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Observed Affect

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102261. Effects of salicylate on intestinal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies with enterotoxigenic micro-organisms. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of salicylate on intestinal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies with enterotoxigenic micro-organisms. This study was done to determine whether salicylate could affect alterations in intestinal absorption induced by preparations of enterotoxigenic micro-organisms. It was found in rats that salicylate increased intestinal monosaccharide uptake in vitro and reversed the inhibitory effects induced by cell-free preparations of Staphylococcus sp., Candida sp. and Klebsiella sp. In vivo (...) , salicylates increased net water absorption in rat jejunum exposed to cell-free preparations of various micro-organisms. Increase in net fluid flux occurred after subcutaneous injection only with bacteria which stimulate adenylate cyclase activity. These observations suggest that the absorptive and anti-secretory effects of aspirin are cyclic nucleotide dependent. The potential clinical role of salicylates as anti-secretory agents in diarrhoeal diseases, particularly in children, requires further

1980 Gut

102262. A fraction (FAd) from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes depresses the immune response in mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A fraction (FAd) from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes depresses the immune response in mice. The primary immune response to SRBC in BALB/c mice was depressed when they were injected with a fraction (FAd) obtained from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes grown in LIT medium. Plaque-forming cell (PFC) number was 50% less than controls when FAd was injected i.v. 15 min before antigen in doses ranging from 70 microgram up to 400 microgram of protein. Similar depression was observed when 100 microgram (...) . The delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to DNFB was depressed when animals were injected either during the 3 days after sensitization or with a single dose of 100 microgram of protein of FAd on day of challenge. Bone marrow colony-forming units in spleens of mice injected with FAd were depressed and nodules in the treated animals were smaller than in controls. We conclude that FAd affects humoral and cell-mediated immune responses by interfering with cell division at some stage of the cell cycle.

1980 Immunology

102263. The in vitro discrimination of rat immune and natural cytotoxicity by serum choice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

workers have demonstrated that the choice of serum in which effector (EC) or target cells (TC) are prepared or tested may greatly influence the degree of killing (Irie, Irie & Morton, 1974; Zielske & Golub, 1976; Akira & Takasugi, 1977; Ortaldo, Bonnard & Herberman, 1977). It was found that high levels of rat normal effector cell (NEC) cytotoxicity against normal rat fibroblasts observed in the presence of foetal calf serum (FCS) were markedly reduced by the inclusion of normal rat serum (NRS (...) ). This effect on NEC activity was consistently noted in eleven batches of FCS and eight batches of NRS, whereas, normal human serum (NHuS) gave variable results. Decreased TC lysis was proportional to the concentration of NRS, was independent of heat inactivation and was primarily due to an effect on the EC population. The effects of FCS and NRS were not affected by prior absorption on TC or EC nor was NEC activity related to a proliferative response of EC during the 18-48 h microcytotoxicity assay employed

1980 Immunology

102264. Susceptibility of newborn mice with H-2k backgrounds to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Susceptibility of newborn mice with H-2k backgrounds to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Many strains of mice, when injected at birth with an ordinarily lethal dose of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), grow to adulthood despite maintaining a persistent virus infection and chronic virus-induced immune complex disease. Because the susceptibility to LCMV infection changed over several years of observation, a number of murine strains with different histocompatibiity gene loci (...) and genetic backgrounds were compared. Neonatal mice with H-2b, H-2d, and H-2q backgrounds were relatively insensitive to the effects of LCMV infection compared to mice with H-2k backgrounds, which had a high mortality rate in this situation. Expression of the H-2k gene locus itself did not affect the rate of mortality. Use of recombinant mice indicated that susceptibility was linked to H-2k backgrounds and not H-2k gene loci. The low survival rate of newborn mice with H-2k backgrounds infected with LCMV

1980 Immunology

102265. Gonadotrophin and the human secondary sex ratio. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gonadotrophin and the human secondary sex ratio. A review of published reports showed that the sex ratio (proportion of boys) was low among infants conceived after ovulation had been induced. The difference between the observed sex ratio and an expected one of 0 . 514 was highly significant. These findings suggest that maternal gonadotrophin concentrations at the time of conception directly affect the sex of the zygote.

