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Observed Affect

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141. Hypoalbuminemia after pancreaticoduodenectomy does not predict or affect short-term postoperative prognosis. (Full text)

Hypoalbuminemia after pancreaticoduodenectomy does not predict or affect short-term postoperative prognosis. Hypoalbuminemia (HA) is a risk factor for the complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). This study aimed to explore the factors that affect HA following PD and evaluate the influence of HA on the short-term postoperative prognosis.Total 163 patients who underwent PD and met inclusion criteria were subdivided into two groups according to the status of HA. The relationships (...) grade, postoperative intraperitoneal hemorrhage and pancreatic fistula. No significant differences were observed between the complications and30-day mortality rates with and without postoperative HA.HA after PD should not be considered as an indicator but rather a result of poor prognosis. WBCs, especially neutrophils, are involved in reducing postoperative ALB level. Infusion of exogenous ALB to maintain ALB > 30 g/L could not improve clinical outcomes.

2020 BMC Surgery PubMed abstract

142. Stressful experiences affect the course of co-occurring obsessive-compulsive and psychotic symptoms: A focus on within-subject processes. (Abstract)

Stressful experiences affect the course of co-occurring obsessive-compulsive and psychotic symptoms: A focus on within-subject processes. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) frequently occur in patients with psychotic disorders and are associated with higher burden and poorer prognosis. This study prospectively investigated the effect of stressful experiences on the severity of OCS and co-occurring psychotic and affective symptoms, with a focus on within-subject processes.Monthly assessments (...) over 6 months in patients with a psychotic disorder (n = 56) and unaffected siblings (n = 49) resulted in 309 and 277 observations, respectively. Linear mixed-effects models investigated the disaggregated effects of within-subject changes and between-subject differences in stressful events on OCS, positive, negative and depressive symptoms. Subsequently, moderating effects of coping strategies and dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs were assessed. Mediation analyses investigated direct and indirect

2020 Schizophrenia Research

143. Psychological outcomes affect functional outcomes in patients with severe pelvic ring fractures. (Abstract)

Psychological outcomes affect functional outcomes in patients with severe pelvic ring fractures. To evaluate the correlation between post-traumatic functional and psychological outcomes in patients with severe pelvic ring injuries.Forty-four patients who sustained a completely unstable pelvic ring injury (Tile C, AO/OTA 61C) treated in our institution from 2012 to 2017 were included. A telephone interview was performed in 16 of 44 patients to evaluate pelvic functionality, using the Majeed (...)  ± 14, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between functional and psychological outcomes (P < 0.005). Majeed score was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms (r = -0.721, P = 0.002) and anxiety symptoms (r = -0.756, P = 0.001). Depression and anxiety scores were positively correlated (r = 0.945, P < 0.001).Lower functional outcomes in patients with Tile C pelvic injuries were correlated with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety. We recommend that providers consider

2020 Injury

144. Baseline Age and Mean Deviation Affect the Rate of Glaucomatous Vision Loss. (Abstract)

Baseline Age and Mean Deviation Affect the Rate of Glaucomatous Vision Loss. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the rate of the glaucomatous visual field (VF) worsening and baseline age and baseline VF mean deviation (MD).This study was a retrospective, multisite cohort.A total of 84,711 reliable Swedish Interactive Thresholding Algorithm 24-2 VF tests from 8167 eyes from 5644 patients with ≥6 VF tests, ≥5 years of follow-up, baseline age 18 years or above (...) -progressing group by a factor of 1.033, and each unit increase in baseline MD (less severe visual loss) decreased the odds by a factor of 0.8821. The mean pointwise TDR ranged from -0.21 to -0.55 dB/y, with the most rapid pointwise progression observed in the nasal and paracentral regions of the field.Older age and worse MD at baseline are associated with more rapid VF progression in this large dataset. The effect of age on MDR is influenced by baseline MD severity, supporting the importance of early

