found that all three interventions are capable of producing robust sensations most frequently described as "tingling" and "warm" that can reach consider-able spatial extent (≤ 205 mm²) and intensity (≤ 80/100 VAS). Sensations (...) from placebo stimulation were often referred to areas remote from the stimulation site and exhibit considerable similarity with referred pain. Interestingly, there was considerable similarity of qualitative features as well as spatial patterns across subjects and placebos. However, placebo laser stimulation elicited significantly stronger and more widespread sensations than placebo irritant solution. Finally, novelty seeking, a character trait assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory

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2015 PloS one

220. Altered thermal grill response and paradoxical heat sensations after topical capsaicin application. (PubMed)

thresholds, PHS, and warm, cold, and pain sensations to alternating cold (10°C) and warm (40°C) bars (the thermal grill [TG]) in the primary area (application site) after topical application with capsaicin and vehicle control (ethanol) on the volar forearms in randomized order in 80 healthy participants. As expected, capsaicin induced heat allodynia and hyperalgesia and decreased cold and cold pain sensation. In addition, we found that after capsaicin application, the TG caused less pain and burning than (...) the 40°C bars alone in contrast to the control side where the TG caused more pain and burning, consistent with the thermal grill illusion. In both situations, the pain intensity during the TG correlated inversely with both cold and warm pain thresholds but not with detection thresholds. Paradoxical heat sensation was only seen in 3 participants after control application but in 19 participants after capsaicin. Those with PHS after capsaicin application had higher detection thresholds to both cold

2015 Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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