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Orbicularis Oris

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81. Efficacy of Passive Oral Motor Therapy on Drooling in Children With Multiple Disabilities

each lip). Vibration slowly applied for 10-15 sec each of a) orbicularis oris b) Both sides of larynx from chin to sternal notch c) Under the chin from ear to ear.Quick stretch applied to the masseter muscles (3 times on each side). Stretch pressure applied to vibrated areas, on a) orbicularis oris b) Laryngopharyngeal muscles, both sides. Intra-orally applied light touch to roof of mouth, anteriorly for 3 times. The protocol was given for 4 weeks with treatment sessions given 3 times per week

2015 Clinical Trials

82. Anatomy and surgical treatment of the depressor septi nasi muscle: a systematic review. (PubMed)

and/or orbicularis oris muscle. More importantly, the muscle inserts on the medial crura and adjacent soft tissue. Disruption of this relationship provides the basis for surgical treatment of tip descent on animation.

2015 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

83. Effect of rocuronium on the level and mode of pre-synaptic acetylcholine release by facial and somatic nerves, and changes following facial nerve injury in rabbits (PubMed)

monitoring and immobility under general anesthesia. (1) To observe the relationships between the level and mode of acetylcholine (ACh) release and the duration of facial nerve injury, and the influence of rocuronium in an in vitro rabbit model. (2) To explore the pre-synaptic mechanisms of discrepant responses to a muscle relaxant. Quantal and non-quantal ACh release were measured by using intracellular microelectrode recording in the orbicularis oris 1 to 42 days after graded facial nerve injury (...) and in the gastrocnemius with/without rocuronium. Quantal ACh release was significantly decreased by rocuronium in the orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius, but significantly more so in gastrocnemius. Quantal release was reduced after facial nerve injury, which was significantly correlated with the severity of nerve injury in the absence but not in the presence of rocuronium. Non-quantal ACh release was reduced after facial nerve injury, with many relationships observed depending on the extent of the injury. The extent

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2015 International journal of clinical and experimental pathology

84. 3D-Ultrasonography for evaluation of facial muscles in patients with chronic facial palsy or defective healing: a pilot study. (PubMed)

was used to acquire 3D data sets of several facial muscles on both sides of the face in a healthy subject and seven patients with different types of unilateral degenerative facial nerve lesions.The US results were correlated to the duration of palsy and the electromyography results. Consistent 3D US based volumetry through bilateral comparison was feasible for parts of the frontalis muscle, orbicularis oculi muscle, depressor anguli oris muscle, depressor labii inferioris muscle, and mentalis muscle

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2014 BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders

85. Idiopathic Oculostapedial Synkinesis Without History of Facial Nerve Palsy. (PubMed)

for orbicularis oculi muscle to the stapedial and orbicularis oris muscles rather than misdirected regenerating fibers. Resection of the stapedial muscle tendon should be considered if her symptoms recur.

2014 Otology and Neurotology

86. Role of Electrical Stimulation Added to Conventional Therapy in Patients with Idiopathic Facial (Bell) Palsy. (PubMed)

as facial nerve latencies and amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials derived from the frontalis and orbicularis oris muscles.Twenty-nine men (48.3%) and 31 women (51.7%) with Bell palsy were included in the study. In group 1, 16 (57.1%) patients had no axonal degeneration and 12 (42.9%) had axonal degeneration, compared with 17 (53.1%) and 15 (46.9%) patients in group 2, respectively. The baseline House-Brackmann and Facial Disability Index scores were similar between the groups. At 3 mos after

2014 American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists

87. Botulinum toxin to improve results in cleft lip repair. (PubMed)

Botulinum toxin to improve results in cleft lip repair. Upper lip wounds that lie perpendicular to the relaxed skin tension lines are subjected to repetitive dynamic tension caused by the orbicularis oris muscle and are susceptible to unsatisfactory scarring.In this double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled, prospective trial, 60 consecutive patients with unilateral cleft lip undergoing primary cheiloplasties between August of 2011 and June of 2012 were randomized to receive botulinum toxin (...) type A or vehicle injections into the subjacent orbicularis oris muscle immediately after wound closure. Scars were assessed after 6 months using the Vancouver Scar Scale, photographic visual analogue scale, and photographic scar width measurements.Fifty-nine patients completed the trial. Measurements of scar widths at two defined points revealed significantly better visual analogue scale scores and narrower scars in the experimental group. However, Vancouver Scar Scale assessments were similar

2014 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

88. Of mice, monkeys, and men: Physiological and morphological evidence for evolutionary divergence of function in mimetic musculature (PubMed)

related to human mimetic musculature physiology, function, and evolutionary morphology. Samples from the orbicularis oris muscle (OOM) and the zygomaticus major (ZM) muscle in laboratory mice (N = 3), rhesus macaques (N = 3), and humans (N = 3) were collected. Fiber type proportions (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), fiber cross-sectional area, diameter, and length were calculated, and means were statistically compared among groups. Results showed that macaques had the greatest percentage of fast fibers

