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Odds Ratio

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1. Odds ratios deconstructed: A new way to understand and explain odds ratios as conditional risk ratios. (PubMed)

Odds ratios deconstructed: A new way to understand and explain odds ratios as conditional risk ratios. The aim of this analysis was to provide an alternative derivation of the odds ratio (OR) to provide an intuitive meaning, freeing it from any mention of odds, which may make it a more useful concept for clinicians to use when describing treatment effect.By examining the four possible combinations of treatment/control and corresponding outcomes, we considered the conditional risk ratio (RR (...) that the OR comparing the effect of treatment vs. control does not have the same clinical interpretability as RR because it involves ratios of odds and so is difficult to explain in terms of patient numbers. This new derivation provides an interpretation of the OR as an RR but conditional on treatment and control resulting in different outcomes. This may help explain the reason ORs cause interpretation difficulties in practice. Moreover, the OR may be a more clinically useful parameter to patients because it deals

2016 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

2. On the Reporting of Odds Ratios and Risk Ratios (PubMed)

On the Reporting of Odds Ratios and Risk Ratios 30332734 2018 11 14 2072-6643 10 10 2018 Oct 16 Nutrients Nutrients On the Reporting of Odds Ratios and Risk Ratios. E1512 10.3390/nu10101512 Pace Nelson D ND Center for Health Sciences, Exponent, Inc., Oakland, CA 94612, USA. npace@exponent.com. Multani Jasjit K JK 0000-0002-7886-6088 Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC 20036, USA. jmultani@exponent.com. eng Letter 2018 10 16 Switzerland Nutrients (...) 101521595 2072-6643 epidemiology logistic regression odds ratio relative risk risk ratio statistics 2018 09 27 2018 10 12 2018 10 19 6 0 2018 10 20 6 0 2018 10 20 6 0 epublish 30332734 nu10101512 10.3390/nu10101512 PMC6213310 J Natl Cancer Inst. 1951 Jun;11(6):1269-75 14861651 Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Apr 1;159(7):702-6 15033648 Nutrients. 2018 Aug 17;10(8):null 30126155 Am J Epidemiol. 1982 Sep;116(3):547-53 7124721 BMJ. 1998 Mar 28;316(7136):989-91 9550961 Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Nov 1;168(9):1073-81

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2018 Nutrients

3. Comments on 'Likelihood ratio and score tests to test the non-inferiority (or equivalence) of the odds ratio in a crossover study with binary outcomes'. (PubMed)

Comments on 'Likelihood ratio and score tests to test the non-inferiority (or equivalence) of the odds ratio in a crossover study with binary outcomes'. 27917554 2018 05 17 2018 12 02 1097-0258 36 1 2017 01 15 Statistics in medicine Stat Med Comments on 'Likelihood ratio and score tests to test the non-inferiority (or equivalence) of the odds ratio in a crossover study with binary outcomes'. 197-198 10.1002/sim.7086 Lui Kung-Jong KJ Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State (...) University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA, 92182-7720, U.S.A. eng Letter Comment England Stat Med 8215016 0277-6715 IM Stat Med. 2016 Sep 10;35(20):3471-81 27095359 Cross-Over Studies Humans Odds Ratio Sample Size Therapeutic Equivalency 2016 06 28 2016 07 26 2016 08 03 2016 12 6 6 0 2016 12 6 6 0 2018 5 18 6 0 ppublish 27917554 10.1002/sim.7086

2018 Statistics in medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4. A Most Odd Ratio: Interpreting and Describing Odds Ratios. (PubMed)

A Most Odd Ratio: Interpreting and Describing Odds Ratios. The OR is one of the most commonly used measures of association in preventive medicine, and yet it is unintuitive and easily misinterpreted by journal authors and readers.This article describes correct interpretations of ORs, explains how ORs are different from risk ratios (RRs), and notes potential supplements and alternatives to the presentation of ORs that may help readers avoid confusion about the strength of associations.ORs (...) are often interpreted as though they have the same meaning as RRs (i.e., ratios of probabilities rather than ratios of odds), an interpretation that is incorrect in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Without knowing the base rate of the outcome event in such analyses, it is impossible to evaluate the size of the absolute or relative change in risk associated with an OR, and misinterpreting the OR as an RR leads to the overestimation of the effect size when the outcome event is common rather than

