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Orthostatic Sodium Retention

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161. Drugs for Arrhythmias

Hypotension In patients with orthostatic hypotension, which of the following red flag findings suggests a more serious etiology? Bloody stool Heat intolerance Incontinence Urinary retention NEWS & VIDEOS Becoming Active in Middle Age Still Offers Health Benefits FRIDAY, March 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Becoming physically active in middle age may provide comparable health benefits to long-term participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA)... 3D Model Cardiac Conduction System Video Overview (...) Drugs for Arrhythmias Drugs for Arrhythmias - Cardiovascular Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Orthostatic

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

162. Long QT Syndrome and Torsades de Pointes Ventricular Tachycardia

/ / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Orthostatic Hypotension In patients with orthostatic hypotension, which of the following red flag findings suggests a more serious etiology? Bloody stool Heat intolerance Incontinence Urinary retention NEWS & VIDEOS Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking Addictive, Harmful to the Heart FRIDAY, March 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking a water pipe is addictive and can increase the risk for initiating cigarette smoking, according to a scientific statement (...) encodes another cardiac potassium channel (I Kr ) Long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3), caused by a mutation in gene SCN5A , which disrupts fast inactivation of the cardiac sodium channel (I Na ) These forms are inherited as autosomal dominant disorders with incomplete penetrance and, in the past, were referred to as Romano-Ward syndrome. In rare patients with 2 abnormal copies of the genetic abnormality (particularly LQT1), the disorder is associated with congenital deafness and, in the past, was referred

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

163. Overview of Arrhythmias

Hypotension In patients with orthostatic hypotension, which of the following red flag findings suggests a more serious etiology? Bloody stool Heat intolerance Incontinence Urinary retention NEWS & VIDEOS History of Cycling Weight May Up Risk for Heart Disease in Women FRIDAY, March 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A history of weight cycling (HWC), or yo-yo dieting, is associated with poorer cardiovascular health in women, according to a study presented at the... 3D Model Cardiac Conduction System Video (...) Overview of Arrhythmias Overview of Arrhythmias - Cardiovascular Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Orthostatic

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

164. Heart Failure

In patients with orthostatic hypotension, which of the following red flag findings suggests a more serious etiology? Bloody stool Heat intolerance Incontinence Urinary retention NEWS & VIDEOS ACC: Long-Term Outcomes for MI Similar at ≤40, 40 to 50 THURSDAY, March 7, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Patients with myocardial infarction (MI) at age 40 years or younger have similar long-term all-cause and cardiovascular death rates as patients aged... 3D Model Cardiac Conduction System Video Overview (...) venous pressures increase, leading to renal venous congestion. These changes both result in a decrease in GFR, and blood flow within the kidneys is redistributed. The filtration fraction and filtered sodium decrease, but tubular resorption increases, leading to sodium and water retention. Blood flow is further redistributed away from the kidneys during exercise, but renal blood flow improves during rest. Decreased perfusion of the kidneys (and possibly decreased arterial systolic stretch secondary

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

165. Brugada Syndrome

In patients with orthostatic hypotension, which of the following red flag findings suggests a more serious etiology? Bloody stool Heat intolerance Incontinence Urinary retention NEWS & VIDEOS History of Cycling Weight May Up Risk for Heart Disease in Women FRIDAY, March 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- A history of weight cycling (HWC), or yo-yo dieting, is associated with poorer cardiovascular health in women, according to a study presented at the... 3D Model Cardiac Conduction System Video Ultrasound-Guided (...) Brugada Syndrome Brugada Syndrome - Cardiovascular Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Orthostatic Hypotension

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

166. Central Diabetes Insipidus

, the patient must be observed to prevent surreptitious drinking. The test is started in the morning by weighing the patient, obtaining venous blood to determine electrolyte concentrations and osmolality, and measuring urinary osmolality. Voided urine is collected hourly, and its specific gravity or, preferably, osmolality is measured. Dehydration is continued until orthostatic hypotension and postural tachycardia appear, ≥ 5% of the initial body weight has been lost, or the urinary concentration does (...) individuals is great. The duration of action can be established by following timed urine volumes and osmolality. The nightly dose is the lowest dose required to prevent nocturia. The morning and evening doses should be adjusted separately. The usual dosage range in adults is 10 to 40 mcg, with most adults requiring 10 mcg bid. For children age 3 mo to 12 yr, the usual dosage range is 2.5 to 10 mcg bid. Overdosage can lead to fluid retention and decreased plasma osmolality, possibly resulting in seizures