2020 Journal of Glaucoma

145. Does three-dimensional surgery affect recurrence patterns in patients with gastric cancer after laparoscopic R0 gastrectomy? Results from a 3-year follow-up phase III trial. (Abstract)

patients were recruited for a phase III clinical trial (NCT02327481), which compared the short-term outcomes between the 2D and 3D groups. The long-term efficacy including recurrence patterns was compared between the 2D and 3D groups in this retrospective study. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine whether 3D-LG affects the recurrence patterns.Ultimately, 401 patients were analyzed (197 in the 2D-LG group and 204 in the 3D-LG group), and no differences were observed (...) Does three-dimensional surgery affect recurrence patterns in patients with gastric cancer after laparoscopic R0 gastrectomy? Results from a 3-year follow-up phase III trial. Numerous studies have shown that the short-term efficacy of three-dimensional (3D) laparoscopic radical gastrectomy (LG) is comparable to that of two-dimensional (2D)-LG. Whether 3D-LG affects the recurrence patterns of gastric cancer (GC) patients has not been investigated.From January 2015 to April 2016, a total of 419

2020 Surgical endoscopy

146. Maternal smoking during pregnancy affects adult onset of asthma in offspring: a follow up from birth to age 46 years. (Abstract)

Maternal smoking during pregnancy affects adult onset of asthma in offspring: a follow up from birth to age 46 years. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure increases asthma risk in children. There is limited knowledge of prenatal ETS for adult-onset asthma.To determine the association between prenatal ETS and adult onset asthma.The questionnaire and clinical data of 5200 people, free of physician-diagnosed asthma by 31 years of age, who were included in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort (...) 0.10).Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with the cumulative incidence of asthma in offspring between the ages of 31 and 46 years. The association was accentuated in offspring who at age 31, reported having past respiratory problems and/or who had haplotype rs11702779-AA. A reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio was also observed at age 31 years in offspring with gestational smoke exposure. These results could reflect the early vulnerability of offspring's airways to ETS and its putative long

2020 European Respiratory Journal

147. A prospective evaluation of factors affecting occlusal stability of Class II correction with Twin-block followed by fixed appliances. (Abstract)

A prospective evaluation of factors affecting occlusal stability of Class II correction with Twin-block followed by fixed appliances. Modified Twin-block therapy followed by fixed appliances (TBFA) is a standard treatment modality in Class II malocclusion; however, there is little information regarding the stability of this approach. We aimed to assess the stability of Class II correction with TBFA and to evaluate factors that may affect stability.A prospective evaluation involving convenience (...) discrepancy, and change in overjet during treatment.Mean overjet reduction of 6.22 mm arose during treatment, with the canine and molar relationships improving by 3.34 mm and 2.67 mm, respectively. In the 12 months posttreatment, a relapse of 0.67 mm and 0.06 mm in overjet and molar relationship, respectively, was observed, with 25% of subjects having overjet relapse of >1 mm. There is weak evidence that the treatment-induced change in overjet is linked with overjet relapse (P = 0.05; odds ratio, 0.67; 95

2020 American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics

148. Could orthodontic fixed appliances and excess weight affect gingival health in adolescents? (Abstract)

Could orthodontic fixed appliances and excess weight affect gingival health in adolescents? The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of being overweight or obese while wearing orthodontic fixed appliances on the prevalence of gingivitis in adolescents.A total of 334 adolescents, aged between 12 and 18 years, were recruited from 3 public schools in Cuiabá, Brazil. Participants were divided in dichotomized categories of body mass index (BMI) (under and normal weight or overweight (...) . In addition, excess weight seemed to be 2 times more relevant in predicting gingivitis than orthodontic fixed appliance usage. A strong positive correlation was observed between BMI (%) variation and gingival index (ρ = 0.97, P <0.001).Orthodontic fixed appliance usage and excess weight were associated with increased gingivitis in adolescents; BMI (%) variation was the most significant predictor of gingival inflammation.Copyright © 2019 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

2020 American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics

149. Activation of D1 receptors affects human reactivity and flexibility to valued cues. (Abstract)

Activation of D1 receptors affects human reactivity and flexibility to valued cues. Reward-predicting cues motivate goal-directed behavior, but in unstable environments humans must also be able to flexibly update cue-reward associations. While the capacity of reward cues to trigger motivation ('reactivity') as well as flexibility in cue-reward associations have been linked to the neurotransmitter dopamine in humans, the specific contribution of the dopamine D1 receptor family to these behaviors (...) remained elusive. To fill this gap, we conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pharmacological study testing the impact of three different doses of a novel D1 agonist (relative to placebo) on reactivity to reward-predicting cues (Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer) and flexibility of cue-outcome associations (reversal learning). We observed that the impact of the D1 agonist crucially depended on baseline working memory functioning, which has been identified as a proxy for baseline