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2014 Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)

89. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volumetry of Facial Muscles in Healthy Patients with Facial Palsy (PubMed)

measurements were performed for the frontal, procerus, risorius, corrugator supercilii, orbicularis oculi, nasalis, zygomaticus major, zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis, as well as for the masseter and temporalis as masticatory muscles for control.All muscles except the frontal (identification in 4/10 volunteers), procerus (4/10), risorius (6/10), and zygomaticus minor (8/10) were identified in all volunteers. Sex

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2014 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open

90. Botulinum toxin to improve results in cleft lip repair: a double-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled clinical trial. (PubMed)

-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled, prospective clinical trial, 60 consecutive consenting adults undergoing cleft lip scar revision (CLSR) surgery between July 2010 and March 2012 were randomized to receive botulinum toxin A (n = 30) or vehicle (normal saline; n = 30) injections into the subjacent orbicularis oris muscle immediately after wound closure. Scars were independently assessed at 6-months follow-up in blinded fashion using: Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS (...) ) and photographic plus ultrasound measurements of scar widths.58 patients completed the trial. All scar assessment modalities revealed statistically significantly better scars in the experimental than the vehicle-control group.Quality of surgical upper lip scars, which are oriented perpendicular to the direction of pull of the underlying orbicularis oris muscle, is significantly improved by its temporary paralysis during wound healing.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01429402.

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2014 PloS one

91. Oral Cavity Cancer, Lip and

by high-grade histology, large lesions, spread to involve the wet mucosa of the lip or the buccal mucosa in patients with recurrent disease, and invasion of muscle (i.e., orbicularis oris). Standard treatment options: Radiation therapy alone or neck dissection: N1 (0–2 cm). N2b or N3; all nodes smaller than 2 cm. (A combined surgical and radiation therapy approach should also be considered.) Radiation therapy and neck dissection: N1 (2–3 cm), N2a, N3. Surgery followed by radiation therapy, indications (...) lesions that are extensive and infiltrating. Treatment options for management of lymph nodes: [ ] Patients with advanced lesions should have elective lymph node radiation therapy or node dissection. The risk of metastases to lymph nodes is increased by high-grade histology, large lesions, spread involving the wet mucosa of the lip or the buccal mucosa in patients with recurrent disease, and invasion of muscle (orbicularis oris). Standard treatment options: Radiation therapy alone or neck dissection

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

92. Bell's palsy

in that they prevent moisture loss well and need applying less often, but can blur vision. Taping can be a useful strategy at night, but must be effectively carried out [ ]. Advice on eating This recommendation is based on expert opinion in a review article on the basis that these measures minimise the risk of oral incontinence (from loss of sphincter function of the orbicularis oris) and damage to the inside of the mouth from chewing [ ]. Offering written information This recommendation is pragmatic, and is based

2012 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

93. Oral Cutaneous Fistulas (Overview)

or orbicularis oris muscle may result in cutaneous spread. Infection from the mandibular molars is usually confined to the lingual aspect of the oral cavity by the mylohyoid muscle and to the buccal aspect by the inferior attachment of the buccinator muscle. If the infection penetrates to the lingual area inferior to the mylohyoid muscle, infections of the submandibular, sublingual, and submental spaces may result. If the infection spreads inferior to the buccinator muscle attachment, cutaneous spread may (...) also may spread to the canine fossa, buccinator space, lateral pterygoid space, and infratemporal space. Spread of infection to the lateral pterygoid and infratemporal spaces is associated with trismus. Infection of maxillary premolars almost always stays confined to the oral cavity and most commonly spreads to the buccal side of the alveolar ridge. Infection from the maxillary anterior teeth is usually contained within the oral cavity. Spread of infection superior to the levator anguli oris muscle

2014 eMedicine.com

94. Anatomy in Cutaneous Surgery (Follow-up)

tightly. This complex lies superficially in the eyelid skin and is encountered with even a shallow incision. The dominant muscle of the nose is the nasalis muscle, which consists of nasal and alar components. Its function is to compress and dilate the nares. Mouth muscles The has the most extensive network of facial musculature and accounts for much of an individual's capability of facial expression. The orbicularis oris encircles the mouth and is the major component of the lips. The major functions (...) of the orbicularis oris muscle are to pull the lips against the teeth, to draw the lips together, to pull the corners of the mouth together, and to pucker the mouth. This muscle is also extremely important for the phonation of sounds that rely on the lips, such as the pronunciation of the letters M , V , F , and P . A group of 6 muscles, collectively known as the quadratus labii superioris muscle, controls the upper mouth. The 6 muscles are as follows: Zygomaticus major muscle - Starts from the posterolateral