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

167. Edema

with orthostatic hypotension, which of the following red flag findings suggests a more serious etiology? Bloody stool Heat intolerance Incontinence Urinary retention NEWS & VIDEOS Becoming Active in Middle Age Still Offers Health Benefits FRIDAY, March 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Becoming physically active in middle age may provide comparable health benefits to long-term participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA)... 3D Model Cardiac Conduction System Video Ultrasound-Guided Pericardiocentesis (...) of the lymphatic system As fluid shifts into the interstitial space, intravascular volume is depleted. Intravascular volume depletion activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone- vasopressin (ADH) system, resulting in renal sodium retention. By increasing osmolality, renal sodium retention triggers water retention by the kidneys and helps maintain plasma volume. Increased renal sodium retention also may be a primary cause of and hence edema. Excessive exogenous sodium intake may also contribute. Less often

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

168. Idiopathic Telangiectasias

Orthostatic Hypotension In patients with orthostatic hypotension, which of the following red flag findings suggests a more serious etiology? Bloody stool Heat intolerance Incontinence Urinary retention NEWS & VIDEOS GDM Linked to Increased Cardiovascular Event Risk Postpartum FRIDAY, March 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk fir developing cardiovascular events postpartum, according to a review published... 3D Model Cardiac Conduction System (...) . However, some patients report a burning sensation or pain, and many people consider even the smallest telangiectasias cosmetically unacceptable. Treatment Sclerotherapy Laser treatment Telangiectasias can usually be eliminated by sclerotherapy, intracapillary injections of 0.3% solution of sodium tetradecyl sulfate through a fine-bore needle. Hypertonic saline 23.4% is sometimes used but causes fairly severe, temporary, localized pain; therefore, large areas of spider veins (multiple telangiectasias

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

169. Varicose Veins

In patients with orthostatic hypotension, which of the following red flag findings suggests a more serious etiology? Bloody stool Heat intolerance Incontinence Urinary retention NEWS & VIDEOS Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking Addictive, Harmful to the Heart FRIDAY, March 8, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking a water pipe is addictive and can increase the risk for initiating cigarette smoking, according to a scientific statement from the American... 3D Model Cardiac Conduction System Video Overview of Aneurysms (...) Varicose Veins Varicose Veins - Cardiovascular Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge Orthostatic Hypotension

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

170. Specific Poisons

— Antihistamines Anticholinergic symptoms (eg, tachycardia, hyperthermia, mydriasis, warm and dry skin, urinary retention, ileus, delirium) For diagnostic or therapeutic trial or for treatment of severe symptoms refractory to sedation (C aution : Seizures—see Physostigmine ), consideration of physostigmine 0.5–2.0 mg in adults or 0.02 mg/kg in children IV (slowly) Antihyperglycemic drugs, oral See Hypoglycemic drugs, oral — Antimony Stibophen Tartar emetic Throat constriction, dysphagia, burning GI pain (...) See Arsenic (sodium arsenate) and Boric acid — Arsenic Donovan solution Fowler solution Herbicides Paris green Pesticides Sodium arsenate Same as for Antimony Same as for Antimony Arsine gas Acute hemolytic anemia Transfusions, diuresis Artificial bitter almond oil See Cyanides — Asphalt See Petroleum distillates — Aspirin See — Atropine See Belladonna — Automobile exhaust See Carbon monoxide — Barbiturates Amobarbital Meprobamate Pentobarbital Phenobarbital Secobarbital Bradycardia, hypothermia

