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Observed Affect

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100321. A neurochemically distinct dorsal raphe-limbic circuit with a potential role in affective disorders. (Abstract)

A neurochemically distinct dorsal raphe-limbic circuit with a potential role in affective disorders. The serotonergic system arising from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) has long been implicated in psychiatric disorders, and is considered one site of action of classical anxiolytic and antidepressant agents. Recent studies implicate the DR as a site of action of novel anxiolytic and antidepressant agents that target neuropeptide systems, such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and neurokinin (...) 1 (NK1) antagonists. The present study identified unique characteristics of the dorsomedial DR that implicate this particular subregion as a key component of a circuit, which may be targeted by these diverse psychotherapeutic agents. First, it was observed that a cluster of CRF-containing cell bodies was present in the dorsomedial DR of colchicine-treated rats. Dual-labeling immunohistochemistry revealed that almost all CRF-containing neurons were serotonergic, implicating CRF as a cotransmitter

2003 Neuropsychopharmacology

100322. Stressful life events and affective illness. (Abstract)

calculated using conditional logistic regression.A dose-response relationship was observed for the association between stressful life events and affective illness. The RRs for specific groups of exposures were higher in the co-twin control study and higher for dizygotic twin pairs than for monozygotic twin pairs.Individuals with a history of affective illness select themselves into high-risk environments, in part due to their genetic propensity to the disease. Thus, the association represents a classic (...) Stressful life events and affective illness. To investigate the association between the occurrence of affective illnesses and the number/type of experienced negative stressful life events in a twin material. A case-control study with an unrelated twin as control to the case and a co-twin control study were both undertaken with the same material.Postal questionnaire responses were used for confirming diagnosis and to inventory stressful life events. Risk ratios (RR) for groups of events were

2003 Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

100323. Virological success of lopinavir/ritonavir salvage regimen is affected by an increasing number of lopinavir/ritonavir-related mutations. (Abstract)

Virological success of lopinavir/ritonavir salvage regimen is affected by an increasing number of lopinavir/ritonavir-related mutations. We evaluated the virological outcome of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) in 224 HIV-1-infected and protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced patients showing virological failure to a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen and followed up for at least 3 months. At baseline, the median level of plasma viraemia was 4.61 log10 copies/ml (range 3-6.48 (...) ) and the median CD4 cell count was 219 cells/mm3 (range 1-836). During a median follow-up of 272 days (range 92-635), we observed an increase in the number of CD4 cells (P=0.02) and a dramatic decrease in plasma viraemia levels (P=0.0001), which became undetectable in 122 patients (54.5%). The closely related predictive factors were baseline plasma viraemia levels and the number of mutations known to reduce susceptibility to LPV/RTV. Thirty-one patients (13.8%) discontinued LPV/RTV during the follow-up

2003 Antiviral Therapy

100324. Age at onset in bipolar I affective disorder: further evidence for three subgroups. (Abstract)

Age at onset in bipolar I affective disorder: further evidence for three subgroups. Preliminary data suggested that there are three subgroups of bipolar affective disorder based on age at onset. The authors sought to replicate those findings and determine the cut-off age of each subgroup.Admixture analysis was used to determine the best-fitting model for the observed ages at onset of 368 consecutively admitted patients. The results obtained were compared with those of the previously described (...) model. The authors also investigated whether affected siblings are more likely to belong to the same theoretical age-at-onset subgroup as identified by admixture analysis.The existence of three subgroups defined by age at onset was confirmed. The mean ages estimated in this model were 17.4 years (SD=2.3), 25.1 years (SD=6.2), and 40.4 years (SD=11.3). Affected siblings were more likely to belong to the same theoretical subgroup.There are three age-at-onset subgroups of bipolar patients, and specific

2003 American Journal of Psychiatry

100325. Deficits in gain of smooth pursuit eye movements in schizophrenia and affective disorder patients and their unaffected relatives. (Abstract)

pursuit system.Mean pursuit gain was significantly lower in the schizophrenia and affective disorder patients than in the healthy comparison subjects. Moreover, the relatives of both the schizophrenia and affective disorder patients showed significant gain deficits of about one-half the size of those observed in the patients.Gain deficits are present in psychotic patients and in their unaffected biological relatives. This finding supports a genetic origin of eye tracking disturbances in major (...) Deficits in gain of smooth pursuit eye movements in schizophrenia and affective disorder patients and their unaffected relatives. Disturbance of smooth pursuit eye movements has been discussed as marking a putative endophenotype closely associated with the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Previous studies are not conclusive in regard to the specificity of this marker. Therefore, oculomotor pursuit was evaluated in unaffected family members of index probands diagnosed as having either

