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1. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Obsessive-compulsive disorder Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: December 2018 Summary Obsessions and/or compulsions that cause marked distress, are time consuming (take more than 1 hour per day), or interfere substantially with the person's normal routine, occupational or academic functioning, or usual (...) social activities or relationships. If the content of the obsessions or compulsions is limited to the scope of another psychiatric disorder, such as an obsession with food in the context of an eating disorder, then an additional diagnosis of OCD should not be made. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale is useful in grading severity initially and following trials of therapy. Patients tend to seek treatment from 3 to 4 doctors and spend on average around 9 years in treatment before a correct

2018 BMJ Best Practice

3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Obsessive-compulsive disorder Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: December 2018 Summary Obsessions and/or compulsions that cause marked distress, are time consuming (take more than 1 hour per day), or interfere substantially with the person's normal routine, occupational or academic functioning, or usual (...) social activities or relationships. If the content of the obsessions or compulsions is limited to the scope of another psychiatric disorder, such as an obsession with food in the context of an eating disorder, then an additional diagnosis of OCD should not be made. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale is useful in grading severity initially and following trials of therapy. Patients tend to seek treatment from 3 to 4 doctors and spend on average around 9 years in treatment before a correct

2017 BMJ Best Practice

4. Immune-Related Comorbidities in Childhood-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Lifetime Prevalence in the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Collaborative Genetics Association Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immune-Related Comorbidities in Childhood-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Lifetime Prevalence in the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Collaborative Genetics Association Study. Objective: To evaluate the lifetime prevalence of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders in a multisite study of probands with childhood-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and their first-degree relatives. Methods: Medical questionnaires were completed by 1401 probands and 1045 first-degree relatives (...) in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study. Lifetime prevalence of immune-related diseases was compared with the highest available population estimate and reported as a point estimate with 95% adjusted Wald interval. Worst-episode OCD severity and symptom dimensions were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) and Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-CL). Results: Probands reported higher-than-expected prevalence of scarlet fever (4.0 [3.1-5.2]% vs. 1.0%-2.0%, z = 1.491, p < 0.001, n

2019 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

5. Acute effects of aerobic exercise on negative affect and obsessions and compulsions in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute effects of aerobic exercise on negative affect and obsessions and compulsions in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The acute effects of aerobic exercise on improved mood and anxiety reduction have been demonstrated across clinical and nonclinical populations. Limited work has evaluated the acute effects of aerobic exercise on negative affect, obsessions, and compulsions in patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).Fifty-five patients (64% female) with treatment (...) -resistant OCD were randomized to either 12 weeks of aerobic exercise (AE) or health education contact (HEC) control. Participants rated negative affect (i.e., mood and anxiety), obsessions and compulsions before and after each weekly AE or HEC session. Multilevel models were constructed to evaluate the effect of intervention condition, treatment week (time), and their interaction in terms of acute change in affect, obsession, and compulsions.Results reflected a main effect of condition, such that AE

2019 Journal of Affective Disorders Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6. Comparing escitaloipram with sertraline for obsessive and compulsive symptoms in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: A comparative double blind clinical trial. (Abstract)

Comparing escitaloipram with sertraline for obsessive and compulsive symptoms in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: A comparative double blind clinical trial. Escitalopram has some unique features among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The aim of this survey is to compare the efficacy of escitalopram with sertraline on obsessive and compulsive symptoms in patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).In this 12-week double blind controlled randomized clinical trial, 57 (...) patients with OCD were randomly allocated to receive escitalopram or sertraline. Yale Brown obsessive compulsive behavior scale (YBOCS) was used to assess the outcomes. Adverse effects were also recorded.41 patients (20 in the escitalopram group and 21 in the sertraline group) completed the trial. In the escitalopram group 15 (70%) patients and in the sertraline group 16 (76.19%) patients showed more than 34% decrease in mean YBOCS score at the end of the trial (P=0.531). The two groups revealed

2018 Asian Journal of Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7. The Relationship between Obsessive Compulsive Personality and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Outcomes: Predictive Utility and Clinically Significant Change. (Abstract)

The Relationship between Obsessive Compulsive Personality and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Treatment Outcomes: Predictive Utility and Clinically Significant Change. The evidence regarding whether co-morbid obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is associated with treatment outcomes in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is mixed, with some research indicating that OCPD is associated with poorer response, and some showing that it is associated with improved response.We sought (...) to explore the role of OCPD diagnosis and the personality domain of conscientiousness on treatment outcomes for exposure and response prevention for OCD.The impact of co-morbid OCPD and conscientiousness on treatment outcomes was examined in a clinical sample of 46 participants with OCD.OCPD diagnosis and scores on conscientiousness were not associated with poorer post-treatment OCD severity, as indexed by Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) scores, although the relative sample size of OCPD

2018 Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

8. Criterion Validity of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Second Edition for Diagnosis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults Full Text available with Trip Pro

