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1. Optical Reflex

Optical Reflex Optical Reflex Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Optical Reflex Optical Reflex Aka: Optical Reflex (...) , Orbicularis Oculi Reflex II. Exam: Optical Reflex (Orbicularis Oculi Reflex) Technique Expose eye to bright light Expected response (normal) Results in closure in the exposed eye as well as the other eye (consensual response) Slower response than the Absent in age under 9 months Mechanism Mediated by visual cortex in III. Resources at wikipedia IV. References Degowin (1987) Diagnostic Examination, 5th ed, MacMillan Publishing Company, p. 810 Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images

2018 FP Notebook

2. Ipsilateral transient amaurosis, mydriasis and light reflex absence after subconjunctival local anesthesia with mepivacaine in three patients with refractory glaucoma - a case report. (PubMed)

Ipsilateral transient amaurosis, mydriasis and light reflex absence after subconjunctival local anesthesia with mepivacaine in three patients with refractory glaucoma - a case report. The subconjunctival anesthesia with local anesthetics is considered as a low-risk procedure allowing ocular surgery without serious complications typical for retro- or parabulbar anesthesia, especially in patients with preexisting Optic Nerve damage. We report development of ipsilateral transient amaurosis

2019 BMC Ophthalmology

3. CELLULAR IMAGING OF THE TAPETAL-LIKE REFLEX IN CARRIERS OF RPGR-ASSOCIATED RETINOPATHY. (PubMed)

CELLULAR IMAGING OF THE TAPETAL-LIKE REFLEX IN CARRIERS OF RPGR-ASSOCIATED RETINOPATHY. To examine the features of the tapetal-like reflex (TLR) in female carriers of RPGR-associated retinopathy by means of adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography.Nine molecularly confirmed RPGR carriers and three healthy controls underwent ocular examination and the following retinal imaging modalities: color photography, near-infrared reflectance (...) , fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and AOSLO. After identifying TLR areas across all imaging modalities, normalized local contrast of outer retinal bands on spectral domain optical coherence tomography was calculated and AOSLO-acquired photoreceptor mosaic analysis was performed.Seven carriers had TLR areas, which colocalized with increased rod photoreceptor reflectivity on confocal AOSLO and reduced cone photoreceptor densities. Parafoveal TLR areas also exhibited

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2017 Retina

4. Pupillary Dilation Reflex Assessment for Intraoperative Analgesic Titration.

Pupillary Dilation Reflex Assessment for Intraoperative Analgesic Titration. Pupillary Dilation Reflex Assessment for Intraoperative Analgesic Titration. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more (...) . Pupillary Dilation Reflex Assessment for Intraoperative Analgesic Titration. (PUP-AIT) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03248908 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : August 15, 2017 Last Update Posted

2017 Clinical Trials

5. The use of optical coherence tomography for the detection of ocular toxicity by ethambutol. (PubMed)

Santo from May 2015 to July 2016. After clinical history, the following parameters were analyzed; best corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopy, tonometry, photomotor reflex testing, Ishihara test, Amsler's grid test, color digital retinography and optical coherence tomography with CIRRUS HD-OCT (Humphrey-Zeiss) every 2 months during treatment with ethambutol. They were divided into two groups according to the treatment: (1) standard group, two months of ethambutol; (2) extended group, nine to twelve (...) The use of optical coherence tomography for the detection of ocular toxicity by ethambutol. To evaluate, through (OCT), alterations in retinal thickness, secondary to use of ethambutol in the treatment of patients with tuberculosis. In addition to studying the use of simpler semiological tools, such as Amsler and Ishihara, in the screening of these cases.Thirty patients with ethambutol were recruited from the reference service of tuberculosis treatment at the Federal University of Espírito

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2018 PLoS ONE

6. Accuracy of machine learning for differentiation between optic neuropathies and pseudopapilledema. (PubMed)

visual acuity), visual field, color vision, and pupillary reflex. The optic neuropathy group included cases of ischemic optic neuropathy (177), optic neuritis (48), diabetic optic neuropathy (17), papilledema (22), and retinal disorders (31). We compared four machine learning classifiers (our model, GoogleNet Inception v3, 19-layer Very Deep Convolution Network from Visual Geometry group (VGG), and 50-layer Deep Residual Learning (ResNet)). Accuracy and area under receiver operating characteristic (...) Accuracy of machine learning for differentiation between optic neuropathies and pseudopapilledema. This study is to evaluate the accuracy of machine learning for differentiation between optic neuropathies, pseudopapilledema (PPE) and normals.Two hundred and ninety-five images of optic neuropathies, 295 images of PPE, and 779 control images were used. Pseudopapilledema was defined as follows: cases with elevated optic nerve head and blurred disc margin, with normal visual acuity (> 0.8 Snellen