2003 American Journal of Psychiatry

100326. Does infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus affect the antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigenic determinants in asymptomatic pregnant women? (Abstract)

Does infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus affect the antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigenic determinants in asymptomatic pregnant women? HIV-seropositive pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria than HIV-seronegative women. We assessed whether HIV infection alters maternal and cord plasma malarial antibody responses and the mother-to-infant transfer of malaria antibodies.We determined plasma levels of maternal and cord antibodies [Immunoglobulin (IgG)] to recombinant (...) -associated differences were observed for other antigenic determinants.An effect of HIV infection was only observed on one malarial antigenic determinant, suggesting that the increased susceptibility to malaria among HIV-infected pregnant women may not be explained on the basis of their reduced antibody response to malaria antigens.

2003 Journal of Infection

100327. Drug susceptibilities of yeast cells are affected by membrane lipid composition. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Drug susceptibilities of yeast cells are affected by membrane lipid composition. In the present study we have exploited isogenic erg mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to examine the contribution of an altered lipid environment on drug susceptibilities of yeast cells. It is observed that erg mutants, which possess high levels of membrane fluidity, were hypersensitive to the drugs tested, i.e., cycloheximide (CYH), o-phenanthroline, sulfomethuron methyl, 4-nitroquinoline oxide, and methotrexate (...) . Most of the erg mutants except mutant erg4 were, however, resistant to fluconazole (FLC). By using the fluorophore rhodamine-6G and radiolabeled FLC to monitor the passive diffusion, it was observed that erg mutant cells elicited enhanced diffusion. The addition of a membrane fluidizer, benzyl alcohol (BA), to S. cerevisiae wild-type cells led to enhanced membrane fluidity. However, a 10 to 12% increase in BA-induced membrane fluidity did not alter the drug susceptibilities of the S. cerevisiae

2002 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

100328. Natural variation in populations of persistently colonizing bacteria affect human host cell phenotype. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Natural variation in populations of persistently colonizing bacteria affect human host cell phenotype. The highly diverse bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which persistently colonizes the human stomach, provides models to study the role of genome plasticity in host adaptation. Within H. pylori populations from 2 colonized individuals, intragenomic recombination between cagA DNA repeat sequences leads to deletion or duplication of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the CagA protein, which (...) is injected by a type IV secretion system into host cells. Experimental coculture of gastric epithelial cells with the strains containing these naturally occurring CagA phosphorylation site variants induced markedly divergent host cell morphologic responses. Mutants were constructed in which a phosphorylation site was either added or deleted in the expressed CagA protein; coculture studies confirmed that the naturally occurring differences in CagA phosphorylation are responsible for the observed

2003 Journal of Infectious Diseases

100329. Ciclopirox olamine treatment affects the expression pattern of Candida albicans genes encoding virulence factors, iron metabolism proteins, and drug resistance factors. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ciclopirox olamine treatment affects the expression pattern of Candida albicans genes encoding virulence factors, iron metabolism proteins, and drug resistance factors. The hydroxypyridone ciclopirox olamine belongs to the antimycotic drugs used for the treatment of superficial mycoses. In contrast to the azoles and other antimycotic drugs, its specific mode of action is only poorly understood. To investigate the mode of action of ciclopirox olamine on fungal viability, pathogenicity, and drug (...) the effect of the drug. Addition of the iron chelator bipyridine to the growth medium induced similar patterns of expression of distinct iron-regulated genes (FTR1, FTR2). While serum-induced yeast-to-hyphal phase transition of C. albicans was not affected in ciclopirox olamine-treated cells in the presence of subinhibitory conditions, a dramatic increase in sensitivity to oxidative stress was noted, which may indicate the reduced activities of iron-containing gene products responsible for detoxification

2003 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

100330. Clustering of Crohn's disease within affected sibships. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in sibships with multiple affected siblings. On the other hand if there was a significant environmental contribution, the siblings would be affected non-randomly over exposure status. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied 102 sibships with two or more affected siblings. A statistical test, named Cluster of Affected Sibling Test or CAST, was developed, based on the exact calculation of the probability of observing a given number of clusters of affected siblings in multiplex families. The null (...) hypothesis of a random distribution of affected siblings was rejected (P=0.005). The observed excess of affected sibling clusters indicates that birth order influences the disease status. Considering that an adjacent order of birth is a global estimate of environmental sharing, this observation strongly suggests that environmental factors contribute to the observed familial aggregations of the disease. This observation provides evidence that familial CD is a relevant tool for further studies