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2016 American journal of preventive medicine

5. How to correct the odds ratio for lack of sensitivity and specificity. (PubMed)

How to correct the odds ratio for lack of sensitivity and specificity. This commentary explains and exemplifies a method to estimate the Odds Ratio-OR with a correction for possible errors in diagnosis. This procedure allows reassessing hypotheses of association between health outcomes and exposures when the database entails lack of accuracy, and the estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tool are available. Misclassification is not uncommon in dental public health research

2019 Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology

6. Statistical notes for clinical researchers: Risk difference, risk ratio, and odds ratio (PubMed)

Statistical notes for clinical researchers: Risk difference, risk ratio, and odds ratio 28194368 2018 11 13 2234-7658 42 1 2017 Feb Restorative dentistry & endodontics Restor Dent Endod Statistical notes for clinical researchers: Risk difference, risk ratio, and odds ratio. 72-76 10.5395/rde.2017.42.1.72 Kim Hae-Young HY Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Health Science, and Department of Public Health Sciences, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, Korea. eng Journal

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2017 Restorative dentistry & endodontics

7. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine (PubMed)

Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR) or odds ratios (OR) are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use (...) of the OR exclusively for case-control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as "the risk is X times greater," commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1) to review articles with cross-sectional

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2017 Frontiers in veterinary science

8. Odds ratios from logistic, geometric, Poisson, and negative binomial regression models. (PubMed)

Odds ratios from logistic, geometric, Poisson, and negative binomial regression models. The odds ratio (OR) is used as an important metric of comparison of two or more groups in many biomedical applications when the data measure the presence or absence of an event or represent the frequency of its occurrence. In the latter case, researchers often dichotomize the count data into binary form and apply the well-known logistic regression technique to estimate the OR. In the process of dichotomizing (...) the data, however, information is lost about the underlying counts which can reduce the precision of inferences on the OR.We propose analyzing the count data directly using regression models with the log odds link function. With this approach, the parameter estimates in the model have the exact same interpretation as in a logistic regression of the dichotomized data, yielding comparable estimates of the OR. We prove analytically, using the Fisher information matrix, that our approach produces more

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2018 BMC Medical Research Methodology

9. Mega-analysis of Odds Ratio: A Convergent Method for a Deep Understanding of the Genetic Evidence in Schizophrenia. (PubMed)

Mega-analysis of Odds Ratio: A Convergent Method for a Deep Understanding of the Genetic Evidence in Schizophrenia. Numerous high-throughput omics studies have been conducted in schizophrenia, providing an accumulated catalog of susceptible variants and genes. The results from these studies, however, are highly heterogeneous. The variants and genes nominated by different omics studies often have limited overlap with each other. There is thus a pressing need for integrative analysis to unify (...) the different types of data and provide a convergent view of schizophrenia candidate genes (SZgenes). In this study, we collected a comprehensive, multidimensional dataset, including 7819 brain-expressed genes. The data hosted genome-wide association evidence in genetics (eg, genotyping data, copy number variations, de novo mutations), epigenetics, transcriptomics, and literature mining. We developed a method named mega-analysis of odds ratio (MegaOR) to prioritize SZgenes. Application of MegaOR

2018 Schizophrenia bulletin

10. A comparison of seven random‐effects models for meta‐analyses that estimate the summary odds ratio (PubMed)

A comparison of seven random‐effects models for meta‐analyses that estimate the summary odds ratio Comparative trials that report binary outcome data are commonly pooled in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. This type of data can be presented as a series of 2-by-2 tables. The pooled odds ratio is often presented as the outcome of primary interest in the resulting meta-analysis. We examine the use of 7 models for random-effects meta-analyses that have been proposed for this purpose