1980 British medical journal

102266. Responses of Canine Lymphocytes to Allogeneic and Autologous Islets of Langerhans in Mixed Cell Cultures Full Text available with Trip Pro

(B'BI) led to exclusion of any reactivity against allogeneic lymphocytes, i.e., B'BI suppressed A + Bx, and B'BI also markedly suppressed phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphoproliferative responses. Experiments were performed that excluded the possibility that the insulin levels present in the MLIC, the presence of passenger lymphocytes in the islets, or the maintenance of islets in tissue culture for 1-7 d affected the observations. These results provide evidence for the existence of alloantigens (...) stimulating cells. The results showed that islets were autostimulatory, eliciting a tissue-specific lymphoproliferative response in a primary MLIC. Thus, B + BI reactivity was evident at 3,5, and 7 d in primary culture, whereas collagenase-digested liver cells, or lymphocytes obtained from collagenase-digested lymph nodes did not stimulate autologous lymphocytes. A separate reactivity was observed in the allogeneic A + BI combination in MLC responder pairs, and the peak response of A + BI at 9 d

1981 Journal of Clinical Investigation

102267. Prevalence of map-dot-fingerprint changes in the cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of map-dot-fingerprint changes in the cornea. Map-dot-fingerprint basement-membrane abnormalities of the cornea are common in the general population, affecting as many as 76% of persons over age 50 and 42% of persons of all ages. The prevalence of this condition in the general population is not significantly different from that found in families of patients with recurrent corneal erosions and map-dot-fingerprint corneal changes. Despite this extremely high prevalence of basement (...) -membrane changes the incidence of recurrent erosive symptoms in total groups of patients with basement-membrane changes is quite rare, suggesting that these 2 entities are possibly not related. Although previous observers have suggested an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance of these basement-membrane changes, our data raise the possibility that map-dot-fingerprint basement-membrane changes represent an age-dependent, degenerative condition of the cornea. We were unable, however, to prove either

1981 The British journal of ophthalmology

102268. Niemann-Pick disease type B: prenatal diagnosis and enzymatic and chemical studies on fetal brain and liver. Full Text available with Trip Pro

sphingomyelinase activity in all tissues previously examined. Here the brain and liver of a fetus with Niemann-Pick disease type B are examined for enzymatic anc chemical changes. Despite careful analysis, no measurable lysosomal sphingomyelinase could be measured in either organ. Lipid changes were comparable to those observed in fetuses aborted with Niemann-Pick disease type A. The affected child in this family is now age 3 and remains neurologically normal but continues to show organ enlargement and lung

1981 American Journal of Human Genetics

102269. A comparative study of the regulation of Ca2+ of the activities of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase from a variety of sources. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A comparative study of the regulation of Ca2+ of the activities of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase from a variety of sources. Ca2+ was shown to activate oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase from heart and other rat tissues by markedly decreasing the Km values of the enzymes for their respective substrates [see Denton & McCormack (1980) FEBS Lett. 119, 1-8]. Similar effects of Ca2+ were observed in the present study with both (...) enzymes from other vertebrate sources (pigeon, trout, frog and human heart), but not with the enzymes from blowfly or locust flight muscle, or potato or Escherichia coli. In contrast, the Km values of the oxoglutarate dehydrogenases were affected by ADP, ATP and H+ to a similar extent in every case, except for the enzyme from E. coli, which was not sensitive to regulation by these agents.

