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Observed Affect

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100301. Short-term moderate weight loss and resistance training do not affect insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in postmenopausal women. (Abstract)

Short-term moderate weight loss and resistance training do not affect insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in postmenopausal women. Moderate weight loss and exercise have been proposed as important tools in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that short-term (4 weeks) moderate energy restriction (-750 kcal/day) would result in a significant increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (...) in body weight (4.0 +/- 0.3%) and FM (8.2 +/- 0.7%) did not improve insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. The addition of RT to the hypoenergetic diet preserved muscle mass but provided no synergistic effect on insulin action. These results suggest that a greater change in body weight or FM may be necessary to observe a significant improvement in insulin action.

2001 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100302. Intravenous administration of prochlorperazine by 15-minute infusion versus 2-minute bolus does not affect the incidence of akathisia: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. (Abstract)

Intravenous administration of prochlorperazine by 15-minute infusion versus 2-minute bolus does not affect the incidence of akathisia: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. We sought to compare the rate of akathisia after administration of intravenous prochlorperazine as a 2-minute bolus or 15-minute infusion.We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind study in the emergency department of a central-city teaching hospital. Patients aged 18 years or older treated (...) a spontaneous report of restlessness or agitation or a change of 2 or more in the patient-reported akathisia rating scale and a change of at least 1 in the investigator-observed akathisia rating scale. The intensity of headache and nausea was measured with a 100-mm visual analog scale.One hundred patients were enrolled. One study participant was excluded after protocol violation. Seventy-three percent (73/99) of the study participants were treated for headache and 70% (70/99) for nausea. In the bolus group

2001 Annals of Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

100303. Triacylglycerol molecular weight and to a lesser extent, fatty acid positional distribution, affect chylomicron triacylglycerol composition in women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Triacylglycerol molecular weight and to a lesser extent, fatty acid positional distribution, affect chylomicron triacylglycerol composition in women. Postprandial composition of chylomicron triacylglycerols (TAG) and their clearance may be affected by the molecular weight of TAG, their fatty acid (FA) combinations and the positional distribution of FA in TAG. Delayed postprandial TAG clearance is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, due to the complexity of traditional analysis (...) methods, the composition of individual TAG molecules is frequently overlooked. In this study, chylomicron TAG molecular weight distribution and regioisomerism were followed in 10 healthy female volunteers after two fat loads with identical FA composition but different positional distributions (palm oil and transesterified palm oil). An efficient tandem mass spectrometric method of analysis was applied. During the 6-h observation period, the relative concentrations of TAG with 48:2 [48 acyl carbons

2002 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100304. Low dose dehydroepiandrosterone affects behavior in hypopituitary androgen-deficient women: a placebo-controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Low dose dehydroepiandrosterone affects behavior in hypopituitary androgen-deficient women: a placebo-controlled trial. Thirty-eight women, aged 25-65 yr, with androgen deficiency due to hypopituitarism were treated with oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; 30 mg/d if <45 yr of age and 20 mg if > or =45 yr of age) for 6 months in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study, followed by a 6-month open treatment period. The administration of DHEA raised the serum levels of DHEAS to normal (...) age-related reference ranges and increased androstenedione and T to subnormal levels. Androgen effects on skin and/or pubic and/or axillary hair were observed in 84% (32 of 38) of the women after all received 6 months of DHEA treatment. No such effects were observed after the placebo treatment. These effects after 6 months were correlated with the serum levels of DHEAS (r = 0.37; P = 0.03), androstenedione (r = 0.42; P = 0.01), and T (r = 0.37; P = 0.03). The percentages of partners who reported

2002 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100305. Word learning is 'smart': evidence that conceptual information affects preschoolers' extension of novel words. (Abstract)

Word learning is 'smart': evidence that conceptual information affects preschoolers' extension of novel words. We examined electrophysiological correlates of conscious change detection versus change blindness for equivalent displays. Observers had to detect any changes, across a visual interruption, between a pair of successive displays. Each display comprised grey circles on a background of alternate black and white stripes. Foreground changes arose when light-grey circles turned dark-grey