2003 European Journal of Human Genetics

100331. In vitro follicular growth affects oocyte imprinting establishment in mice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro follicular growth affects oocyte imprinting establishment in mice. In vitro folliculogenesis of cryopreserved ovarian tissue could be an effective method for insuring fertility for patients who receive gonadotoxic treatment. Although several culture systems have been described for growing female gametes in vitro, the production of competent oocytes for further development remains a considerable challenge. The purpose of our study was to determine whether maternal primary imprinting (...) progresses normally during mouse oocyte growth in vitro. We analysed the DNA methylation status of differentially methylated regions of the imprinted genes H19, Mest/Peg1 and Igf2R using fully grown germinal vesicle-stage oocytes (fg oocytes) produced by in vitro folliculogenesis from early preantral follicles. When compared to fg oocytes removal from control females, we observed after in vitro development, a loss of methylation at the Igf2R locus in six out of seven independent experiments and Mest/Peg1

2003 European Journal of Human Genetics

100332. Two-locus heterogeneity cannot be distinguished from two-locus epistasis on the basis of affected-sib-pair data. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Two-locus heterogeneity cannot be distinguished from two-locus epistasis on the basis of affected-sib-pair data. The observation of multiple linkage signals in the course of conducting genome screens for complex disorders raises the question of whether distinct genes represent independent causes of disease (heterogeneity) or whether they interact to produce the phenotype of interest (epistasis); and there has been a corresponding interest in statistical methods for detecting and/or exploiting (...) the distinction between these two possibilities. At the same time, researchers are increasingly relying on affected-sib-pair (ASP) data. Here, we demonstrate an apparently unrecognized fact about two-locus (2L) models and ASP data, namely, 2L heterogeneity and 2L epistasis cannot, in general, be distinguished from one another on the basis of ASP marker data, as a matter of mathematical principle and therefore regardless of sample size. By the same token, correlations across ASPs in single-locus LOD scores

2003 American Journal of Human Genetics

100333. The International Psoriasis Genetics Study: assessing linkage to 14 candidate susceptibility loci in a cohort of 942 affected sib pairs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The International Psoriasis Genetics Study: assessing linkage to 14 candidate susceptibility loci in a cohort of 942 affected sib pairs. In an effort to confirm previously reported linkages to psoriasis, we analyzed 942 affected sibling pairs (ASPs) from 710 pedigrees for 53 polymorphic microsatellites spanning 14 psoriasis candidate regions at an intermarker spacing of approximately 5 cM. Maximum LOD score (MLS) analysis of ASPs yielded allele sharing of 60% for markers within the major (...) histocompatibility complex (MHC) (P=2 x 10(-14)), which yielded a gene-specific lambda(s) of 1.6. Across the remainder of the genome, the strongest evidence of allele sharing was obtained on chromosomes 16q (D16S3032; MLS=1.3; P=.007) and 10q22-q23 (D10S2327; MLS=1.1; P=.012). None of the remaining loci exceeded MLS=0.9, the value expected to occur by chance once in this study. In agreement with previous studies, strong linkage disequilibrium was also observed between psoriasis and the MHC (pedigree

2003 American Journal of Human Genetics

100334. Genomewide linkage analysis identifies polymorphism in the human interferon-gamma receptor affecting Helicobacter pylori infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genomewide linkage analysis identifies polymorphism in the human interferon-gamma receptor affecting Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori is considered the most prevalent infectious agent among humans, and it causes gastric inflammation, gastroduodenal ulcers, and a risk of gastric cancer. We performed a genomewide linkage analysis among Senegalese siblings phenotyped for H. pylori-reactive serum immunoglobulin G. A multipoint LOD score of 3.1 was obtained at IFNGR1, the gene (...) that encodes chain 1 of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) receptor. Sequencing of IFNGR1 revealed -56C-->T, H318P, and L450P variants, which were found to be associated with high antibody concentrations. The inclusion of these in the linkage analysis raised the LOD score to 4.2. The variants were more prevalent in Africans than in whites. Our findings indicate that IFN-gamma signaling plays an essential role in human H. pylori infection, and they contribute to an explanation of the observations of high

2003 American Journal of Human Genetics

100335. Electrophysiological findings in two bilateral cochlear implant cases: does the duration of deafness affect electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses? (Abstract)

Electrophysiological findings in two bilateral cochlear implant cases: does the duration of deafness affect electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses? Bilateral cochlear implantation provides an interesting model for in vivo study of the effect of long-term profound deafness on neural transmission. We present electrophysiological observations on 2 patients implanted with the MXM Binaural Digisonic Convex system. This uncommon design consists of 2 electrode arrays placed bilaterally (...) and intermediate auditory pathways is adversely affected by deafness duration. Poor EABRs on one ear possibly result from the total duration of deafness in this ear and/or compensation by the other ear.

