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Observed Affect

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100361. Timing of total joint replacement affects clinical outcomes among patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. (Abstract)

Timing of total joint replacement affects clinical outcomes among patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. To determine the predictors of outcome in patients with osteoarthritis 2 years after receiving total hip or knee replacement.A prospective cohort study of 222 osteoarthritis patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement in Boston and Montreal was done. Their postoperative outcomes at 6 months were previously reported. This followup reports on the outcomes after 2 years among (...) and function at 2 years were similar to those observed at 6 months. Those subjects with the worst function and pain at the time of surgery (baseline) had comparatively worse function 2 years after surgery.In this comparison, the poor outcomes observed at 6 months following total joint replacement in patients with worse baseline functional status persisted after 2 years. Although there are no validated indications for when a patient should optimally have total joint replacement, these data suggest

2002 Arthritis and Rheumatism

100362. Ultrafine particles affect experimental thrombosis in an in vivo hamster model. (Abstract)

. During platelet aggregation in human platelet-rich plasma, induced with 1.25 microM ADP, unmodified particles had no effect up to 100 microg/ml, and carboxylate-polystyrene particles weakly enhanced platelet aggregation at 25 to 100 microg/ml. However, amine-polystyrene particles (50 and 100 microg/ml) induced platelet aggregation themselves and strongly increased the ADP-induced aggregation. We conclude that the presence of (ultrafine) particles in the circulation may affect hemostasis. The observed (...) Ultrafine particles affect experimental thrombosis in an in vivo hamster model. Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To investigate this association, we studied the effect of ultrafine (60 nm) polystyrene particles on thrombus formation in a hamster model after intravenous and intratracheal administration of unmodified, carboxylate-polystyrene, or amine-polystyrene particles. Unmodified particles had no effect on thrombosis up to 5 mg/kg

2002 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

100363. A national study of clinical and laboratory factors affecting the survival of patients with multiple drug resistant tuberculosis in the UK. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A national study of clinical and laboratory factors affecting the survival of patients with multiple drug resistant tuberculosis in the UK. This study aimed to describe the clinical, microbiological, molecular epidemiology and treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) cases in the UK and to determine factors associated with survival.Ninety MDRTB cases were identified from 1 January 1996 to 30 June 1997; 69 were DNA fingerprinted. Date of diagnosis was determined and data were (...) of the observation period had died of tuberculosis. Median survival time overall was 1379 days (95% CI 1336 to 2515) or 3.78 (95% CI 3.66 to 6.89) years (858 days (95% CI 530 to 2515) in immunocompromised individuals (n=32) and 1554 (95% CI 1336 to 2066) days in immunocompetent cases (n=48)). Median survival in patients treated with three drugs to which the bacterium was susceptible on in vitro testing (n=62) was 2066 days (95% CI 1336 to 2515) or 5.66 years, whereas in those not so treated (n=13) survival

2002 Thorax

100364. Smoking affects the outcome of transanal mucosal advancement flap repair of trans-sphincteric fistulas. (Abstract)

. No differences were observed between the two centres. TAFR was successful in 72 patients (69 per cent). None of the variables affected the outcome of the procedure, except for smoking habit of the patient. In patients who smoked the observed healing rate was 60 per cent, whereas a rate of 79 per cent was found in patients who did not smoke. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.037). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the number of cigarettes smoked per day (...) Smoking affects the outcome of transanal mucosal advancement flap repair of trans-sphincteric fistulas. The aim of the study was to identify variables affecting the outcome of transanal advancement flap repair (TAFR) for perianal fistulas of cryptoglandular origin.Between 1995 and 2000, a consecutive series of 105 patients (65 women, 40 men), with a median age of 44 (range 19-72) years was included in the study. The patients were recruited from the colorectal departments of two university

2003 British Journal of Surgery

100365. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement. (Abstract)

Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement. One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria (...) are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response

2002 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

100366. Does parenchymal brain injury affect biobehavioral pain responses in very low birth weight infants at 32 weeks' postconceptional age? (Abstract)