2002 Cognition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100306. Mating does not affect the biting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae from the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa. (Abstract)

mated insects on Príncipe, all age-groups had similar biting cycles. The biting cycle on Príncipe resembled that observed on continental Africa, with a peak in the latter part of the night. Peak biting on São Tomé, however, occurred before midnight. Estimated daily survival rates were 0.77 and 0.29 for São Tomé and Príncipe, respectively. Mating does not affect the biting behaviour of An. gambiae on these islands. (...) Mating does not affect the biting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae from the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa. To determine if mating or gonotrophic age influenced the biting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.s., a series of all-night landing captures was performed on the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe in the Gulf of Guinea. On São Tomé 49% and on Príncipe 56% of the newly emerged An. gambiae taking their first bloodmeal were virgins. On each island, with the exception of recently

2003 Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology

100307. -174 G>C polymorphism of interleukin 6 gene promoter affects interleukin 6 serum level in patients with colorectal cancer. (Abstract)

locus as C+ (CC and CG) and C- (GG), a significant association was observed between the type of polymorphism and IL-6 serum level: the median value for IL-6 was 0.14 pg/ml in C+ patients (n = 32) and 0.32 pg/ml in C- patients (n = 30; P = 0.034). Moreover, in patients with hepatic metastasis the median level of IL-6 was 0.23 pg/ml in C+ patients (n = 9) and 0.96 pg/ml in C- patients (n = 9; P = 0.004).In patients with CRC, the -174 G>C polymorphism status of the IL-6 gene promoter affects the IL-6 (...) -174 G>C polymorphism of interleukin 6 gene promoter affects interleukin 6 serum level in patients with colorectal cancer. Experimental data suggest that interleukin 6 (IL-6) plays an important role in the development and progression of metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRC), and -174 G>C polymorphism has been identified recently in the IL-6 gene promoter. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the significance of this type of polymorphism in patients with CRC.Using enzyme

2003 Clinical Cancer Research

100308. The combination of the tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor SU6668 with paclitaxel affects ascites formation and tumor spread in ovarian carcinoma xenografts growing orthotopically. (Abstract)

The combination of the tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor SU6668 with paclitaxel affects ascites formation and tumor spread in ovarian carcinoma xenografts growing orthotopically. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antitumor activity of SU6668, tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta), as single-agent therapy and in combination (...) , and involvement of the organ of the peritoneal cavity. Response was evaluated as percentage increment of life span (%ILS).SU6668 affected ascites formation and tumor burden in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice bearing HOC22 and HOC79 xenografts. Decreased levels of VEGF and PDGF in ascites paralleled this effect. The overall survival of the mice bearing HOC xenograft (HOC79 less response than HOC22) was significantly increased by the treatment with SU6668. The magnitude of the effects depended on the length

2003 Clinical Cancer Research

100309. The initial prodrome to bipolar affective disorder: prospective case studies. (Abstract)

The initial prodrome to bipolar affective disorder: prospective case studies. The initial prodrome to bipolar disorder has received very little attention to date, with most of the available data only addressing the prodrome to relapse. This study presents several prospective case studies of the initial prodrome to bipolar affective disorder.Three patients are presented who developed bipolar disorder during their treatment at the Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation Clinic (PACE). They were (...) prospectively interviewed over a 12-month period using standard clinical research interviews.These patients met the criteria for bipolar disorder by the end of the treatment period. Depressive symptoms were the main reason for their first clinical presentation, with mania developing at a later date. Other comorbidities were observed before they were diagnosed with bipolar disorder.The generalisability of our findings was constrained because of the small sample size. Furthermore, our findings are likely