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2018 Statistics in medicine

11. Evaluation on prognostic efficacy of lymph nodes ratio (LNR) and log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) in complicated colon cancer: the first study in emergency surgery (PubMed)

Evaluation on prognostic efficacy of lymph nodes ratio (LNR) and log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) in complicated colon cancer: the first study in emergency surgery Lymph node involvement is one of the most important prognostic factors in colon cancer. Twelve is considered the minimum number of lymph nodes necessary to retain reliable tumour staging, but several factors can potentially influence the lymph node harvesting. Emergent surgery for complicated colon cancer (perforation (...) , occlusion, bleeding) could represent an obstacle to reach the benchmark of 12 nodes with an accurate lymphadenectomy. So, an efficient classification system of lymphatic involvement is crucial to define the prognosis, the indication to adjuvant therapy and the follow-up. This is the first study with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of lymph nodes ratio (LNR) and log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) in the prognostic assessment of patients who undergo to urgent surgery for complicated colonic

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2018 World journal of surgical oncology

12. Why Odds Ratios Can Be Tricky Statistics: The Case of Finasteride, Dutasteride, and Sexual Dysfunction. (PubMed)

Why Odds Ratios Can Be Tricky Statistics: The Case of Finasteride, Dutasteride, and Sexual Dysfunction. Finasteride and dutasteride are 5α-reductase inhibitor drugs that are used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in men with BPH show that these drugs impair libido and cause erectile dysfunction. Meta-analyses of the RCTs confirm the findings, estimating odds ratio (OR) values for these adverse effects at around 1.50. A problem with meta (...) -analyses that do not report absolute risks with drug vs placebo and that extract ORs instead of relative risks (RRs) from RCT data is that it is hard for the reader to know how to interpret the findings and communicate them to patients. Had the RR been 1.50, the reader would conclude that the risk with drug is 50% higher than the risk with placebo; this is easily understood because the risk with placebo would be available from the RCTs. In contrast, an OR of 1.50 means that the odds with drug are 50

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2018 Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

13. Comments on 'Test non-inferiority (and equivalence) based on the odds ratio under a simple crossover trial'. (PubMed)

Comments on 'Test non-inferiority (and equivalence) based on the odds ratio under a simple crossover trial'. 27264023 2018 04 23 2018 12 02 1097-0258 35 16 2016 07 20 Statistics in medicine Stat Med Comments on 'Test non-inferiority (and equivalence) based on the odds ratio under a simple crossover trial'. 2845-6 10.1002/sim.6855 Lui Kung-Jong KJ Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, 92182-7720, USA. eng Letter Comment England Stat Med 8215016 0277 (...) -6715 IM Stat Med. 2011 May 20;30(11):1230-42 21538451 Cross-Over Studies Humans Odds Ratio Sample Size Therapeutic Equivalency 2015 09 28 2015 12 01 2016 6 7 6 0 2016 6 7 6 0 2018 4 24 6 0 ppublish 27264023 10.1002/sim.6855

2018 Statistics in medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

14. What is an Odds Ratio? What does it mean?

What is an Odds Ratio? What does it mean? What is an Odds Ratio? What does it mean? | Evidence-Based Nursing We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword (...) Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here What is an Odds Ratio? What does it mean? Article Text Research made simple What is an Odds Ratio? What does it mean? Free Allison Shorten , Brett Shorten Statistics from Altmetric.com When we read the results of healthcare research, we often read about relationships or associations between different

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2015 Evidence-Based Nursing

15. Prevalence Odds Ratio versus Prevalence Ratio: Choice Comes with Consequences (PubMed)

Prevalence Odds Ratio versus Prevalence Ratio: Choice Comes with Consequences Odds ratio, risk ratio, and prevalence ratio are some of the measures of association which are often reported in research studies quantifying the relationship between an independent variable and the outcome of interest. There has been much debate on the issue of which measure is appropriate to report depending on the study design. However, the literature on selecting a particular category of the outcome to be modeled (...) and/or change in reference group for categorical independent variables and the effect on statistical significance, although known, is scantly discussed nor published with examples. In this article, we provide an example of a cross-sectional study wherein prevalence ratio was chosen over (Prevalence) odds ratio and demonstrate the analytic implications of the choice of category to be modeled and choice of reference level for independent variables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Copyright © 2016 John

