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252 results for

Orbicularis Oris

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121. Scar Revision (Follow-up)

in the RSTL direction. Often, these scars cross from an oblique lateral to a more horizontal orientation and require a combination of lateral Z-plasty and running W-plasty over the mentum. Scar revision. W-plasty in scar parallel to orbicularis oris. Forehead The underlying frontalis muscle creates unusually prominent forehead RSTLs. These well-defined lines run horizontally in the central forehead, with their lateral ends projecting obliquely inferior over the temple region. Pay particular attention (...) of the cutaneous, or white lip, and the vermilion, or red lip. Key external landmarks include the Cupid’s bow, the philtral columns, the tubercle, the vermilion border, the white roll, and the red line. The white roll is the ridge formed by the insertion of the orbicularis oculi just superior to the vermilion border. The red line of the vermilion is the transition between the wet and dry mucosal lining of the lip. The lip can be further divided into three aesthetic units: the lateral upper lip, the medial

2014 eMedicine.com

122. Surgical Complications (Follow-up)

or ptosis (the orbicularis oculi muscle has a coexisting supply from the zygomatic branch). The zygomatic branch of the facial nerve is less vulnerable as it crosses the zygoma because of its deep plane; it exits the parotid gland prior to its entry into the orbicularis oculi muscle. Injury to this nerve results in ectropion and in the unilateral inability to close the eyelid. Transection of the buccal branch of the facial nerve along its course from the parotid gland to the orbicularis oris muscle (...) , especially in elderly patients with thin skin. Transection of the temporal branch to the frontalis muscle results in unilateral eyebrow ptosis and loss of the normal forehead furrows (see images below). Injury to the temporal branch of the facial nerve causing eyebrow droop and loss of normal forehead furrows. Injury to the temporal branch of the facial nerve causing an inability to raise the eyebrow. Injury to the branches supplying the orbicularis oculi muscle may result in difficulty closing the eye

2014 eMedicine.com

123. Human Bite Infections (Follow-up)

may be reconstructed with mucosal advancement flaps. Wounds measuring up to a third of the length of the lip may be closed by using a wedge or chevron excision and approximating the 2 cut edges. [ ] Perform muscular reapproximation of the orbicularis oris with interrupted, buried, absorbable sutures to assure continuity of the sphincteric muscular ring. Small (< 1.5 cm 2 ) lip segments have been successfully replanted as composite grafts when a segment of lip has been amputated and is available

2014 eMedicine.com

124. Human Bites (Follow-up)

may be reconstructed with mucosal advancement flaps. Wounds measuring up to a third of the length of the lip may be closed by using a wedge or chevron excision and approximating the 2 cut edges. [ ] Perform muscular reapproximation of the orbicularis oris with interrupted, buried, absorbable sutures to assure continuity of the sphincteric muscular ring. Small (< 1.5 cm 2 ) lip segments have been successfully replanted as composite grafts when a segment of lip has been amputated and is available

2014 eMedicine.com

125. Human Bites (Follow-up)

may be reconstructed with mucosal advancement flaps. Wounds measuring up to a third of the length of the lip may be closed by using a wedge or chevron excision and approximating the 2 cut edges. [ ] Perform muscular reapproximation of the orbicularis oris with interrupted, buried, absorbable sutures to assure continuity of the sphincteric muscular ring. Small (< 1.5 cm 2 ) lip segments have been successfully replanted as composite grafts when a segment of lip has been amputated and is available

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

126. Pierre Robin Malformation (Diagnosis)

breastfeeding. In addition, because of an abnormal jaw position, a baby with a small mandible usually has difficulties contracting its orbicularis oris muscle and squeezing the mother's nipple. In cleft palate, a wide communication between the oral and nasal cavities creates a risk of aspiration, nasal regurgitation, choking, and other feeding problems. Consultation with a feeding specialist is advised. In many cases, when carefully instructed, a mother is able to manage bottle feeding while her baby

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

127. Pierre Robin Malformation (Follow-up)

obstruction. [ , ] Infants with PRS also have difficulties with feeding. A cleft palate prevents production of the negative pressure necessary for sucking during breastfeeding. In addition, because of an abnormal jaw position, a baby with a small mandible usually has difficulties contracting its orbicularis oris muscle and squeezing the mother's nipple. In cleft palate, a wide communication between the oral and nasal cavities creates a risk of choking and other feeding problems. In deformational PRS

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

128. Birth Trauma (Overview)

of the facial muscles, unilateral absence of the orbicularis oris muscle, and intracranial hemorrhage. Management and recovery Most infants begin to recover in the first week, but full resolution may take several months. Palsy that is due to trauma usually resolves or improves, whereas palsy that persists is often due to absence of the nerve. Management consists of protecting the open eye with patches and synthetic tears (methylcellulose drops) every 4 hours. Consultation with a neurologist and a surgeon