2019 BMC Ophthalmology

7. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal vessels in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. (PubMed)

Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal vessels in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. To image retinal blood vessels in patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia using optical coherence tomography (OCT).Retrospective case series examining fundus photographs and OCT scans of 16 eyes in eight patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. Analyses included intravascular OCT reflectivity profiles and vessel diameters, and their relation to total immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels.In (...) six out of eight patients, cross-sectional OCT scans of larger retinal vessels (diameter > 100 μm) showed normal intravascular reflectivity and retrovascular shadowing. In two patients with the highest total IgM > 60 g/l, altered intravascular reflectivity, distinct anterior and posterior vessel wall reflexes, and retrovascular hyposhadowing were seen. Normalization of the OCT reflectivity in these patients occurred after reduction of total IgM to < 17 g/l and was accompanied by decreasing venous

2019 Acta ophthalmologica

8. The Pupil Light Reflex in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Evidence for Preservation of Melanopsoin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells. (PubMed)

The Pupil Light Reflex in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Evidence for Preservation of Melanopsoin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells. To investigate the pupillary light reflex (PLR) of patients with severe loss of vision due to Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) in the context of a proposed preservation of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs).Ten LHON patients (7 males; 51.6 ± 14.1 years), with visual acuities ranging from 20/400 to hand motion perception and severe (...) . In addition, optical coherence topography (OCT) scans of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer were obtained.The patient's peak PLR responses were on average 15% smaller than controls (P < 0.05), but 5 out of 10 patients had amplitudes within the range of controls. The patients' sustained PLRs were comparable with controls at lower flash intensities, but on average, 27% smaller to the 250 cd/m² blue light, although there was considerable overlap with the PLR amplitudes of control. All patients had

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2013 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

9. Efficacy of the Use of a Colorimetric Pupil Light Reflex Device in the Diagnosis of Fundus Disease or Optic Pathway Disease in Dogs (PubMed)

Efficacy of the Use of a Colorimetric Pupil Light Reflex Device in the Diagnosis of Fundus Disease or Optic Pathway Disease in Dogs The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a colorimetric pupil light reflex (PLR) device (Melan-100(®), U.S.A.) in dogs with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS; 16 cases), progressive retinal atrophy (PRA; 10 cases) and optic pathway disease (6 cases). The colorimetric device detected PLR abnormality in 32, 16 and 9 eyes with SARDS (...) , PRA and optic pathway disease, respectively, whereas white light detected PLR abnormality in 18, 11 and 9 eyes with SARDS, PRA and optic pathway disease, respectively. SARDS dogs displayed miosis, while optic pathway disease dogs displayed mydriasis in a blue light examination. Thus, colorimetric PLR may be a useful method for determining whether electroretinography (ERG) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed for dogs with acute blindness.

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2013 The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

10. Corneal Reflex

Portuguese Reflexo Corneano Derived from the NIH UMLS ( ) Ontology: Blink Reflexes (C0596003) Concepts Organ or Tissue Function ( T042 ) MSH SnomedCT 82408006 , 363829005 English Reflex, Blink , Reflexes, Blink , Optical blink reflex , blinking reflex , blink reflex , Blink reflex , Blink reflex (observable entity) , Blink reflex finding (finding) , Blink reflex finding , Blink Reflex , Eyeblink Reflex , Blink Reflexes French Réflexe de clignement , Réflexe opticopalpébral , Réflexe de clignotement à la (...) Corneal Reflex Corneal Reflex Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Corneal Reflex Corneal Reflex Aka: Corneal Reflex