2020 Neuropsychopharmacology

150. Molecular and clinical studies in 107 Noonan syndrome affected individuals with PTPN11 mutations. (Full text)

variants in this series were in exon 8 (c.922A > G, c.923A > G), observed in 22 of the affected. Congenital cardiac anomalies were present in 84% of the mutation-positive cohort, the majority being defects in the right side of the heart. The most common facial features were downward-slanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism and low-set posteriorly rotated ears. Other clinical features included short stature (40%), pectus excavatum (54%) and, in males, unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism (44 (...) %).The clinical features and mutational spectrum observed in our cohort are similar to those reported in other large studies done worldwide. This is the largest case series of NS-affected individuals with PTPN11 mutations described till date from India.

2020 BMC Medical Genetics PubMed abstract

151. The miR-155/GATA3/IL37 axis modulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines upon TNF-α stimulation to affect psoriasis development. (Abstract)

The miR-155/GATA3/IL37 axis modulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines upon TNF-α stimulation to affect psoriasis development. Psoriasis is a recrudescent chronic immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis; the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as TNF-α has been regarded as critical issues during psoriasis pathogenesis. Based on online microarray profiles, the expression of the transcription factor GATA3 was downregulated in psoriasis lesion tissues (...) . In the present study, we searched for miRNAs that might be related to TNF-α and GATA3 to investigate an in-depth understanding of psoriasis pathogenesis. Herein, higher TNF-α and GATA3 protein levels were observed in psoriasis lesion tissues and that GATA3 overexpression significantly reverses TNF-α-induced increases within the production of IL-6 and CXCL8 in keratinocytes. TNF-α stimulation increases miR-155 expression dose-independently, and the miR-155 inhibitor significantly reverses TNF-α-induced

2020 Experimental Dermatology

152. An observational, prospective, multicenter study on rescue high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in neonates failing with conventional ventilation. (Full text)

An observational, prospective, multicenter study on rescue high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in neonates failing with conventional ventilation. To achieve gas exchange goals and mitigate lung injury, infants who fail with conventional ventilation (CV) are generally switched to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Although preferred in many neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), research on this type of rescue HFOV has not been reported recently.An online registry database (...) for a multicenter, prospective study was set to evaluate factors affecting the response of newborn infants to rescue HFOV treatment. The study population consisted of 372 infants with CV failure after at least 4 hours of treatment in 23 participating NICUs. Patients were grouped according to their final outcome as survived (Group S) or as died or received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (Group D/E). Patients' demographic characteristics and underlying diseases in addition to their ventilator settings

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

153. Thumb and finger movement is reduced after stroke: An observational study. (Full text)

Thumb and finger movement is reduced after stroke: An observational study. Hand motor impairment is common after stroke but there are few comprehensive data on amount of hand movement. This study aimed to compare the amount of thumb and finger movement over an extended period of time in people with stroke and able-bodied people. Fifteen stroke subjects and 15 able-bodied control subjects participated. Stroke subjects had impaired hand function. Movement of the thumb and index finger (...) was recorded using stretch sensors worn on the affected hand (stroke subjects) or the left or right hand (control subjects) for ∼4 hours during the day. A digit movement was defined as a monotonic increase or decrease in consecutive sensor values. Instantaneous digit position was expressed as a percentage of maximal digit flexion. Mixed linear models were used to compare the following outcomes between groups: (1) average amplitude of digit movement, (2) digit cadence and average digit velocity, (3

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

154. Apoptosis contributes to protect germ cells from the oogenic germline starvation response but is not essential for the gonad shrinking or recovery observed during adult reproductive diapause in C. elegans. (Full text)

Apoptosis contributes to protect germ cells from the oogenic germline starvation response but is not essential for the gonad shrinking or recovery observed during adult reproductive diapause in C. elegans. When C. elegans hermaphrodites are deprived of food during the mid-L4 larval stage and throughout adulthood, they enter an alternative stage termed "adult reproductive diapause (ARD)" in which they halt reproduction and extend their lifespan. During ARD, germ cell proliferation stops (...) ; oogenesis is slowed; and the gonad shrinks progressively, which has been described as the "oogenic germline starvation response". Upon refeeding, the shrunken gonad is regenerated, and animals recover fertility and live out their remaining lifespan. Little is known about the effects of ARD on oocyte quality after ARD. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine how oocyte quality is affected after ARD by measuring brood size and embryonic lethality as a reflection of defective oocyte production. We