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

129. Cleft Lip and Palate (Follow-up)

in FOXF2 gene in an Asian population. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol . 2015 Oct. 103 (10):857-62. . Marazita ML. Subclinical features in non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P): review of the evidence that subepithelial orbicularis oris muscle defects are part of an expanded phenotype for CL/P. Orthod Craniofac Res . 2007 May. 10(2):82-7. . Rogers CR, Weinberg SM, Smith TD, Deleyiannis FW, Mooney MP, Marazita ML. Anatomical basis for apparent subepithelial cleft lip (...) : a histological and ultrasonographic survey of the orbicularis oris muscle. Cleft Palate Craniofac J . 2008 Sep. 45(5):518-24. . Suzuki S, Marazita ML, Cooper ME, et al. Mutations in BMP4 are associated with subepithelial, microform, and overt cleft lip. Am J Hum Genet . 2009 Mar. 84(3):406-11. . Croen LA, Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, Tolarová MM. Racial and ethnic variations in the prevalence of orofacial clefts in California, 1983-1992. Am J Med Genet . 1998 Aug 27. 79 (1):42-7. . Tolarova M. Significance

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

130. Cleft Lip and Palate (Diagnosis)

. Novel evidence of association with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate was shown for single nucleotide polymorphisms in FOXF2 gene in an Asian population. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol . 2015 Oct. 103 (10):857-62. . Marazita ML. Subclinical features in non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P): review of the evidence that subepithelial orbicularis oris muscle defects are part of an expanded phenotype for CL/P. Orthod Craniofac Res . 2007 May. 10(2):82-7 (...) . . Rogers CR, Weinberg SM, Smith TD, Deleyiannis FW, Mooney MP, Marazita ML. Anatomical basis for apparent subepithelial cleft lip: a histological and ultrasonographic survey of the orbicularis oris muscle. Cleft Palate Craniofac J . 2008 Sep. 45(5):518-24. . Suzuki S, Marazita ML, Cooper ME, et al. Mutations in BMP4 are associated with subepithelial, microform, and overt cleft lip. Am J Hum Genet . 2009 Mar. 84(3):406-11. . Croen LA, Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, Tolarová MM. Racial and ethnic variations

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

131. Pierre Robin Malformation (Treatment)

obstruction. [ , ] Infants with PRS also have difficulties with feeding. A cleft palate prevents production of the negative pressure necessary for sucking during breastfeeding. In addition, because of an abnormal jaw position, a baby with a small mandible usually has difficulties contracting its orbicularis oris muscle and squeezing the mother's nipple. In cleft palate, a wide communication between the oral and nasal cavities creates a risk of choking and other feeding problems. In deformational PRS

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

132. Human Bites (Treatment)

may be reconstructed with mucosal advancement flaps. Wounds measuring up to a third of the length of the lip may be closed by using a wedge or chevron excision and approximating the 2 cut edges. [ ] Perform muscular reapproximation of the orbicularis oris with interrupted, buried, absorbable sutures to assure continuity of the sphincteric muscular ring. Small (< 1.5 cm 2 ) lip segments have been successfully replanted as composite grafts when a segment of lip has been amputated and is available

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

133. Cleft Lip and Palate (Overview)

. Novel evidence of association with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate was shown for single nucleotide polymorphisms in FOXF2 gene in an Asian population. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol . 2015 Oct. 103 (10):857-62. . Marazita ML. Subclinical features in non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P): review of the evidence that subepithelial orbicularis oris muscle defects are part of an expanded phenotype for CL/P. Orthod Craniofac Res . 2007 May. 10(2):82-7 (...) . . Rogers CR, Weinberg SM, Smith TD, Deleyiannis FW, Mooney MP, Marazita ML. Anatomical basis for apparent subepithelial cleft lip: a histological and ultrasonographic survey of the orbicularis oris muscle. Cleft Palate Craniofac J . 2008 Sep. 45(5):518-24. . Suzuki S, Marazita ML, Cooper ME, et al. Mutations in BMP4 are associated with subepithelial, microform, and overt cleft lip. Am J Hum Genet . 2009 Mar. 84(3):406-11. . Croen LA, Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, Tolarová MM. Racial and ethnic variations

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

134. Hemifacial Spasm (Diagnosis)

of the orbicularis oculi and spreads over years to other facial muscles (corrugator, frontalis, orbicularis oris, platysma, zygomaticus). [ , ] Clonic movements progress to sustained tonic contractions of involved musculature. Chronic irritation of the facial nerve or nucleus, the near-universal cause of hemifacial spasm, may arise from numerous underlying conditions. Facial musculature is subject to the same movement disorders as muscles of the limbs or trunk. Myoclonus, dystonia, and other movement disorders

