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Orbicularis Oris

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81. Effect of rocuronium on the level and mode of pre-synaptic acetylcholine release by facial and somatic nerves, and changes following facial nerve injury in rabbits Full Text available with Trip Pro

monitoring and immobility under general anesthesia. (1) To observe the relationships between the level and mode of acetylcholine (ACh) release and the duration of facial nerve injury, and the influence of rocuronium in an in vitro rabbit model. (2) To explore the pre-synaptic mechanisms of discrepant responses to a muscle relaxant. Quantal and non-quantal ACh release were measured by using intracellular microelectrode recording in the orbicularis oris 1 to 42 days after graded facial nerve injury (...) and in the gastrocnemius with/without rocuronium. Quantal ACh release was significantly decreased by rocuronium in the orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius, but significantly more so in gastrocnemius. Quantal release was reduced after facial nerve injury, which was significantly correlated with the severity of nerve injury in the absence but not in the presence of rocuronium. Non-quantal ACh release was reduced after facial nerve injury, with many relationships observed depending on the extent of the injury. The extent

2015 International journal of clinical and experimental pathology

82. A Bidimensional System of Facial Movement Analysis Conception and Reliability in Adults Full Text available with Trip Pro

, orbicularis oris, and buccinator, on two occasions. Each rater also analyzed the first video twice, one week apart. For each muscle, intrarater reliability was measured by percent agreements (PA) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between two assessments of the same video one week apart and between assessments of two videos collected one week apart. Interrater reliability was measured by PA, ICC, and coefficients of variation (CV) between assessments of the first video-recording by the three (...) raters.Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were good to excellent for frontalis (PA and ICC > 70%; CV < 15%), moderate for orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus, and orbicularis oris, and poor for corrugator and buccinators.Without formal prior training, the proposed method was reliable for frontalis in healthy subjects. Improved marker selection, training sessions, and testing reliability in patients with facial paresis may enhance reliability for orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus, and orbicularis oris.

2015 BioMed research international

83. Oral Cavity Cancer, Lip and

by high-grade histology, large lesions, spread to involve the wet mucosa of the lip or the buccal mucosa in patients with recurrent disease, and invasion of muscle (i.e., orbicularis oris). Standard treatment options: Radiation therapy alone or neck dissection: N1 (0–2 cm). N2b or N3; all nodes smaller than 2 cm. (A combined surgical and radiation therapy approach should also be considered.) Radiation therapy and neck dissection: N1 (2–3 cm), N2a, N3. Surgery followed by radiation therapy, indications (...) lesions that are extensive and infiltrating. Treatment options for management of lymph nodes: [ ] Patients with advanced lesions should have elective lymph node radiation therapy or node dissection. The risk of metastases to lymph nodes is increased by high-grade histology, large lesions, spread involving the wet mucosa of the lip or the buccal mucosa in patients with recurrent disease, and invasion of muscle (orbicularis oris). Standard treatment options: Radiation therapy alone or neck dissection

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

84. Funtabulously Frivolous Friday Five 118

/Collections/search-the-collections/251040 7th nerve palsy Those of you that are observant would have noted the weakness of the right levator anguli oris, zygomaticum, orbicularis oculi and frontalis. The weakness of both the lower and upper facial nerve indicates a peripheral lesion rather than a pathology at the pons. The most popularised theory is Bell’s Palsy which accounts for 65-70% of unilateral nerve palsies today (not sure what the prevelance in Roman times). This condition was initially noted

2015 Life in the Fast Lane Blog

85. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry of Facial Muscles in Healthy Patients with Facial Palsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

measurements were performed for the frontal, procerus, risorius, corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis, as well as for the masseter and temporalis as masticatory muscles for control.All muscles except the frontal (identification in 4/10 volunteers), procerus (4/10), risorius (6/10), and zygomaticus minor (8/10) were identified in all volunteers. Sex