Does parenchymal brain injury affect biobehavioral pain responses in very low birth weight infants at 32 weeks' postconceptional age? Children with neurologic impairments have shown diminished pain response compared with control subjects; however, it remains unclear what mechanisms underlie this response or when it develops. If this were also true with premature infants who undergo neonatal intensive care, then infants with parenchymal brain injury (PBI) would be at increased risk (...) predominantly to the central white matter leaves brainstem responses intact in the neonatal period. Furthermore, it seems that the injured brain of the preterm infant has not yet expressed the identifiable differences in pain display and the functional impairment observed at later ages.

2002 Pediatrics

100367. Glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomized sheep affects mineral density, structure, and mechanical properties of cancellous bone. (Abstract)

Glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomized sheep affects mineral density, structure, and mechanical properties of cancellous bone. Thus far, orthopedic research lacks a suitable animal model of osteoporosis. In OVX sheep, 6 months of steroid exposure reduced bone density and mechanical competence. Bone properties and bone formation did not recover for another 6 months. Therefore, steroid-treated OVX sheep may serve as a large animal model for osteopenic bone.The purpose of this study (...) thickness (-20%; p = 0.01) declined, whereas BS/BV increased (24%; p = 0.01). After 12 months, mineral density (-33%) and mechanical properties (-55%) were reduced even more profoundly (p < 0.05). Also, the structural parameters (BS/BV and Tb.Th.) still seemed to be affected by glucocorticoid treatment (p < 0.05). New bone formation, assessed by measurement of osteoid surface, was markedly reduced (-63%, p < 0.1) by glucocorticoid treatment. The differences between groups were generally more pronounced

2003 Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

100368. Emergency medicine animal research: does use of randomization and blinding affect the results? (Abstract)

Emergency medicine animal research: does use of randomization and blinding affect the results? It has been shown that human clinical trials that lack randomization (RND) or blinding (BLD) often overestimate the magnitude of treatment effects. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of RND and BLD on animal research. The authors' objectives were to determine the proportion of animal studies presented at a national academic emergency medicine meeting that utilize randomization, blinding (...) , or both; and to determine whether failure to employ these techniques changes the likelihood of observing a difference between treatment groups.Two trained researchers reviewed abstracts presented at the 1997-2001 Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) annual meetings using a standard data collection sheet. Studies that used an animal or cell line, compared two or more study groups, and measured an effect caused by the intervention or drugs were included. Studies were classified as randomized

2003 Academic Emergency Medicine

100369. Evaluation of chest pain in the ED: factors affecting triage decisions. (Abstract)

Evaluation of chest pain in the ED: factors affecting triage decisions. The emergency physician's (EP) fast and correct diagnosis of patients with chest pain is crucial for preventing inappropriate discharge and dire consequences. To determine which factors affect admission decisions in the ED, we studied epidemiologic characteristics of both discharged and admitted patients, and the percentage of discharged patients who returned to the ED with acute myocardial infarction. The study included (...) 185 patients seen in the ED because of chest pain between July 1 and 31, 1997 (every third day not included). Ninety patients were admitted: 36.7% were admitted for "observation of chest pain" and 63.3% met the criteria for active coronary heart disease. A form was used to collect personal data, medical history, risk factors, clinical examination, electrocardiogram interpretation, laboratory data, and admittance decision. EPs' diagnosis of cardiac chest pain demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.4

2003 American Journal of Emergency Medicine

100370. Intrauterine Levonorgestrel and Observation or Observation Alone in Preventing Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Cancer in Women With Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer or Lynch Syndrome

Intrauterine Levonorgestrel and Observation or Observation Alone in Preventing Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Cancer in Women With Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer or Lynch Syndrome Intrauterine Levonorgestrel and Observation or Observation Alone in Preventing Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Cancer in Women With Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer or Lynch Syndrome - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record (...) managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Intrauterine Levonorgestrel and Observation or Observation Alone in Preventing Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Cancer in Women With Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer or Lynch Syndrome The safety and scientific