2018 FP Notebook

11. Retrobulbar optic neuropathy associated with sphenoid sinus mucormycosis (PubMed)

revealed the absence of light perception and pupillary reflex in the right eye. Head MRI showed a mass in the right sphenoid sinus, which was contiguous with the right optic nerve. She underwent endoscopic surgery, and a histopathological diagnosis of mucormycosis was established. Treatment with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B reduced the size of the mass. She has survived for more than 1 year without recurrence. Clinicians should consider that IFS can present as isolated retrobulbar optic (...) Retrobulbar optic neuropathy associated with sphenoid sinus mucormycosis Because fungi usually spread from the paranasal sinuses to the orbital apex in invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS), IFS often presents as an orbital apex syndrome (OAS) characterized by dysfunction of cranial nerves II, III, IV, V1, and VI. We report a case of sphenoid sinus mucormycosis that presented as isolated retrobulbar optic neuropathy. A 94-year-old woman presented with acute blindness in the right eye. Examination

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2018 Neurology and clinical neuroscience

12. Changes in Tear Meniscus Height Following Lower Blepharoplasty as Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography (PubMed)

, depending on whether (1) the supportive lower lid orbicularis oculi muscle was tightened, (2) the middle lamella was elongated, (3) minimal fat was removed or transpositioned, and (4) lateral canthal support was established. Marginal reflex distance 2 and marginal nose distance were analyzed with Image J software. TMH was measured with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. A paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for statistical comparisons.Marginal reflex distance 2 decreased (...) Changes in Tear Meniscus Height Following Lower Blepharoplasty as Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography The lower eyelid serves important roles in tear distribution and drainage. The purpose of this study was to measure the tear meniscus height (TMH) with anterior segment optical coherence tomography after lower blepharoplasty.A total of 52 eyes from 26 patients treated between July 2012 and June 2015 were included in the study. A transcutaneous or transconjunctival approach was performed

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2018 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

13. Optical Reflex

Optical Reflex Optical Reflex Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Optical Reflex Optical Reflex Aka: Optical Reflex (...) , Orbicularis Oculi Reflex II. Exam: Optical Reflex (Orbicularis Oculi Reflex) Technique Expose eye to bright light Expected response (normal) Results in closure in the exposed eye as well as the other eye (consensual response) Slower response than the Absent in age under 9 months Mechanism Mediated by visual cortex in III. Resources at wikipedia IV. References Degowin (1987) Diagnostic Examination, 5th ed, MacMillan Publishing Company, p. 810 Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images

2015 FP Notebook

14. Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) for Hyperopia: Optical Zone Centration. (PubMed)

) and astigmatism up to 6.00 D. For SMILE, the optical zone was between 6.3 and 6.7 mm, with a 2-mm transition zone. Two LASIK control groups (6.5- and 7-mm optical zone) were generated matched for spherical equivalent treated. In SMILE, the corneal vertex of the coaxially fixating eye was aligned with the vertex of the curved contact glass. In LASIK, the treatment was centered on the coaxially sighted corneal light reflex (first Purkinje image) with the contralateral eye (Seiler method). A tangential (...) Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) for Hyperopia: Optical Zone Centration. To evaluate optical zone centration of hyperopic small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE).This prospective study of 60 consecutive hyperopic SMILE procedures used the VisuMax femtosecond laser and matched LASIK procedures with the VisuMax and MEL 80 excimer lasers (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany). Inclusion criteria were maximum attempted hyperopic meridian of between +1.00 and +7.00 diopters (D

2017 Journal of Refractive Surgery

15. Congenital Cavitary Optic Disc Anomaly and Axenfeld’s Anomaly in Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature (PubMed)

of the anterior eyelid lamellae, euryblepharon, lagophthalmos with poor Bell's reflex and exposure keratopathy, hypertelorism, Axenfeld's anomaly, megalopapillae, and cavitary optic disc anomaly.We describe the ocular phenotype of a patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, including the rare descriptions and photographs of Axenfeld's anomaly, megalopapilla, and cavitary optic disc anomaly in this condition. (...) Congenital Cavitary Optic Disc Anomaly and Axenfeld’s Anomaly in Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome caused by a heterozygous deletion on chromosome 4p16.3 and is characterized by a "Greek warrior helmet" facies, hypotonia, developmental delay, seizures, structural central nervous system defects, intrauterine growth restriction, sketelal anomalies, cardiac defects, abnormal tooth development, and hearing loss

