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Orthostatic Sodium Retention

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61. Treatment of Hypertension in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

hypertension are numerous, including activation of the sympathetic nervous system, sodium retention, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), insulin resistance, and altered vascular function, there is no acceptable guideline on the antihypertensive drug of choice for the management of hypertension among obese patients. , Some investigators consider ACE inhibitors the drugs of choice for adequate BP control in obesity-related hypertension because of their capacity to increase insulin (...) pathways interact with genetic, demographic, and environmental factors (such as heightened exposure or response to psychosocial stress, excessive dietary intake of sodium, and inadequate dietary intake of potassium and calcium) to determine whether a person will develop hypertension and related CAD. Concomitant metabolic disorders, for example, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and obesity, also lead to the production of vasoactive adipocytokines that promote vasoconstriction, endothelial

2015 American Heart Association

62. Heart Failure Management in Skilled Nursing Facilities Full Text available with Trip Pro

agents require careful monitoring of volume status (using weight and physical examination), renal function, electrolytes, and orthostatic blood pressures. Once euvolemia is achieved, patients should be treated with the lowest dose to maintain that status. The diuretic dose may be further reduced with the addition of a low-salt diet. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) decrease mortality and improve quality of life (...) Infective endocarditis Cardiomyopathy Dilated (nonischemic) Alcohol Chemotherapeutic agents Inflammatory myocarditis Idiopathic Hypertrophic Obstructive Nonobstructive Restrictive (especially amyloid) Pericardial disease Constrictive pericarditis High-output syndromes Chronic anemia Hyperthyroidism Arteriovenous shunting HF indicates heart failure. Table 3. Common Factors Contributing to HF Exacerbations in Older Adults Myocardial ischemia or infarction Uncontrolled hypertension Dietary sodium excess

2015 American Heart Association

66. Invokana - canagliflozin

Humidity RLG radioluminography ROW rest of world RRT Relative retention time RSD Relative standard deviation RTG/RT G renal threshold for glucose RTT(s) renal tubular tumor(s) S9 exogenous mammalian metabolic activation system SAP statistical analysis plan SBP systolic blood pressure SCE Summary of Clinical Efficacy SD standard deviation SE standard error Sec section SEM standard error of the mean SGLT1 sodium-glucose co-transporter-1 SGLT2 sodium-glucose co-transporter -2 SMIT1 sodium/myo-inositol co (...) SGLT1 hSGLT2 human SGLT2 hSGLT4 human sodium glucose co-transporter-4 hSGLT6 human sodium glucose co-transporter-6 hSMIT1 human sodium/myo-inositol co-transporter-1 IAS Integrated Analysis of Safety IC50 inhibiting concentration at 50% ICH International Conference on Harmonisation IPC In-process control IR Infrared ISE Integrated Summary of Efficacy ISS Integrated Summary of Safety J&JPRD Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC JNJ- 28431754 Canagliflozin JRD Janssen Research

2013 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

67. Abilify Maintena (aripiprazole)

. Psychiatr Serv. 2012;63:87-90; 3) Schooler NR. Relapse and rehospitalization: comparing oral and depot antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(Suppl 16):14-7. 4 1) Peuskens J, Olivares JM, Pecenak J et al. Treatment retention with risperidone long-acting injection: 24-month results from the Electronic Schizophrenia Treatment Adherence Registry (e-STAR) in six countries. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010;26:501-9, 2) Masand PS, Roca M, Turner MS et al. Partial adherence to antipsychotic medication impacts (...) systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised long- term trials. Schizophr Res. 2011;127:83-92. Abilify Maintena EMA/737723/2013 Page 9/70 The powder vial contains the following excipients: carmellose sodium, mannitol, sodium dihydrogen phosphate monohydrate, and sodium hydroxide. The solvent vial contains water for injections. The list of excipients is described in section 6.1 of the SmPC. 2.2.2. Active Substance Aripiprazole monohydrate is a white to off-white crystal. It is not hygroscopic

2013 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

68. Chronic Insomnia in Older Adults

used to treat depression; lacks anticholinergic effects but is associated with CV adverse effects (e.g. orthostatic hypotension), next-day sedation (longer half-life in the elderly), & priapism rare . (see online extras for more information) Mirtazapine: role in major depression with associated insomnia; useful alternative or co-prescription for patients with insomnia induced by other antidepressants (e.g. bupropion, some SSRIs); associated with increased appetite & weight gain; long half-life may (...) ): nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (e.g. zopiclone, zolpidem) – adverse events similar to those of benzodiazepines in older adults; minimal improvement in sleep latency & duration moderate quality, strong recommendation ? TCAs (low dose): avoid tertiary TCAs (e.g. amitriptyline, trimipramine, doxepin >6mg/day) as highly anticholinergic, sedating & cause orthostatic hypotension high quality, strong recommendation {consider nortriptyline if using a TCA in older adults} ? Avoid 1 st generation antihistamines (e.g