1981 Biochemical Journal

102270. The biological properties of endotoxin-free human erythropoietin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The biological properties of endotoxin-free human erythropoietin. The biological effects formerly attributed to erythropoietin were generally observed using impure preparations of the hormone containing, among the impurities, bacterial endotoxin, a contaminant that has recently been shown to affect the haemopoietic system. Erythropoietin, purified to apparent homogeneity and freed of trace contamination by endotoxin (1) promotes erythroid burst formation from mouse marrow cells in semi-solid

1981 Biochemical Journal

102271. Alterations in albumin secretion and total protein synthesis in livers of thyroidectomized rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Alterations in albumin secretion and total protein synthesis in livers of thyroidectomized rats. Perfused rat livers and isolated rat hepatocytes exhibited a 50% decrease in the secretion of both albumin and total secretory proteins after thyroidectomy. In contrast, synthesis of non-secretory proteins was decreased by only 20% from the rates observed in liver preparations from euthyroid rats. These observations suggested a disproportionate effect of thyroidectomy on the synthesis of secretory (...) proteins compared with non-secretory proteins. Disproportionate decreases in the synthesis of albumin in other endocrine-deficient states such as hypophysectomy and diabetes had previously been shown to be associated with decreases of similar magnitude in the relative abundance of albumin-mRNA sequences. In contrast, thyroidectomy did not affect the activity or amount of albumin mRNA in total liver poly(A)-containing RNA when assayed by cell-free translation and by hybridization with complementary DNA

1981 Biochemical Journal

102272. Selective Effects of Glucocerebroside (Gaucher's Storage Material) on Macrophage Cultures Full Text available with Trip Pro

cytotoxic effect and it was only slightly toxic to lymphocytes or P815 cells in concentrations at which macrophages were clearly affected. A direct relationship was observed between the cytotoxicity of the sphingolipids and their accumulation in various cells. Macrophages accumulated large amounts of GL(1) but not sphingomyelin, whereas the other cells examined in this investigation did not accumulate either of these lipids. Human monocytes, like murine macrophages, also release increased amounts of LAF

1981 Journal of Clinical Investigation

102273. Deficiency of protein C in congenital thrombotic disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Deficiency of protein C in congenital thrombotic disease. A family with a history of recurring thrombosis was studied to determine if a plasma protein deficiency could account for the observed disease. Protein C levels in plasma were determined immunologically using the Laurell rocket technique. The propositus, his father, and his paternal uncle, who are severely affected, had 38-49% of normal levels of protein C antigen, whereas unaffected family members had normal levels

1981 Journal of Clinical Investigation

102274. Effects of oral supplementation with stable strontium Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The central observation is that increased oral intake produces a direct increase in serum levels and intracellular uptake of strontium. The results of these studies, as well as those of other investigators, demonstrate that a moderate dosage of stable strontium does not adversely affect the level of calcium either in the serum or in soft tissues. In studies of patients receiving 1 to 1.5 g/d of strontium gluconate, a sustained increase in the serum level of strontium produced a 100-fold increase (...) in the strontium:calcium ratio. In rats, studies indicate that an increase in intracellular strontium content following supplementation may exert a protective effect on mitochondrial structure, probably by means of a stabilizing effect of strontium on membranes. The strontium:calcium ratio in animals receiving a standard diet is higher in the cell than in the extracellular fluid; this may be of physiologic significance.An increase in density that corresponded to the deposition of stable strontium was observed in areas

1981 Canadian Medical Association Journal

102275. Pre-incubation of subcellular fractions from rat cerebral cortex inactivates protein phosphorylation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pre-incubation of subcellular fractions from rat cerebral cortex inactivates protein phosphorylation. Pre-incubation of various subcellular fractions from rat brain caused a significant decrease in the phosphorylation of individual polypeptides. The rate and extent of this loss of labelling was not uniform and polypeptides whose phosphorylation was independent of cyclic AMP were primarily affected, whereas substrate availability remained unaltered. It is recommended that pre-incubation effects (...) must be carefully monitored if valid conclusions are to be made about the physiological relevance of changes in protein phosphorylation observed in vitro.