2014 eMedicine.com

95. Botulinum Toxin (Follow-up)

region are too close to the eyelid. Asymmetry of the face can occur because of differences in injection techniques or doses between the 2 sides of the face. Drooling can occur when injections of the orbicularis oris muscle are too close to the lip. [ ] Systemic complications are possible. Headache has been reported and is usually transient. Hypersensitivity reactions have not been described. Antibody development is described in patients receiving high doses of botulinum toxin (eg, for the treatment (...) injection. With the latter method, which is used primarily in the platysma, the preferred injection site is identified with EMG. The needle is then inserted parallel to the plane of the muscle, and the injection is performed while the needle is carefully withdrawn. Orbicularis muscle/periorbital crow's feet injection. Frontalis muscle injections. Corrugator muscle injections. Procerus muscle injections. Next: Preoperative Details Preoperative details include the following: identifying contraindications

2014 eMedicine.com

96. Static Suspension for Facial Paralysis

the zygomatic, buccal, and marginal branches lie in deeper layers. The muscles that comprise the 4 layers are as follows: First layer - Depressor anguli oris, superficial portion of zygomaticus minor, orbicularis oculi Second layer - Platysma, risorius, zygomaticus major, deep portion of zygomaticus minor, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi Third layer - Levator labii superioris, orbicularis oris Fourth layer - Levator anguli oris, mentalis, buccinator Anatomic classification of facial paralysis See

2014 eMedicine Surgery

97. Skin Flaps, Design

occurred with one out of 23 V-Y flaps (4%), compared with 2 out of 11 cervicofacial flaps (18%). [ ] Lip The upper and lower lips are the focal points of the lower part of the face. Goals of lip reconstruction include maintenance of oral competence, including both motor and sensory innervation and preservation of an adequate gingival-labial sulcus without distortion of surrounding structures. The first step in reconstruction is consideration of the complete sphincter formed by the orbicularis oris (...) of the donor site. Full-thickness defects involving more than 40% of either the upper or the lower lip generally require a 2-staged lip flap, namely, a Karapandzic, Abbe, or Estlander flap. All 3 flaps transfer functional orbicularis oris muscle. The Abbe and Estlander flaps are pedicled lip-switch flaps in which the pedicle must be divided, usually 3 weeks after interpolation. The Karapandzic flap is an advancement rotation flap with arterial and nervous supplies. The incisions are created to produce

2014 eMedicine Surgery

98. Anatomy in Cutaneous Surgery (Overview)

tightly. This complex lies superficially in the eyelid skin and is encountered with even a shallow incision. The dominant muscle of the nose is the nasalis muscle, which consists of nasal and alar components. Its function is to compress and dilate the nares. Mouth muscles The has the most extensive network of facial musculature and accounts for much of an individual's capability of facial expression. The orbicularis oris encircles the mouth and is the major component of the lips. The major functions (...) of the orbicularis oris muscle are to pull the lips against the teeth, to draw the lips together, to pull the corners of the mouth together, and to pucker the mouth. This muscle is also extremely important for the phonation of sounds that rely on the lips, such as the pronunciation of the letters M , V , F , and P . A group of 6 muscles, collectively known as the quadratus labii superioris muscle, controls the upper mouth. The 6 muscles are as follows: Zygomaticus major muscle - Starts from the posterolateral

2014 eMedicine.com

99. Pierre Robin Malformation (Overview)

breastfeeding. In addition, because of an abnormal jaw position, a baby with a small mandible usually has difficulties contracting its orbicularis oris muscle and squeezing the mother's nipple. In cleft palate, a wide communication between the oral and nasal cavities creates a risk of aspiration, nasal regurgitation, choking, and other feeding problems. Consultation with a feeding specialist is advised. In many cases, when carefully instructed, a mother is able to manage bottle feeding while her baby

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

100. Prerhytidectomy Facial Analysis

between these bands can result in further loss of the cervicomental angle. Loss of this angle produces the appearance of a “turkey gobbler” neck. The mandible reabsorbs, allowing chin pad ptosis and contributing to the illusion of increased nasal projection. Especially in the edentulous patient, the resorption of the alveolar ridge causes a relative excess of skin. This excess skin, when combined with loss of the subcutaneous tissues, reveals the intrinsic tone in the orbicularis ori muscle, forming (...) lid skin allows pseudoherniation of the orbital fat. This process forms palpebral bags, and an accentuation of tear-trough depression. Loss in subcutaneous fullness overlying the orbicularis oculi brings the muscle into close contact with the overlying thin skin, giving the infraorbital area a darkened, tired appearance. This loss of subcutaneous tissue also accentuates the intrinsic muscle tone and gives rise to the appearance of “crow’s feet.” Over time, the fullness in the glabella, nasion

2014 eMedicine Surgery

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