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

171. Blood pressure (PubMed)

known as . release: This is released from the in response to angiotensin II or high serum levels. Aldosterone stimulates retention and potassium excretion by the kidneys. Since sodium is the main ion that determines the amount of fluid in the blood vessels by , aldosterone will increase fluid retention, and indirectly, arterial pressure. in (mainly in the and the , and in the ) result in feedback by regulating the secretion of (ADH/Vasopressin), and . The resultant increase in results (...) [ ] Main article: Blood pressure that is too low is known as . This is a medical concern if it causes signs or symptoms, such as dizziness, fainting, or in extreme cases, . Causes of low arterial pressure include: – blood loss (or reflex syncope) including toxic doses of blood pressure medicine abnormalities, such as , particularly and Orthostatic hypotension [ ] Main article: A large fall in blood pressure upon standing (persistent systolic/diastolic blood pressure decrease of >20/10 mm Hg) is termed

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2012 Wikipedia

172. Kombiglyze XR (saxagliptin/metformin extended release) fixed dose combination tablets

Increases insulin sensitivity 0.5-1.4 Lower risk of hypoglycemia Fluid retention Weight gain Expensive Insulin Lispro NPH insulin Glargine Stimulates glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue 1.5-2.5 No dose limit Inexpensive Improve lipid profile Injections Frequent monitoring Hypoglycemia Weight gain Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Acarbose Miglitol Slow GI absorption of carbohydrates 0.5-0.8 Weight neutral Frequent GI side effects TID dosing Expensive Meglitides Repaglinide Nateglinide Insulin (...) , laboratory test results, ECG, and vital signs. Laboratory test included hematology (hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, WBC count with differential, and platelet counts), serum chemistry (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, total bilirubin, BUN, serum creatinine, calculated creatinine clearance, sodium, potassium, chloride, total protein, and albumin), and urinalysis (dipstick evaluation for pH, protein, leukocyte esterase, and blood). Study CV181039 was titled “ A multicenter, randomized, double

2009 FDA - Drug Approval Package

173. Zyprexa Relprevv (olanzapine) for Extended Release Injectable Suspension - medical review

specifications as of this date, to be resolved before an expiry period can be assigned by CMC. 1% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate in USP buffer pH 6.8 medium using USP Apparatus 4 ( or Ph.Eur.2.9.3 Flow-Through Apparatus) at 3 ml/min flow rate. 210 mg: %released at 30 min % released at 2 hrs % released at 8 hrs 300 mg: %released at 30 min % released at 2 hrs % released at 8 hrs 405 mg: %released at 30 min % released at 2 hrs % released at 8 hrs Within one year after the date of this letter, Lilly is required

2009 FDA - Drug Approval Package

174. Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy Long Term Study

Measures : Number and Percentage of Subjects With Potentially Clinically Significant Clinical Laboratory Evaluations [ Time Frame: 1 year ] Number and percentage of subjects with potentially clinically significant clinical laboratory evaluations Number and Percent of Subjects With Normal Baseline Sodium Reaching Blood Sodium ≤135 mmol/L, ≤130 mmol/L, and ≤125 mmol/L [ Time Frame: 1 year ] Number and percentage of subjects who had normal sodium value (i.e. >135 mEq/L) at baseline but reached <=135 mEq/L (...) and >130 mEq/L, <=130 mEq/L and >125 mEq/L, or <=125 mEq/L at any post baseline. Percentage of Subjects With Increase of Body Weight ≥7% [ Time Frame: 1 year ] Percentage of subjects with increase of body weight ≥7% Number and Percentage of Subjects With Orthostatic Effects. [ Time Frame: 1 year ] Number and percentage of subjects with orthostatic effects. Number and Percentage of Subjects With QTc-F Changes (in Categories) From Baseline. [ Time Frame: Baseline, Month 12 ] Number and percentage

2009 Clinical Trials

175. Clinical Evaluation of Low Sodium Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) Solution on Hypertensive Patients Treated With PD

to decrease hypertension and to improve the sodium/water balance. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Chronic Kidney Failure Drug: Solution for Peritoneal Dialysis Phase 3 Detailed Description: Hypertension as well as sodium and water retention are common in end-stage renal disease patients on peritoneal dialysis and expose patients to left ventricular hypertrophy and increase cardiovascular mortality. Moreover the poor control of dry weight and sodium/water balance results in increased (...) Clinical Evaluation of Low Sodium Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) Solution on Hypertensive Patients Treated With PD Clinical Evaluation of Low Sodium Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) Solution on Hypertensive Patients Treated With PD - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies