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2017 Ophthalmic genetics

16. Do you see what I see? Optical morphology and visual capability of ‘disco’ clams (Ctenoides ales) (PubMed)

Do you see what I see? Optical morphology and visual capability of ‘disco’ clams (Ctenoides ales) The 'disco' clam Ctenoides ales (Finlay, 1927) is a marine bivalve that has a unique, vivid flashing display that is a result of light scattering by silica nanospheres and rapid mantle movement. The eyes of C. ales were examined to determine their visual capabilities and whether the clams can see the flashing of conspecifics. Similar to the congener C. scaber, C. ales exhibits an off-response (...) (shadow reflex) and an on-response (light reflex). In field observations, a shadow caused a significant increase in flash rate from a mean of 3.9 Hz to 4.7 Hz (P=0.0016). In laboratory trials, a looming stimulus, which increased light intensity, caused a significant increase in flash rate from a median of 1.8 Hz to 2.2 Hz (P=0.0001). Morphological analysis of the eyes of C. ales revealed coarsely-packed photoreceptors lacking sophisticated structure, resulting in visual resolution that is likely too

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2017 Biology open

17. Imaging optical scattering of butterfly wing scales with a microscope (PubMed)

Imaging optical scattering of butterfly wing scales with a microscope A new optical method is proposed to investigate the reflectance of structurally coloured objects, such as Morpho butterfly wing scales and cholesteric liquid crystals. Using a reflected-light microscope and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, we have successfully measured the two-dimensional reflection pattern of individual wing scales of Morpho butterflies. We demonstrate that this method enables us to measure (...) the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The scattering image observed in the back focal plane of the objective is projected onto the camera sensor by inserting a Bertrand lens in the optical path of the microscope. With monochromatic light illumination, we quantify the angle-dependent reflectance spectra from the wing scales of Morpho rhetenor by retrieving the raw signal from the digital camera sensor. We also demonstrate that the polarization-dependent reflection of individual wing scales

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2017 Interface focus

18. GABAergic ventrolateral pre-optic nucleus neurons are involved in the mediation of the anesthetic hypnosis induced by propofol (PubMed)

GABAergic ventrolateral pre-optic nucleus neurons are involved in the mediation of the anesthetic hypnosis induced by propofol Intravenous anesthetics have been used clinically to induce unconsciousness for seventeen decades, however the mechanism of anesthetic‑induced unconsciousness remains to be fully elucidated. It has previously been demonstrated that anesthetics exert sedative effects by acting on endoge-nous sleep‑arousal circuits. However, few studies focus on the ventrolateral pre (...) ‑optic (VLPO) to locus coeruleus (LC) sleep‑arousal pathway. The present study aimed to investigate if VLPO is involved in unconsciousness induced by propofol. The present study additionally investigated if the inhibitory effect of propofol on LC neurons was mediated by activating VLPO neurons. Microinjection, target lesion and extracellular single‑unit recordings were used to study the role of the VLPO‑LC pathway in propofol anesthesia. The results demonstrated that GABAA agonist (THIP) or GABAA

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2017 Molecular medicine reports

19. THE MOTOR IMPULSE ELICITED BY THE RETINAL STIMULUS AND THE BINOCULAR OPTICAL REFLEXES (PubMed)

THE MOTOR IMPULSE ELICITED BY THE RETINAL STIMULUS AND THE BINOCULAR OPTICAL REFLEXES 18143025 2007 12 27 2018 12 01 0007-1161 33 10 1949 Oct The British journal of ophthalmology Br J Ophthalmol The motor impulse elicited by the retinal stimulus and the binocular optical reflexes. 629-35 WINKELMAN J E JE eng Journal Article England Br J Ophthalmol 0421041 0007-1161 OM Humans Reflex Retina physiology Vision, Binocular Vision, Ocular 4917:1133k REFLEX/ocular RETINA/physiology 1949 10 1 0 0 1949

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1949 The British journal of ophthalmology

20. On the Association of Gray Degeneration of the Optic Nerves with Abnormal Patellar-Tendon Reflexes (PubMed)

On the Association of Gray Degeneration of the Optic Nerves with Abnormal Patellar-Tendon Reflexes 25258990 2014 09 30 2014 10 03 0065-9533 4 1885 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc On the Association of Gray Degeneration of the Optic Nerves with Abnormal Patellar-Tendon Reflexes. 158-67 Norris W F WF eng Journal Article United States Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 7506106 0065-9533 2014 9 27 6 0 1885 1 1 0 0 1885 1 1 0 1 ppublish 25258990 PMC1326684

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1885 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society

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