1981 Biochemical Journal

102276. Human Neutrophil Heterogeneity Identified Using Flow Microfluorometry to Monitor Membrane Potential Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Additional studies using neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, which exhibit abnormal membrane potential responses, indicated that this defect affected all such neutrophils uniformly. These observations demonstrate the need to investigate the physiological significance of the heterogeneity of neutrophil function and indicate that the f-Met-Leu-Phe-induced changes in membrane potential observed in bulk population cell studies are the summation of two different responses.

1981 Journal of Clinical Investigation

102277. A model of decreased functional alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor. Pulmonary pathology of dogs exposed to chloramine T. Full Text available with Trip Pro

levels of protease inhibitor did not change, the ability of serum to inhibit elastase in an in vitro assay decreased in direct response to chloramine T treatment. The trypsin inhibitory capacity was less affected. Emphysemalike alterations in lung morphology were observable when histologic sections were evaluated both subjectively and objectively by mean linear intercept measurements. The data suggest that this model parallels the emphysema associated with the genetic alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor

1981 Journal of Clinical Investigation

102278. Androgen sensitivity and autoimmune disease. I. Influence of sex and testosterone on the humoral immune response of autoimmune and non-autoimmune mouse strains to sheep erythrocytes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Androgen sensitivity and autoimmune disease. I. Influence of sex and testosterone on the humoral immune response of autoimmune and non-autoimmune mouse strains to sheep erythrocytes. Pre- and post-puberal NZB, DBA/2 and BALB/c mice showed no sex differences in primary IgM plaque-forming cell responses to sheep erythrocyte immunization. Orchiectomy increased and testosterone implants reduced antibody responses only if followed by sublethal irradiation suggesting that androgens may affect rapidly (...) regenerating stem cells and/or their differentiating progeny. Strain differences in target organ sensitivity to androgen were not observed suggesting that NZB autoimmunity does not arise from a pathologic defect in androgen responsiveness.

1981 Immunology

102279. Microheterogeneity in regulatory circuits for T-cell alloresponsiveness. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and serum preparations from these mice were tested, in reciprocal fashion, for their ability to affect the development of CTL from the thawed donor B10 spleen lymphocytes in fresh cultures challenged with either the original or a third party allogeneic stimulus. Evidence for individual specific suppression by F1-T lymphocytes or by F1-serum (antibody) molecules was obtained. By priming (B10 x B10.D2)F1 mice with B10 lymphoid cells the F1 animals can also be shown to resist the otherwise lethal GvHD (...) induced by sublethal whole body irradiation followed by intravenous challenge with B10 lymphoid cells. Using F1 mice primed and subsequently challenged with lymphocytes prepared from individual donors, self-preference in the regulation of GvHD was also seen. A similar fine specificity of regulatory cells was observed using suppressor cells from individual mice rendered neonatally tolerant of histocompatible cells (by inoculation of F1 hybrid cells within 24 hr of birth). These findings suggest

1981 Immunology

102280. Purification and characterization of a metallo-endoproteinase from mouse kidney. Full Text available with Trip Pro

/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, a single major protein with a mol.wt. of 81 000 was observed. Thus the active enzyme is an oligomer, probably a tetramer. It is a glycoprotein and has an apparent isoelectric point of 4.3. Kidney homogenates and purified preparations of the metalloproteinase degraded azocasein optimally at pH 9.5 and at I 0.15--0.2. The activity was not affected by inhibitors of serine proteinases (di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate (...) , phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride), cysteine proteinases (4-hydroxymercuribenzoate, iodoacetate), aspartic proteinases (pepstatin) or several other proteinase inhibitors from actinomycetes (leupeptin, antipain and phosphoramidon). Inhibition of the enzyme was observed with metal chelators (EDTA, EGTA, 1,10-phenanthroline), and thiol compounds (cysteine, glutathione, dithioerythritol, 2-mercaptoethanol). The metalloproteinase degraded azocasein, azocoll, casein, haemoglobulin and aldolase, but showed little

1981 Biochemical Journal

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