Criterion Validity of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Second Edition for Diagnosis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults Background: While the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Second Edition (Y-BOCS-II) is the gold-standard for measurement of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom severity, its factor structure is still a matter of debate and, most importantly, criterion validity for diagnosis of OC disorder (OCD) has not been tested. This study aimed to clarify factor structure (...) patients and the 18 patients with other diagnoses, PY-BOCS-II was applied by clinicians blinded to diagnosis. Results: PY-BOCS-II had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.96) and very good test-retest reliability (Pearson's r = 0.94). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure with loadings consistent with the Obsessions and Compulsions subscales, and there was good to acceptable convergent and divergent validity. Importantly, the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver

2018 Frontiers in Psychiatry

9. The Effect of Atorvastatin on Obsessive-compulsive Symptoms of Refractory Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (Add-on Therapy) Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Effect of Atorvastatin on Obsessive-compulsive Symptoms of Refractory Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (Add-on Therapy) Considering the effect of statins on the regulation of dopamine neurotransmitters and glutamates and importance of the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to its relatively high prevalence and disability of available drugs in treatment of many patients, we came to the point to examine effectiveness of statins in patients with OCD.This study is a double-blind (...) randomized clinical trial, which is done in OCD clinic of Isfahan Shariati in 2014 for 1 year. The target population consists of 64 patients with OCD; one group is given a daily 40 mg atorvastatin tablets and the other group receives placebo. At baseline, 4- and 8-week severities of obsessive-compulsive symptoms are measured using Yale-Brown scale and compared in the two groups.The study results show a statistically significant difference between the two groups of intervention and control (P < 0.001

2018 Advanced biomedical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10. Dissecting the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale severity scale to understand the routes for symptomatic improvement in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (Abstract)

Dissecting the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale severity scale to understand the routes for symptomatic improvement in obsessive-compulsive disorder. We aimed to investigate which items of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Severity Scale best discriminate the reduction in total scores in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients after 4 and 12 weeks of pharmacological treatment. Data from 112 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients who received fluoxetine (⩽80 mg/day) for 12 weeks were (...) included. Improvement indices were built for each Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Severity Scale item at two timeframes: from baseline to week 4 and from baseline to week 12. Indices for each item were correlated with the total scores for obsessions and compulsions and then ranked by correlation coefficient. A correlation coefficient ⩾0.7 was used to identify items that contributed significantly to reducing obsessive-compulsive disorder severity. At week 4, the distress items reached the threshold

2018 Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of telephone cognitive-behaviour therapy for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cost-effectiveness analysis of telephone cognitive-behaviour therapy for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Telephone cognitive-behaviour therapy (TCBT) may be a cost-effective method for improving access to evidence-based treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in young people.AimsEconomic evaluation of TCBT compared with face-to-face CBT for OCD in young people.Randomised non-inferiority trial comparing TCBT with face-to-face CBT for 72 young people (aged 11 to 18 (...) ) with a diagnosis of OCD. Cost-effectiveness at 12-month follow-up was explored in terms of the primary clinical outcome (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, CY-BOCS) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (trial registration: ISRCTN27070832).Total health and social care costs were higher for face-to-face CBT (mean total cost £2965, s.d. = £1548) than TCBT (mean total cost £2475, s.d. = £1024) but this difference was non-significant (P = 0.118). There were no significant between-group differences

2019 BJPsych open Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12. Illness perceptions in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder; A qualitative study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Illness perceptions in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder; A qualitative study. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious mental health problem that causes significant impairment and reduced quality of life. Though some substantially benefit from psychological therapies, a substantial proportion of people with OCD disengage from treatment or fail to benefit. Theoretical models such as the Common-Sense Model posit that our management of physical illness depends on our perceptions (...) about the condition. Identifying how people with OCD perceive their condition could lead to important insight that would improve treatment of OCD.To identify and characterise the illness perceptions of people with OCD.Transcribed semi-structured interviews exploring the illness perceptions of 16 people with OCD were analysed using thematic analysis.In some cases, identification of symptoms was hindered by a failure to interpret experiences as 'symptoms'. Instead, these individuals interpreted

2019 PLoS ONE

13. Efficacy and Safety of Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Prospective Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial (Abstract)

Efficacy and Safety of Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Prospective Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling condition that often responds unsatisfactorily to pharmacological and psychological treatments. Converging evidence suggests a dysfunction of the cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuit in OCD, and a previous feasibility study indicated beneficial effects (...) Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), and the primary efficacy endpoint was the change in score from baseline to posttreatment assessment. Additional measures were response rates (defined as a reduction of ≥30% in YBOCS score) at the posttreatment assessment and after another month of follow-up.Eighty-nine percent of the active treatment group and 96% of the sham treatment group completed the study. The reduction in YBOCS score among patients who received active dTMS treatment was significantly greater

2019 EvidenceUpdates

14. [Deep brain stimulation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome]