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

155. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Versus Observation in Radically Treated Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Randomized Phase III NVALT-11/DLCRG-02 Study (Full text)

brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging-were randomly assigned to either observation or PCI after concurrent/sequential chemoradiotherapy with or without surgery. The primary end point-development of symptomatic brain metastases at 24 months-was defined as one or a combination of key symptoms that suggest brain metastases-signs of increased intracranial pressure, headache, nausea and vomiting, cognitive or affective disturbances, seizures, and focal neurologic symptoms-and magnetic (...) Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Versus Observation in Radically Treated Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Randomized Phase III NVALT-11/DLCRG-02 Study Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) reduces the incidence of symptomatic brain metastases in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with curative intention. Patients and Methods Patients with stage III NSCLC-staged with a contrast-enhanced

2018 EvidenceUpdates PubMed abstract

156. Practice patterns and outcomes after stroke across countries at different economic levels (INTERSTROKE): an international observational study. (Full text)

Practice patterns and outcomes after stroke across countries at different economic levels (INTERSTROKE): an international observational study. Stroke disproportionately affects people in low-income and middle-income countries. Although improvements in stroke care and outcomes have been reported in high-income countries, little is known about practice and outcomes in low and middle-income countries. We aimed to compare patterns of care available and their association with patient outcomes across (...) countries at different economic levels.We studied the patterns and effect of practice variations (ie, treatments used and access to services) among participants in the INTERSTROKE study, an international observational study that enrolled 13 447 stroke patients from 142 clinical sites in 32 countries between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015. We supplemented patient data with a questionnaire about health-care and stroke service facilities at all participating hospitals. Using univariate and multivariate

2018 Lancet PubMed abstract

157. Causes and incidence of community-acquired serious infections among young children in south Asia (ANISA): an observational cohort study. (Full text)

Causes and incidence of community-acquired serious infections among young children in south Asia (ANISA): an observational cohort study. More than 500 000 neonatal deaths per year result from possible serious bacterial infections (pSBIs), but the causes are largely unknown. We investigated the incidence of community-acquired infections caused by specific organisms among neonates in south Asia.From 2011 to 2014, we identified babies through population-based pregnancy surveillance at five sites (...) to 46% of pSBI episodes, among which 92% were bacterial. 85 (83%) of 102 blood culture isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, or a combination of these drugs.Non-attribution of a cause in a high proportion of patients suggests that a substantial proportion of pSBI episodes might not have been due to infection. The predominance of bacterial causes among babies who died, however, indicates that appropriate prevention measures and management could substantially affect neonatal

2018 Lancet PubMed abstract

158. Relaxation of the one child policy and trends in caesarean section rates and birth outcomes in China between 2012 and 2016: observational study of nearly seven million health facility births. (Full text)

Relaxation of the one child policy and trends in caesarean section rates and birth outcomes in China between 2012 and 2016: observational study of nearly seven million health facility births. To examine how the relaxation of the one child policy and policies to reduce caesarean section rates might have affected trends over time in caesarean section rates and perinatal and pregnancy related mortality in China.Observational study.China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System (NMNMSS).6

2018 BMJ PubMed abstract

159. Time to initial cancer treatment in the United States and association with survival over time: An observational study. (Full text)

Time to initial cancer treatment in the United States and association with survival over time: An observational study. Delays in time to treatment initiation (TTI) for new cancer diagnoses cause patient distress and may adversely affect outcomes. We investigated trends in TTI for common solid tumors treated with curative intent, determinants of increased TTI and association with overall survival.We utilized prospective data from the National Cancer Database for newly diagnosed United States

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

160. The recovery rate from severe acute malnutrition among under-five years of children remains low in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. (Full text)

The recovery rate from severe acute malnutrition among under-five years of children remains low in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Globally, Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) has been reduced by only 11% over the past 20 years and continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. So far, in Sub-Saharan Africa, several primary studies have been conducted on recovery rate and determinants of recovery from SAM in under-five children (...) . However, comprehensive reviews that would have a shred of strong evidence for designing interventions are lacking. So, this review and meta-analysis was conducted to bridge this gap.A systematic review of observational studies published in the years between 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2018 was conducted following the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement. Two reviewers have been searched and extracted data from CINAHL (EBSCO), MEDLINE (via Ovid), Emcare, PubMed databases

2020 PloS one PubMed abstract

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