2013 RxFiles

69. Depression (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Symptoms in People With Cancer Uncontrolled pain.[ ][ ] Metabolic abnormalities: - Hypercalcemia. - Sodium/potassium imbalance. - Anemia. - Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency. - Fever. Endocrine abnormalities: - Hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. - Adrenal insufficiency. Medications:[ ][ ][ - ];[ ][ ] - Steroids. - Endogenous and exogenous cytokines, i.e., interferon-alfa and aldesleukin (interleukin-2 [IL-2]).[ ] - Methyldopa. - Reserpine. - Barbiturates. - Propranolol. - Some antibiotics (e.g

2017 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

70. Mirabegron (Myrbetriq)

Low risk, may be done along with behavioral therapy Usually not effective as stand alone therapy Antimuscarinic Agents Daily dose of agents either by patch, topical gel application or oral dosing Mainstay of current OAB therapy. Modest efficacy. Chronic use A/Es: dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision: glaucoma contraindication: 27% of OAB patients fail on medication: drug costs: Urinary retention Neuromodulation Surgical implantation (sacral nerves) of an electrical stimulator Used in refractory (...) of efficacy Botulinum Toxin Single intravesical injection session using approximately 200 units of botulinum toxin. May need to repeat at 6+ months Can be used in lieu of neuromodulation. Treatment effect may persist for 6+ mos. Not an FDA approved therapy for regular OAB. Death and paralysis possible though unlikely. Allergic reactions. Increase of PVR, retention, possible need for intermittent Reference ID: 3139101Clinical Review {Insert Reviewer Name} {Insert Application Type and Number} {Insert

2012 FDA - Drug Approval Package

73. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

at an early age. Some data suggest that its presence may portend CVD events; however, how these subclinical markers function as end points is not clear. Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Neuropathy in T1DM can lead to abnormalities in the response of the coronary vasculature to sympathetic stimulation, which may manifest clinically as resting tachycardia or bradycardia, exercise intolerance, orthostatic hypotension, loss of the nocturnal decline in BP, or silent myocardial ischemia on cardiac testing (...) , age and DM duration also play an important role. In addition, CVD risk brought on by unhealthy behaviors and associated CVD risk factors requires careful consideration. Avoidance of smoking, maintenance of a normal weight, and consumption of a balanced diet replete in fruits and vegetables, low in saturated fat and sodium, and enriched in whole grains are generally recommended. In this section, we will address a variety of risk factors and their relationship to CVD risk management. Table 3

2014 American Heart Association

74. Clinical Practice guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia

of blood may reducetheeffectivearterialbloodvolume.Asinheartfailure,this reduction can lead to neurohumoral activation and water reten- tionduetobaroreceptor-mediatedvasopressinrelease. In addition, mineralocorticoid receptor blockers such as spironolactone, which either alone or in combination with loop diuretics, are frequently used to reduce sodium retention inliverfailure,cancontributetohyponatraemia[59]. 5.9.4. Nephrotic syndrome. In nephrotic syndrome, blood volume may be decreased due (...) to the lower serum oncotic pressure(under-?llhypothesis).Ifthishappens,stimulationof vasopressin secretion can cause patients to develop hypona- traemia. The tendency for water retention is generally ba- lancedbyintensesodiumretention,buttheincreasedrenalre- absorption of sodium usually necessitates a considerable dose of diuretics. The combination of increased vasopressin release and diuretic use may promote moderate hyponatraemia, especiallyinchildrenwithlowbloodpressure[60]. 6. DIAGNOSIS

2014 European Renal Best Practice

75. European Society of Endocrinology Clinical guideline for the management of hyponatraemia Full Text available with Trip Pro

, European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association 2014 Free access Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/l, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. It can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, from subtle to severe or even life threatening, and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay in patients presenting (...) for clinicians involved in everyday practice. Abstract Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/l, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. It can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, from subtle to severe or even life threatening, and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay in patients presenting with a range of conditions. Despite this, the management of patients remains