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2016 Statistics in medicine

16. Likelihood Ratio and Score Tests to Test the Non-inferiority (or Equivalence) of the Odds Ratio in a Crossover Study with Binary Outcomes (PubMed)

Likelihood Ratio and Score Tests to Test the Non-inferiority (or Equivalence) of the Odds Ratio in a Crossover Study with Binary Outcomes We consider the non-inferiority (or equivalence) test of the odds ratio (OR) in a crossover study with binary outcomes to evaluate the treatment effects of two drugs. To solve this problem, Lui and Chang (2011) proposed both an asymptotic method and a conditional method based on a random effects logit model. Kenward and Jones (1987) proposed a likelihood (...) ratio test (LRTM ) based on a log linear model. These existing methods are all subject to model misspecification. In this paper, we propose a likelihood ratio test (LRT) and a score test that are independent of model specification. Monte Carlo simulation studies show that, in scenarios considered in this paper, both the LRT and the score test have higher power than the asymptotic and conditional methods for the non-inferiority test; the LRT, score, and asymptotic methods have similar power

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2016 Statistics in medicine

17. Beta-binomial model for meta-analysis of odds ratios. (PubMed)

Beta-binomial model for meta-analysis of odds ratios. In meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), heterogeneity between the studies is usually modelled via the additive random effects model (REM). An alternative, multiplicative REM for ORs uses overdispersion. The multiplicative factor in this overdispersion model (ODM) can be interpreted as an intra-class correlation (ICC) parameter. This model naturally arises when the probabilities of an event in one or both arms of a comparative study

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2017 Statistics in medicine

18. What is the most accurate lymph node staging method for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma? Comparison of UICC/AJCC pN stage, number of metastatic lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, and log odds of metastatic lymph nodes. (PubMed)

What is the most accurate lymph node staging method for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma? Comparison of UICC/AJCC pN stage, number of metastatic lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, and log odds of metastatic lymph nodes. We compared the prognostic performance of the International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) 7th edition pN stage, number of metastatic LNs (MLNs), LN ratio (LNR), and log odds of MLNs (LODDS) in patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PCC

2017 European Journal of Surgical Oncology

19. Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer. (PubMed)

Opium and bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the odds ratios for opium use and the risk of bladder cancer. The association between opium use and bladder cancer has been investigated in many studies, with varying reporting results reported. This study aims to estimate the total odds ratio for the association between bladder cancer and opium consumption using meta-analysis.The study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched (...) method. Fixed or random effect models were applied to combine the point odds ratios. The heterogeneity between the primary results was assessed using the Cochran test and I-square index. The suspected factors for heterogeneity were investigated using meta-regression models. An Egger test was conducted to identify any probable publication bias. Forest plots illustrated the point and pooled estimates. All analyses were performed using Stata version 14 software and RevMan version 5.3.We included 17

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2017 PloS one

20. The prognostic value of lymph node ratio and log odds of positive lymph nodes in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. (PubMed)

The prognostic value of lymph node ratio and log odds of positive lymph nodes in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. To investigate whether lymph node ratio and log odds ratio can be used for predicting the prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma.A total of 1097 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent complete surgical resection and systematic lymph node dissection between 2008 and 2013 were studied retrospectively. Lymph node ratio was calculated as: positive lymph nodes total (...)  lymph nodes . Log odds ratio was calculated as: logpositivelymph nodes+0.5total lymph nodes-positive lymph nodes+0.5. Patients were grouped respectively into 4 groups by the use of recursive partitioning according to their lymph node ratio and log odds ratio. Linear trend χ2 test was used for measuring monotonicity and discriminatory power.The 3-year survival rate was 91.0% (89.9%-92.1%) for group 0, 75.2% (71.4%-79.0%) for group 1, 56.5% (51.5%-61.5%) for group 2, and 41.4% (36.4%-46.4%) for group

2017 Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

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