2008 Clinical Trials

176. Hypotension

. Some of the further interventions used for hypotension have the potential to cause significant harm and so should be used with caution. Initial intervention is to increase intravascular fluid volume by large daily salt intake, either added to food or as salt tablets: Continue with this until weight has increased by 1.3-2.3 kg; then can consider giving fludrocortisone, if necessary, to increase sodium retention. Dose is 0.1- 0.2 mg/day [ ] . Can precipitate heart failure but peripheral oedema alone (...) defined as systolic BP less than 90 mm Hg or diastolic BP less than 60 mm Hg. A systolic BP below 100 mm Hg may be more appropriate if the patient normally has hypertension. Orthostatic (postural) hypotension This is very common, especially in the elderly, due to a number of underlying problems with BP control. The baroreflex mechanisms which control heart rate and vascular resistance decline with age (particularly in patients with hypertension) who thus display lability in BP. They are particularly

2008 Mentor

177. Clinical Trial for the Prevention of Vasovagal Syncope

for various disorders requiring mineralocorticoid adrenal replacement. The acute actions of fludrocortisone acetate are sodium and water retention, at the expense of urinary potassium excretion. Blood volume expansion with either dietary salt supplementation or fludrocortisone is often recommended by clinicians for the treatment of vasovagal syncope despite a paucity of good evidence for their efficacy. Four clinical studies suggest its utility in the prevention of syncope. Fludrocortisone might decrease (...) on with their lives. There is some evidence that salt and water retention help prevent fainting, but no one has a clear idea about whether this is true. This study will try to determine if that is true. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Syncope, Vasovagal, Neurally-Mediated Drug: fludrocortisone acetate Phase 4 Detailed Description: About 10% of adults faint recurrently. These patients are often highly symptomatic, have problems with employment and driving, and have well-documented reduced quality

2005 Clinical Trials

178. A vasopressin receptor antagonist (VPA-985) improves serum sodium concentration in patients with hyponatremia: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

according to previous 24-hour urinary outputs. Adverse events were based on clinical signs of dehydration or encephalopathy. VPA-985 produced a significant overall aquaretic response compared with placebo, with significant dose related increases in free water clearance (P <.05) and serum sodium (P <.05), without significant changes in orthostatic blood pressure or serum creatinine levels. Five patients (50%) on 250 mg twice daily had to have medication withheld on multiple occasions. End-of-study plasma (...) A vasopressin receptor antagonist (VPA-985) improves serum sodium concentration in patients with hyponatremia: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Hyponatremia in advanced cirrhosis and ascites or congestive heart failure (CHF) is the result of an inappropriate increase in vasopressin secretion, which acts through activation of specific V(2) receptors in the distal renal nephron to increase water reabsorption. This study investigates the efficacy and safety of 3 different doses

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2003 Hepatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

179. Angiotensin II receptor blockade prevents acute renal sodium retention induced by low levels of orthostatic stress. (PubMed)

Angiotensin II receptor blockade prevents acute renal sodium retention induced by low levels of orthostatic stress. Depending on its magnitude, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been shown to induce a progressive activation of neurohormonal, renal tubular, and renal hemodynamic responses, thereby mimicking the renal responses observed in clinical conditions characterized by a low effective arterial volume such as congestive heart failure. Our objective was to evaluate the impact (...) of angiotensin II receptor blockade with candesartan on the renal hemodynamic and urinary excretory responses to a progressive orthostatic stress in normal subjects.Twenty healthy men were submitted to three levels of LBNP (0, -10, and -20 mbar or 0, -7.5, and -15 mm Hg) for 1 hour according to a crossover design with a minimum of 2 days between each level of LBNP. Ten subjects were randomly allocated to receive a placebo and ten others were treated with candesartan 16 mg orally for 10 days before and during

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2004 Kidney international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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