2014 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open

86. Botulinum toxin to improve results in cleft lip repair: a double-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled, prospective clinical trial, 60 consecutive consenting adults undergoing cleft lip scar revision (CLSR) surgery between July 2010 and March 2012 were randomized to receive botulinum toxin A (n = 30) or vehicle (normal saline; n = 30) injections into the subjacent orbicularis oris muscle immediately after wound closure. Scars were independently assessed at 6-months follow-up in blinded fashion using: Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS (...) ) and photographic plus ultrasound measurements of scar widths.58 patients completed the trial. All scar assessment modalities revealed statistically significantly better scars in the experimental than the vehicle-control group.Quality of surgical upper lip scars, which are oriented perpendicular to the direction of pull of the underlying orbicularis oris muscle, is significantly improved by its temporary paralysis during wound healing.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01429402.

2014 PloS one Controlled trial quality: uncertain

87. Botulinum toxin to improve results in cleft lip repair. (Abstract)

Botulinum toxin to improve results in cleft lip repair. Upper lip wounds that lie perpendicular to the relaxed skin tension lines are subjected to repetitive dynamic tension caused by the orbicularis oris muscle and are susceptible to unsatisfactory scarring.In this double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled, prospective trial, 60 consecutive patients with unilateral cleft lip undergoing primary cheiloplasties between August of 2011 and June of 2012 were randomized to receive botulinum toxin (...) type A or vehicle injections into the subjacent orbicularis oris muscle immediately after wound closure. Scars were assessed after 6 months using the Vancouver Scar Scale, photographic visual analogue scale, and photographic scar width measurements.Fifty-nine patients completed the trial. Measurements of scar widths at two defined points revealed significantly better visual analogue scale scores and narrower scars in the experimental group. However, Vancouver Scar Scale assessments were similar

2014 Plastic and reconstructive surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

88. Role of Electrical Stimulation Added to Conventional Therapy in Patients with Idiopathic Facial (Bell) Palsy. (Abstract)

as facial nerve latencies and amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials derived from the frontalis and orbicularis oris muscles.Twenty-nine men (48.3%) and 31 women (51.7%) with Bell palsy were included in the study. In group 1, 16 (57.1%) patients had no axonal degeneration and 12 (42.9%) had axonal degeneration, compared with 17 (53.1%) and 15 (46.9%) patients in group 2, respectively. The baseline House-Brackmann and Facial Disability Index scores were similar between the groups. At 3 mos after

2014 American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists Controlled trial quality: uncertain

89. Idiopathic Oculostapedial Synkinesis Without History of Facial Nerve Palsy. (Abstract)

for orbicularis oculi muscle to the stapedial and orbicularis oris muscles rather than misdirected regenerating fibers. Resection of the stapedial muscle tendon should be considered if her symptoms recur.

2014 Otology and Neurotology

90. 3D-Ultrasonography for evaluation of facial muscles in patients with chronic facial palsy or defective healing: a pilot study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

was used to acquire 3D data sets of several facial muscles on both sides of the face in a healthy subject and seven patients with different types of unilateral degenerative facial nerve lesions.The US results were correlated to the duration of palsy and the electromyography results. Consistent 3D US based volumetry through bilateral comparison was feasible for parts of the frontalis muscle, orbicularis oculi muscle, depressor anguli oris muscle, depressor labii inferioris muscle, and mentalis muscle

2014 BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders

91. Of mice, monkeys, and men: Physiological and morphological evidence for evolutionary divergence of function in mimetic musculature Full Text available with Trip Pro

related to human mimetic musculature physiology, function, and evolutionary morphology. Samples from the orbicularis oris muscle (OOM) and the zygomaticus major (ZM) muscle in laboratory mice (N = 3), rhesus macaques (N = 3), and humans (N = 3) were collected. Fiber type proportions (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), fiber cross-sectional area, diameter, and length were calculated, and means were statistically compared among groups. Results showed that macaques had the greatest percentage of fast fibers

2014 Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)