2007 Clinical Trials

100371. Validation-study conclusions from dietary reports by fourth-grade children observed eating school meals are generalisable to dietary reports by comparable children not observed. Full Text available with Trip Pro

variables; 2, interview length and number of meals and snacks). Analyses of variance on principal component scores tested effects of observation status, target period, interview time and all interactions. Observation status did not affect scores on either retained principal component. Scores on Component 2 showed that more intake was reported in prior-24-hours interviews than in previous-day interviews.The effect of target period on reported intake indicates that the response variables were sufficiently (...) reliable to detect manipulations. This, together with the finding that response variables did not depend on observation status, suggests that observation of school meals does not affect fourth-grade children's dietary reports, and that conclusions about dietary reports by fourth-grade children observed eating school meals in validation studies may be generalised to dietary reports by comparable children not observed.

2007 Public health nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100372. Eye–hand coordination during manual object transport with the affected and less affected hand in adolescents with hemiparetic cerebral palsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

during actions performed with the less affected hand. Analysis of the gaze and hand movement data revealed the increased visual monitoring of participants with CP when using their affected hand at the beginning as well as during object transport. In contrast, no general deficit in anticipatory gaze control in the participants with hemiparetic CP could be observed. Collectively, these findings are the first to directly show that individuals with hemiparetic CP adapt eye-hand coordination (...) Eye–hand coordination during manual object transport with the affected and less affected hand in adolescents with hemiparetic cerebral palsy In the present study we investigated eye-hand coordination in adolescents with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP) and neurologically healthy controls. Using an object prehension and transport task, we addressed two hypotheses, motivated by the question whether early brain damage and the ensuing limitations of motor activity lead to general and/or effector

2008 Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation cerebrale

100373. The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology Full Text available with Trip Pro

theories no longer explain adequately the vast number of empirical observations from studies in affective neuroscience, and we suggest that a conceptual shift is needed in the empirical approaches taken to the study of emotion and affective psychopathologies. The circumplex model of affect is more consistent with many recent findings from behavioral, cognitive neuroscience, neuroimaging, and developmental studies of affect. Moreover, the model offers new theoretical and empirical approaches to studying (...) The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology The circumplex model of affect proposes that all affective states arise from cognitive interpretations of core neural sensations that are the product of two independent neurophysiological systems. This model stands in contrast to theories of basic emotions, which posit that a discrete and independent neural system subserves every emotion. We propose that basic emotion

2005 Development and psychopathology

100374. Myoblasts from affected and non-affected FSHD muscles exhibit morphological differentiation defects Full Text available with Trip Pro

Myoblasts from affected and non-affected FSHD muscles exhibit morphological differentiation defects Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is a muscular hereditary disease with a prevalence of 1 in 20,000 caused by a partial deletion of a subtelomeric repeat array on chromosome 4q. However, very little is known about the pathogenesis as well as the molecular and biochemical changes linked to the progressive muscle degeneration observed in these patients. Several studies have investigated possible (...) pathophysiological pathways in FSHD myoblasts and mature muscle cells but some of these reports were apparently in contradiction. The discrepancy between these studies may be explained by differences between the sources of myoblasts. Therefore, we decided to thoroughly analyze affected and unaffected muscles from patients with FSHD in terms of vulnerability to oxidative stress, differentiation capacity and morphological abnormalities. We have established a panel of primary myoblast cell cultures from patients

2008 Journal of cellular and molecular medicine

100375. Leukocyte CD40L deficiency affects the CD25(+) CD4 T cell population but does not affect atherosclerosis. (Abstract)

(-/-) BM. In conclusion, the present study shows that CD40-CD40L interactions on leukocytes are essential for the size of the CD45RB(low) CD25(+) CD4 Treg subpopulation. Nevertheless, CD40L deficiency on hemopoietic cells did not affect atherosclerosis, implying that CD40L expressing leukocytes alone are not responsible for the stable plaque phenotype observed after total CD40L blockade. (...) Leukocyte CD40L deficiency affects the CD25(+) CD4 T cell population but does not affect atherosclerosis. Inhibition of CD40-CD40L interactions results in a reduction of innate regulatory T cells (Tregs) in CD40(-/-) mice and induces a stable plaque phenotype in atherosclerosis-prone mouse strains. Here we investigated the effects of leukocyte CD40L on the Treg population and on atherosclerosis. LDLR(-/-) mice were reconstituted with wild-type or CD40L(-/-) bone marrow (BM). These BM chimeras