2002 Rhinology and Laryngology

100336. Parameters affecting successful transplantation of frozen-thawed human fetal ovaries into immunodeficient mice. (Abstract)

Parameters affecting successful transplantation of frozen-thawed human fetal ovaries into immunodeficient mice. To compare the development and survival of human fetal follicles frozen-thawed with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and propandiol (PROH) in immunodeficient mice, to study the effects of host treatment with FSH, and to compare kidney and subcutaneous transplantation.Controlled histologic study.Major tertiary care and referral academic center.Twenty-one women undergoing second-trimester (...) pregnancy termination. Microscopic morphometric analysis and immunocytochemistry for proliferating-cell nuclear antigen in human fetal ovaries grafted into immunodeficient mice.Renal grafts that were frozen-thawed with DMSO rather than PROH survived better in the hosts (79.6% compared with 58.8%), but significantly more follicles were identified in grafts frozen-thawed with PROH (P<.001). Follicular development was observed only in FSH-treated hosts, and follicular survival and development was better

2003 Fertility and Sterility

100337. Assessment of leukemia inhibitory factor levels by uterine flushing at the time of egg retrieval does not adversely affect pregnancy rates with in vitro fertilization. (Abstract)

in pregnant and nonpregnant patients respectively.The flushing procedure at the time of egg retrieval did not adversely affect pregnancy rates. Leukemia inhibitory factor was detected in 46% of patients at the time of egg retrieval, but no correlation were observed with better pregnancy rates in patients with detectable LIF. Mean LIF levels did not differ in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Access to endoluminal secretions of the endometrium during IVF-ET may represent a new research in human implantation. (...) Assessment of leukemia inhibitory factor levels by uterine flushing at the time of egg retrieval does not adversely affect pregnancy rates with in vitro fertilization. To assess intrauterine levels of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) by uterine flushing at the time of egg retrieval and to confirm that the procedure has no detrimental effect on pregnancy rates.Prospective study.Assisted reproductive unit of a university hospital.Uterine flushing was performed in 148 IVF patients. The first 100

2003 Fertility and Sterility

100338. Creatine supplementation does not affect kidney function in an animal model with pre-existing renal failure. (Abstract)

Creatine supplementation does not affect kidney function in an animal model with pre-existing renal failure. Creatine is widely used as an ergogenic substance among athletes. Safety of prolonged creatine intake has been questioned, based upon case reports and animal data. We investigated the effect of prolonged creatine ingestion on renal function in animals with normal kidney function or pre-existing kidney failure, respectively.Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four experimental (...) of creatine supplementation on the renal function indices were observed in two-thirds nephrectomized or sham-operated animals. No differences were observed in inulin (0.28+/-0.08 vs 0.25+/-0.08 ml/min/100 g; P=NS) or creatinine clearance rates. Serum cystatin C concentration, urinary protein excretion, and albumin and urea clearance were comparable between creatine-supplemented and control-diet fed animals in both sham-operated and two-thirds nephrectomized animals. Serum creatine and intramuscular total

2003 Transplantation

100339. Periapical inflammation affecting coronally-inoculated dog teeth with root fillings augmented by white MTA orifice plugs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Periapical inflammation affecting coronally-inoculated dog teeth with root fillings augmented by white MTA orifice plugs. Placement of orifice plugs has been suggested to augment the seal of conventional root canal fillings. This study assessed in vivo the efficacy of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) plugs in preventing periapical inflammation subsequent to coronal inoculation of root-filled teeth. The two-rooted mandibular premolars of six beagle dogs were conventionally prepared (...) and filled with gutta-percha and sealer. A white MTA orifice plug was placed into one canal in each tooth. Pulp chambers were inoculated with plaque except for 12 teeth (negative control), and restored. Radiographs were taken at regular intervals. At 10 months, dogs were killed and jaw blocks processed for histology. None of the roots revealed radiographic or histologic evidence of severe inflammation. Mild inflammation was observed in 17% and 39% of the roots with and without an orifice plug

2003 Journal of Endodontics

100340. Affective blindsight: intact fear conditioning to a visual cue in a cortically blind patient. (Abstract)

Affective blindsight: intact fear conditioning to a visual cue in a cortically blind patient. Blindsight refers to remarkable residual visual abilities of patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1). Recent studies revealed that such residual abilities do not apply only to relatively simple object discriminations, but that these patients can also differentially categorize and respond to emotionally salient stimuli. The current study reports on a case of intact fear conditioning (...) presented during and between the conditioned stimuli. Relative to the control condition, startle reflexes were substantially potentiated when elicited in the presence of the conditioned stimuli. No such potentiation was observed prior to conditioning. These data suggest that fear learning to visual cues does not require a cortical representation of the conditioned stimulus in the primary sensory cortex and that subcortical pathways are sufficient to activate the fear module in humans.

2003 Brain

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