2003 Journal of Affective Disorders

100310. Theory of mind deficits in bipolar affective disorder. (Abstract)

Theory of mind deficits in bipolar affective disorder. Bipolar affective disorder patients often show cognitive deficits that are similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. Theory of mind (the ability to understand others' mental states) is compromised in currently ill schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to establish whether similar deficits are found in bipolar patients.We measured theory of mind ability in 20 bipolar-manic patients, 15 bipolar-depressed patients, 13 bipolar (...) patients in remission and 15 normal controls. The task, which controlled for memory and comprehension, had previously been used in a study of schizophrenia patients.Impaired performance on theory of mind was found for both bipolar-depressed and bipolar-manic patients, even when memory was controlled for. No impairment was observed in the remitted patients.The manic patients scored lower than the remitted patients on a brief measure of intelligence; no other group differences in IQ were

2003 Journal of Affective Disorders

100311. Clinical importance of inter-episode symptoms in patients with bipolar affective disorder. (Abstract)

Clinical importance of inter-episode symptoms in patients with bipolar affective disorder. A literature review was performed to determine whether inter-episode symptoms are of clinical importance in the management of bipolar disorder. Inter-episode symptoms are easy to miss but observational studies confirm that they are related to impaired function and reduced survival to full relapse. Randomised, controlled trials with lithium carbonate, and two studies exploring psychological treatments

2002 Journal of Affective Disorders

100312. Awareness affects the response of human subjects exposed to a single whiplash-like perturbation. (Abstract)

Awareness affects the response of human subjects exposed to a single whiplash-like perturbation. Human subjects were exposed experimentally to a single whiplash-like perturbation.To determine how awareness of the presence and timing of a whiplash-like perturbation affects the onset and amplitude of the neck muscle response and the peak magnitude of head and neck kinematics.Although most whiplash injuries are sustained in rear-end collisions, which occur without warning, most studies of whiplash (...) acceleration of the mastoid process than aware female subjects.The larger retractions observed in surprised females likely produce larger tissue strains and may increase injury potential. Aware human subjects may not replicate the muscle response, kinematic response, or whiplash injury potential of unprepared occupants in real collisions.

2003 Spine

100313. Factors affecting the outcome of early medical abortion: a review of 4132 consecutive cases. (Abstract)

Factors affecting the outcome of early medical abortion: a review of 4132 consecutive cases. To assess the outcome of a regimen of a reduced dose of mifepristone followed by one or two doses of vaginal misoprostol as a non-surgical method for termination of pregnancy.Prospective observational study.Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, Scotland.Women seeking abortion under the 1967 Abortion Act.Factors influencing the outcome in a consecutive series of 4132 women undergoing early medical abortion

2002 BJOG

100314. Various phosphorylation pathways, depending on agonist and antagonist binding to endogenous estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), differentially affect ERalpha extractability, proteasome-mediated stability, and transcriptional activity in human breast cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Various phosphorylation pathways, depending on agonist and antagonist binding to endogenous estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), differentially affect ERalpha extractability, proteasome-mediated stability, and transcriptional activity in human breast cancer Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER) is down-regulated in the presence of its cognate ligand, estradiol (E2), as well as in the presence of antiestrogens, through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Here, we show that, at pharmacological concentrations (...) , the degradation rate of pure antagonist/endogenous ER complexes from human breast cancer MCF-7 cells is 10 times faster than that of ER-E2 complexes, while 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OH-T)-ER complexes are stable. Whereas pure antagonist-ER complexes are firmly bound to a nuclear compartment from which they are not extractable, the 4-OH-T-ER accumulates in a soluble cell compartment. No difference was observed in the fate of ER whether bound to pure antiestrogens ICI 182,780 or RU 58668. Cycloheximide experiments

2003 Molecular Endocrinology

100315. Surgeons, intensivists, and the covenant of care: administrative models and values affecting care at the end of life--Updated. (Abstract)

Surgeons, intensivists, and the covenant of care: administrative models and values affecting care at the end of life--Updated. End-of-life care remains a challenging and complex activity in critical care units. There is little information concerning the influence of administrative models of care delivery on end-of-life care.To compare and contrast end-of-life care delivery in intensive care units using "semiclosed," "open," and "closed" administrative models.Ethnographic study of three critical (...) care units.University hospitals in the United States and New Zealand.Approximately 600 physicians, nurses, allied health personnel, patients, family members, and friends.Ethnographic observations were made at three sites for 75, 3, and 10 wks, respectively. Eighty end-of-life care episodes were observed. The interactions among care personnel and families varied according to the administrative model, depending on whether surgeons or intensivists had primary patient responsibility. This led