2014 European Society of Endocrinology

76. Management of AL amyloidosis

et al , ; Skinner et al , ). It is possible to define high risk groups based on the presence one or more of the following: poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS 3 or 4), severe cardiac disease (Mayo stage III), severe salt and water retention despite aggressive diuretic therapy, severe amyloid‐related autonomic neuropathy causing marked symptomatic impairment in normal activities of daily living (excluding impotence) and liver involvement by amyloid causing bilirubin (...) regimens are a preferred choice due to better response rates and outcomes in phase II studies and a bortezomib‐alkylator‐steroid combination is preferred where a rapid response is desirable (cardiac involvement, renal impairment, severe hypoalbuminaemia, fluid retention) (Grade 1c). There is greater treatment‐related toxicity in patients with AL amyloidosis compared to that seen in patients with multiple myeloma and dose reductions are required (Grade 1c). Bortezomib is preferably given subcutaneously

2014 British Committee for Standards in Haematology

77. Risperdal (Risperidone) - schizophrenia and bipolar disorders and persistent aggression in conduct disorder in children and ersistent aggression in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's dementia

effects, falls, choking on food, excessive sedation, metabolic disorders, orthostatic hypotension, anticholinergic effects (risk of cognitive impairment, constipation and urine retention). Antipsychotics also seemed to be associated, in patients with dementia, with an increased risk of cerebral vascular events and death. The management of aggressive behaviour in Alzheimer's disease is comprehensive. Firstly, it includes care techniques adjusted to the dementia patient. Non-drug interventions (...) the deterioration of cognitive functions is combined with deterioration of functional autonomy. Aggressive behaviours are of multifactorial origin and may reflect: - a defence reaction by the patient in a situation that he cannot control or understand, - a problem specific to the disease (cognitive deficit, delirium, hallucination), - the expression of a somatic problem (urine retention, infection, acute pain, faecal impaction, etc.), - the expression of a psychiatric comorbidity, etc. These behaviour problems

2014 Haute Autorite de sante

78. Altim (Cortivazol) - arthritis, osteoarthritis, tendinitis, bursitis, talalgia, carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, radiculalgia

to the SPC (Marketing Authorisation amendments of 19/07/2010) The systemic undesirable effects of glucocorticoids have a low risk of occurrence after local administration, taking into account low blood levels. However, the risk of Cushing's syndrome (salt and water retention, uncontrolled diabetes and hypertension…) increases with the dose and frequency of injections. • risk of local infection (depending on the injection site): arthritis, meningitis, • localised atrophy of muscles, subcutaneous (...) days, • transient low back pain, uncommonly: chest pain, • blood pressure surges, uncommonly: hypotension, • pain at the injection site. The systemic undesirable effects of glucocorticoids have a low risk of occurrence after local administration, taking into account low blood levels. However, the risk of Cushing's syndrome (salt and water retention, uncontrolled diabetes and of hypertension…) as well as attenuation of the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis increases with the dose and frequency

2014 Haute Autorite de sante

79. 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Nonpharmacological Interventions e262 Education: Recommendation e262 Social Support e263 Sodium Restriction: Recommendation e263 Treatment of Sleep Disorders: Recommendation e263 Weight Loss e263 Activity, Exercise Prescription, and Cardiac Rehabilitation: Recommendations e264 7.3.2. Pharmacological Treatment for Stage C HF r EF: Recommendations e264 Diuretics: Recommendation e265 ACE Inhibitors: Recommendation e265 ARBs (...) and fatigue, which may limit exercise tolerance, and fluid retention, which may lead to pulmonary and/or splanchnic congestion and/or peripheral edema. Some patients have exercise intolerance but little evidence of fluid retention, whereas others complain primarily of edema, dyspnea, or fatigue. Because some patients present without signs or symptoms of volume overload, the term “heart failure” is preferred over “congestive heart failure.” There is no single diagnostic test for HF because it is largely

2013 American Heart Association

80. Heart Failure: Guideline For the Management of

e171 EDUCATION: RECOMMENDATION e171 SOCIAL SUPPORT e171 SODIUM RESTRICTION: RECOMMENDATION ...e171 TREATMENT OF SLEEP DISORDERS: RECOMMENDATION e172 WEIGHT LOSS e172 ACTIVITY, EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION, AND CARDIAC REHABILITATION: RECOMMENDATIONS e172 7.3.2. Pharmacological Treatment for Stage C HFrEF: Recommendations e172 DIURETICS: RECOMMENDATION e173 ACE INHIBITORS: RECOMMENDATION e174 ARBS: RECOMMENDATIONS e175 (...) for the purpose of comparison and completeness. 2. De?nition of HF HF is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular ?lling or ejection of blood. The cardinal manifestations of HF are dyspnea and fatigue, which may limit exercise tolerance, and ?uid retention, which may lead to pulmonary and/or splanchniccongestionand/orperipheraledema.Somepatients have exercise intolerance but little evidence of?uid retention, whereas others complain primarily of edema

2013 American College of Cardiology

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