2014 eMedicine.com

135. Cleft Lip and Palate (Treatment)

in FOXF2 gene in an Asian population. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol . 2015 Oct. 103 (10):857-62. . Marazita ML. Subclinical features in non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P): review of the evidence that subepithelial orbicularis oris muscle defects are part of an expanded phenotype for CL/P. Orthod Craniofac Res . 2007 May. 10(2):82-7. . Rogers CR, Weinberg SM, Smith TD, Deleyiannis FW, Mooney MP, Marazita ML. Anatomical basis for apparent subepithelial cleft lip (...) : a histological and ultrasonographic survey of the orbicularis oris muscle. Cleft Palate Craniofac J . 2008 Sep. 45(5):518-24. . Suzuki S, Marazita ML, Cooper ME, et al. Mutations in BMP4 are associated with subepithelial, microform, and overt cleft lip. Am J Hum Genet . 2009 Mar. 84(3):406-11. . Croen LA, Shaw GM, Wasserman CR, Tolarová MM. Racial and ethnic variations in the prevalence of orofacial clefts in California, 1983-1992. Am J Med Genet . 1998 Aug 27. 79 (1):42-7. . Tolarova M. Significance

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

136. Bites, Human (Follow-up)

may be reconstructed with mucosal advancement flaps. Wounds measuring up to a third of the length of the lip may be closed by using a wedge or chevron excision and approximating the 2 cut edges. [ ] Perform muscular reapproximation of the orbicularis oris with interrupted, buried, absorbable sutures to assure continuity of the sphincteric muscular ring. Small (< 1.5 cm 2 ) lip segments have been successfully replanted as composite grafts when a segment of lip has been amputated and is available

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

137. Lip Reduction

the inner pars villosa and the outer pars glabra, resulting in glandular hypertrophy along with redundant labial mucosa. The excess tissue forms an accessory lip, which is more apparent during smiling. The underlying orbicularis oris muscle is not involved. Ascher syndrome is identical to double lip deformity, with associated and endocrine disorders. Another example of hypertrophy is , a sarcoidlike condition. [ , ] Traumatic causes result in an inflammatory infiltration leading to fibrosis

2014 eMedicine Surgery

138. Lip Reconstruction

and inferior to the most distal portion of pars peripheralis, and anterior to the bundle of buccinator muscle. [ ] Formally, the orbicularis oris muscle as a whole is composed of 8 segments, each representing a fan with its stem at the modiolus. The region of opposition of marginal and peripheral parts is indicated by the red-white junction ventrally, and the mucosal-red lip junction posteriorly. Accessory muscles of the orbicularis oris complex exist and mainly consist of superior and inferior tractors (...) of labial vessels may be a contraindication to the use of a pedicled labial flap. Therefore, a complete history is essential. Previous References Karapandzic M. Reconstruction of lip defects by local arterial flaps. Br J Plast Surg . 1974 Jan. 27(1):93-7. . Hwang K, Kim DJ, Hwang SH. Musculature of the pars marginalis of the upper orbicularis oris muscle. J Craniofac Surg . 2007 Jan. 18(1):151-4. . Gonzalez A, Etchichury D. Reconstruction of Large Defects of the Lower Lip After Mohs Surgery: The Use

2014 eMedicine Surgery

139. Microstomia

, the philtrum and 2 lateral subunits that extend from the philtral columns to the melolabial folds laterally. The lower lip is one functional subunit that extends to the labiomental fold inferiorly and to the melolabial folds laterally. The orbicularis oris is a circular muscle innervated by branches of the facial nerve. Its function is important in maintaining oral competence, normal speech articulation, and facial expression. The deep fibers of the orbicularis oris are oriented horizontally and act (...) :1977. pp.1575, with permission from Elsevier). Schematic representation of orbicularis oris muscle-lengthening procedure. Schematic representation of orbicularis oris muscle-lengthening procedure. of 8 Tables Contributor Information and Disclosures Author Homere Al Moutran, MD Attending/Staff Physician in Facial Plastic Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, New York Head and Neck Institute, Staten Island University Hospital Homere Al Moutran, MD is a member of the following

2014 eMedicine Surgery

140. Flaps, Muscle and Musculocutaneous Flaps

in Plastic Surgery. III. Two dominant pedicles (eg, gluteus maximus; see the image below) Type III, vascular patterns of the muscle and musculocutaneous flaps. Two vascular pedicles, each arising from a separate regional artery (except orbicularis oris). Gluteus maximus, rectus abdominis, serratus anterior, semimembranosus, orbicularis oris. Image courtesy of Selected Reading in Plastic Surgery. IV. Segmental vascular pedicles (eg, sartorius; see the image below) Type IV, vascular patterns of the muscle (...) . Image courtesy of Selected Reading in Plastic Surgery. Type III, vascular patterns of the muscle and musculocutaneous flaps. Two vascular pedicles, each arising from a separate regional artery (except orbicularis oris). Gluteus maximus, rectus abdominis, serratus anterior, semimembranosus, orbicularis oris. Image courtesy of Selected Reading in Plastic Surgery. Type IV, vascular patterns of the muscle and musculocutaneous flaps. Multiple pedicles of similar size. Flexor digitorum longus, extensor

2014 eMedicine Surgery

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