92. Surgical Complications (Follow-up)

or ptosis (the orbicularis oculi muscle has a coexisting supply from the zygomatic branch). The zygomatic branch of the facial nerve is less vulnerable as it crosses the zygoma because of its deep plane; it exits the parotid gland prior to its entry into the orbicularis oculi muscle. Injury to this nerve results in ectropion and in the unilateral inability to close the eyelid. Transection of the buccal branch of the facial nerve along its course from the parotid gland to the orbicularis oris muscle (...) , especially in elderly patients with thin skin. Transection of the temporal branch to the frontalis muscle results in unilateral eyebrow ptosis and loss of the normal forehead furrows (see images below). Injury to the temporal branch of the facial nerve causing eyebrow droop and loss of normal forehead furrows. Injury to the temporal branch of the facial nerve causing an inability to raise the eyebrow. Injury to the branches supplying the orbicularis oculi muscle may result in difficulty closing the eye

2014 eMedicine.com

93. Scar Revision (Diagnosis)

in the RSTL direction. Often, these scars cross from an oblique lateral to a more horizontal orientation and require a combination of lateral Z-plasty and running W-plasty over the mentum. Scar revision. W-plasty in scar parallel to orbicularis oris. Forehead The underlying frontalis muscle creates unusually prominent forehead RSTLs. These well-defined lines run horizontally in the central forehead, with their lateral ends projecting obliquely inferior over the temple region. Pay particular attention (...) of the cutaneous, or white lip, and the vermilion, or red lip. Key external landmarks include the Cupid’s bow, the philtral columns, the tubercle, the vermilion border, the white roll, and the red line. The white roll is the ridge formed by the insertion of the orbicularis oculi just superior to the vermilion border. The red line of the vermilion is the transition between the wet and dry mucosal lining of the lip. The lip can be further divided into three aesthetic units: the lateral upper lip, the medial

2014 eMedicine.com

94. Hemifacial Spasm (Diagnosis)

of the orbicularis oculi and spreads over years to other facial muscles (corrugator, frontalis, orbicularis oris, platysma, zygomaticus). [ , ] Clonic movements progress to sustained tonic contractions of involved musculature. Chronic irritation of the facial nerve or nucleus, the near-universal cause of hemifacial spasm, may arise from numerous underlying conditions. Facial musculature is subject to the same movement disorders as muscles of the limbs or trunk. Myoclonus, dystonia, and other movement disorders

2014 eMedicine.com

95. Lip Reconstruction (Diagnosis)

of cutaneous lip (C), orbicularis oris muscle (D), lamina propria of mucosal lip with salivary glands (E), mucosa of mucosal lip (F), labial artery (G). Anatomy of the lip region. Cosmetic units of the lip. The Cupid's bow is the downward projection of the philtral unit, which gives the lip its characteristic appearance. The white roll is the light linear projection that circumferentially outlines the upper and lower lip at the border of the cutaneous and vermilion lip. Reconstruction of the Cupid's bow (...) and are perpendicular to the fibers of the orbicularis oris muscle. The vermilion portion is the most cosmetically apparent portion of the lip. This portion is a modified mucosal membrane that lacks pilosebaceous units, eccrine glands, and salivary glands. The pink-to-red color of the vermilion lip is due to the extensive superficial vasculature in this area. The wet, or mucosal, lip abuts the teeth and contains minor salivary glands, which empty onto its surface. The red line is where the upper and lower lips meet

2014 eMedicine.com

96. Oral Cutaneous Fistulas (Diagnosis)

or orbicularis oris muscle may result in cutaneous spread. Infection from the mandibular molars is usually confined to the lingual aspect of the oral cavity by the mylohyoid muscle and to the buccal aspect by the inferior attachment of the buccinator muscle. If the infection penetrates to the lingual area inferior to the mylohyoid muscle, infections of the submandibular, sublingual, and submental spaces may result. If the infection spreads inferior to the buccinator muscle attachment, cutaneous spread may (...) also may spread to the canine fossa, buccinator space, lateral pterygoid space, and infratemporal space. Spread of infection to the lateral pterygoid and infratemporal spaces is associated with trismus. Infection of maxillary premolars almost always stays confined to the oral cavity and most commonly spreads to the buccal side of the alveolar ridge. Infection from the maxillary anterior teeth is usually contained within the oral cavity. Spread of infection superior to the levator anguli oris muscle