[Deep brain stimulation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome] Estimulación cerebral profunda para pacientes con trastorno depresivo, trastorno obsesivo compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette resistentes al tratamiento [Deep brain stimulation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome] Estimulación cerebral profunda para pacientes con trastorno depresivo (...) , trastorno obsesivo compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette resistentes al tratamiento [Deep brain stimulation in patients with treatment-resistant depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome] Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Estimulación cerebral profunda para pacientes con trastorno depresivo, trastorno

2015 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

15. Comparison of the Association Between Goal-Directed Planning and Self-reported Compulsivity vs Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Diagnosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of the Association Between Goal-Directed Planning and Self-reported Compulsivity vs Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Diagnosis. Dimensional definitions of transdiagnostic mental health problems have been suggested as an alternative to categorical diagnoses, having the advantage of capturing heterogeneity within diagnostic categories and similarity across them and bridging more naturally psychological and neural substrates.To examine whether a self-reported compulsivity dimension has (...) a stronger association with goal-directed and related higher-order cognitive deficits compared with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).In this cross-sectional study, patients with OCD and/or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) from across the United States completed a telephone-based diagnostic interview by a trained rater, internet-based cognitive testing, and self-reported clinical assessments from October 8, 2015, to October 1, 2017. Follow-up data were collected to test

2019 JAMA psychiatry (Chicago, Ill.)

16. Interoceptive deficits in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder in the time course of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interoceptive deficits in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder in the time course of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Interoception is impaired in different psychiatric disorders and is also associated with emotions. Only one study could show a higher interoceptive accuracy (IAcc) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on the predictive coding system we assume contrary results, indicating a decreased IAcc in patients with OCD. So far, there is no study investigating

2019 PLoS ONE

17. Validating a dimension of doubt in decision-making: A proposed endophenotype for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Validating a dimension of doubt in decision-making: A proposed endophenotype for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Doubt is subjective uncertainty about one's perceptions and recall. It can impair decision-making and is a prominent feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We propose that evaluation of doubt during decision-making provides a useful endophenotype with which to study the underlying pathophysiology of OCD and potentially other psychopathologies. For the current study, we (...) ; and OCD diagnosis lower than controls. At higher levels of dot coherence, OCD participants exhibited significantly slower drift rates than did controls (q<0.05 for 30%, and 45% coherence; q<0.01 for 70% coherence). In addition, at higher levels of coherence, high doubt subjects exhibited even slower drift rates and reaction times than low doubt subjects (q<0.01 for 70% coherence). Moreover, under high coherence conditions, individuals with high doubt scores reported lower certainty in their decisions

2019 PLoS ONE

18. A randomized waitlist-controlled trial comparing detached mindfulness and cognitive restructuring in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A randomized waitlist-controlled trial comparing detached mindfulness and cognitive restructuring in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Whereas research has demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive restructuring (CR) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), little is known about the efficacy of specific metacognitive interventions such as detached mindfulness (DM). Therefore, this study compared the efficacy of CR and DM as stand-alone interventions.We conducted a randomized waitlist-controlled trial (...) . n = 43 participants were randomly assigned to either DM or CR. Out of those participants, n = 21 participants had been previously assigned to a two-week waitlist condition.In both conditions, treatment comprised four double sessions within two weeks. Assessment took place at baseline (Pre1), after treatment (Post) and four weeks after the end of treatment (FU). There was a second baseline assessment (Pre2) in the waitlist group. Independent evaluators were blinded concerning the active condition

2019 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

19. Neurocognitive assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder patients: Adherence to behavioral decision models. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neurocognitive assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder patients: Adherence to behavioral decision models. In economics, models of decision-making under risk are widely investigated. Since many empirical studies have shown patterns in choice behavior that classical models fail to predict, several descriptive theories have been developed. Due to an evident phenotypic heterogeneity, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have shown a general deficit in decision making when compared

2019 PLoS ONE

20. A unique increase in prefrontal gray matter volume in hoarding disorder compared to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A unique increase in prefrontal gray matter volume in hoarding disorder compared to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Hoarding disorder (HD) is a disease concept newly presented in DSM-5. As far as we know, no studies have examined the structural changes relevant to hoarding by applying the diagnostic criteria of HD in DSM-5. In the present study, we aimed to find abnormalities in gray matter (GM) structures of patients with HD.Seventeen patients who met the DSM-5 criteria for HD, 17 obsessive (...) -compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and 17 healthy controls (HCs) participated in this study. All participants underwent MRI scanning of the brain by a 3.0-Tesla MRI scanner. In a voxel-based morphometric procedure, preprocessed GM structural images were used to compare the three groups. Thereafter we investigated the correlation between the clinical data (age of onset, symptomatic severity) and GM volume.The HD group showed a significantly increased GM volume compared to the OCD and healthy control

2018 PLoS ONE

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