2005 Atherosclerosis

100376. Vertebral artery flow and spinal manipulation: a randomized, controlled and observer-blinded study. (Abstract)

Vertebral artery flow and spinal manipulation: a randomized, controlled and observer-blinded study. Several studies have been published on the effect of cervical rotation alone upon blood flow in the vertebral arteries. However, we have not found articles addressing the question of how spinal manipulative therapy per se affects the vertebral artery flow.The aim of the present study was to investigate whether any changes occur in peak flow velocity in the vertebral artery after spinal (...) manipulative therapy as measured using the latest Doppler ultrasound technology.A randomized, controlled and observer-blinded study at a university hospital vascular laboratory.Twenty university students with a "biomechanical dysfunction" in the cervical spine.We observed no change in peak flow velocity immediately after spinal manipulative therapy and found no correlation between peak flow velocity and systolic blood pressure.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study comparing flow velocity

1998 Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100377. Medical implications of ultra marathon running: observations on a six day track race. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Medical implications of ultra marathon running: observations on a six day track race. Medical records were kept of the injuries and illnesses sustained by competitors in a six day running race held in Nottingham in August 1982. The overall rate of injuries sufficiently severe to affect running performance was 60 per cent. These injuries are itemised and discussed with particular reference to the problems raised by this ultra distance race.

1984 British Journal of Sports Medicine

100378. Effects of the use of cross-education to the affected side through various resistive exercises of the sound side and settings of the length of the affected muscles. (Abstract)

Effects of the use of cross-education to the affected side through various resistive exercises of the sound side and settings of the length of the affected muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine what kind of resistive exercise of the sound limb causes the most effective cross-education, which is defined as the muscle activity of the unexercised limb during contralateral exercise, by analyzing the force and electrical activity of the affected muscle. Six orthopedic patients (...) with unilateral lower extremity impairment that resulted in unexercised quadriceps muscles through treatment by immobilization were the subjects of this investigation. The effect of cross-education was determined by observing the maximal torque of the unexercised quadriceps (MT) and the integrated electromyograms of the unexercised rectus femoris at the time of the maximal response of the torque (IE). A double-blind experiment was conducted with eighteen randomly applied combinations, consisting of six

2001 Hiroshima journal of medical sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100379. Rate Of Conditioned Reinforcement Affects Observing Rate But Not Resistance To Change Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rate Of Conditioned Reinforcement Affects Observing Rate But Not Resistance To Change The effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the resistance to change of operant behavior have not been examined. In addition, the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the rate of observing have not been adequately examined. In two experiments, a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures was used to examine the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on observing rates (...) and resistance to change. In a rich component, observing responses produced a higher frequency of stimuli correlated with alternating periods of random-interval schedule primary reinforcement or extinction. In a lean component, observing responses produced similar schedule-correlated stimuli but at a lower frequency. The rate of primary reinforcement in both components was the same. In Experiment 1, a 4:1 ratio of stimulus production was arranged by the rich and lean components. In Experiment 2, the ratio

2005 Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior

100380. Observation of a parental inversion variant in a rare Williams–Beuren syndrome family with two affected children Full Text available with Trip Pro

Observation of a parental inversion variant in a rare Williams–Beuren syndrome family with two affected children The Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) region at 7q11.23 is subject to several genomic rearrangements, one of which, the WBSinv-1 variant, is an inversion polymorphism. The WBSinv-1 chromosome has been shown to occur frequently in parents of individuals with WBS, implying that it predisposes the region to the WBS deletion. Here we investigate two WBS families with multiple affected

2005 Human Genetics

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