2014 eMedicine.com

97. Surgical Complications (Overview)

or ptosis (the orbicularis oculi muscle has a coexisting supply from the zygomatic branch). The zygomatic branch of the facial nerve is less vulnerable as it crosses the zygoma because of its deep plane; it exits the parotid gland prior to its entry into the orbicularis oculi muscle. Injury to this nerve results in ectropion and in the unilateral inability to close the eyelid. Transection of the buccal branch of the facial nerve along its course from the parotid gland to the orbicularis oris muscle (...) , especially in elderly patients with thin skin. Transection of the temporal branch to the frontalis muscle results in unilateral eyebrow ptosis and loss of the normal forehead furrows (see images below). Injury to the temporal branch of the facial nerve causing eyebrow droop and loss of normal forehead furrows. Injury to the temporal branch of the facial nerve causing an inability to raise the eyebrow. Injury to the branches supplying the orbicularis oculi muscle may result in difficulty closing the eye

2014 eMedicine.com

98. Botulinum Toxin (Overview)

- Crow's feet Mark the lateral canthal line 1 cm lateral to the canthus. Then, the patient should be asked to squint, and the squint lines above and below the lateral canthal line are marked. The injections are symmetrically placed into the muscle on both sides of the face. To avoid problems with eyelid closure, do not inject too close to the eyelids. Orbicularis oris and mentalis muscles - Excessive lip pursing The injection site is the point halfway between the vermilion border of the lower lip (...) canthal lines associated with orbicularis oculi activity in adults. It is also indicated for the temporary improvement in the appearance of moderate-to-severe forehead lines associated with frontalis muscle activity in adults. Dysport® ( ) is indicated for the treatment of adults with cervical dystonia, lower limb spasticity, and spasticity. The cosmetic indication is for the temporary improvement in the appearance of moderate-to-severe glabellar lines associated with procerus and corrugator muscle

2014 eMedicine.com

99. Botulinum Toxin (Treatment)

region are too close to the eyelid. Asymmetry of the face can occur because of differences in injection techniques or doses between the 2 sides of the face. Drooling can occur when injections of the orbicularis oris muscle are too close to the lip. [ ] Systemic complications are possible. Headache has been reported and is usually transient. Hypersensitivity reactions have not been described. Antibody development is described in patients receiving high doses of botulinum toxin (eg, for the treatment (...) injection. With the latter method, which is used primarily in the platysma, the preferred injection site is identified with EMG. The needle is then inserted parallel to the plane of the muscle, and the injection is performed while the needle is carefully withdrawn. Orbicularis muscle/periorbital crow's feet injection. Frontalis muscle injections. Corrugator muscle injections. Procerus muscle injections. Next: Preoperative Details Preoperative details include the following: identifying contraindications

2014 eMedicine.com

100. Anatomy in Cutaneous Surgery (Treatment)

tightly. This complex lies superficially in the eyelid skin and is encountered with even a shallow incision. The dominant muscle of the nose is the nasalis muscle, which consists of nasal and alar components. Its function is to compress and dilate the nares. Mouth muscles The has the most extensive network of facial musculature and accounts for much of an individual's capability of facial expression. The orbicularis oris encircles the mouth and is the major component of the lips. The major functions (...) of the orbicularis oris muscle are to pull the lips against the teeth, to draw the lips together, to pull the corners of the mouth together, and to pucker the mouth. This muscle is also extremely important for the phonation of sounds that rely on the lips, such as the pronunciation of the letters M , V , F , and P . A group of 6 muscles, collectively known as the quadratus labii superioris muscle, controls the upper mouth. The 6 muscles are as follows: Zygomaticus major muscle - Starts from the posterolateral

2014 eMedicine.com

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