2003 Critical Care Medicine

100316. Surgeons, intensivists, and the covenant of care: administrative models and values affecting care at the end of life. (Abstract)

Surgeons, intensivists, and the covenant of care: administrative models and values affecting care at the end of life. End-of-life care remains a challenging and complex activity in critical care units. There is little information concerning the influence of administrative models of care delivery on end-of-life care.To compare and contrast end-of-life care delivery in intensive care units using "semiclosed," "open," and "closed" administrative models.Ethnographic study of three critical care (...) units.University hospitals in the United States and New Zealand.Approximately 600 physicians, nurses, allied health personnel, patients, family members, and friends.Ethnographic observations were made at three sites for 75, 3, and 10 wks, respectively. Eighty end-of-life care episodes were observed. The interactions among care personnel and families varied according to the administrative model, depending on whether surgeons or intensivists had primary patient responsibility. This led to differential timing

2003 Critical Care Medicine

100317. Does gender or age affect the efficacy and safety of tolterodine? (Abstract)

Does gender or age affect the efficacy and safety of tolterodine? We compared the importance of patient age and gender relative to the intensity of baseline symptoms of overactive bladder in the therapeutic response to the muscarinic receptor antagonist tolterodine.Data from an open label, observational study of 2,250 patients with overactive bladder treated for 12 weeks with tolterodine were analyzed for alterations in frequency, urgency and urge incontinence, and for global efficacy (...) significant gender or age associated alterations in the tolerability of tolterodine treatment were detected.The extent of the therapeutic response to tolterodine is largely determined by the extent of baseline symptoms. While gender does not affect the efficacy or tolerability of tolterodine in a clinically relevant manner, advanced age is associated with a slight decrease in efficacy but not in tolerability.

2002 Journal of Urology

100318. On episode sensitization in recurrent affective disorders: the role of noise. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of sensitization. Specifically, we considered the dynamics of episode sensitization with a simple computational model. The present study extends this work by investigating how naturally occurring, internal or external, random influences ("noise") affect episode sensitization. Our simulations demonstrate that actions of noise differ qualitatively in dependence on both the model's activity state as well as the noise intensity. Thereby induction as well as suppression of sensitization can be observed. Most (...) On episode sensitization in recurrent affective disorders: the role of noise. Episode sensitization is postulated as a key mechanism underlying the long-term course of recurrent affective disorders. Functionally, episode sensitization represents positive feedback between a disease process and its disease episodes resulting in a transition from externally triggered to autonomous episode generation. Recently, we introduced computational approaches to elucidate the functional properties

2003 Neuropsychopharmacology

100319. ABCB1 (MDR1)-type P-glycoproteins at the blood-brain barrier modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system: implications for affective disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

function, therefore, is likely to exert a profound influence on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Hyperactivity of the HPA system is frequently observed in human affective disorder, and a considerable amount of evidence has been accumulated suggesting that normalization of the HPA system might be the final step necessary for stable remission of the disease. To examine whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) function influences neuroendocrine regulation, we investigated (...) ABCB1 (MDR1)-type P-glycoproteins at the blood-brain barrier modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system: implications for affective disorder. Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type P-glycoproteins (ABCB1-type P-gps) protect the brain against the accumulation of many toxic xenobiotics and drugs. We recently could show that the access of the endogenous glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol to the brain are regulated by ABCB1-type P-gps in vivo. ABCB1-type P-gp

2003 Neuropsychopharmacology

100320. Circadian clock-related polymorphisms in seasonal affective disorder and their relevance to diurnal preference. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Circadian clock-related polymorphisms in seasonal affective disorder and their relevance to diurnal preference. Disturbed circadian rhythms have been observed in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The aim of this study was to further investigate this connection, and to test for potential association between polymorphisms in circadian clock-related genes and SAD, seasonality (seasonal variations in mood and behavior), or diurnal preference (morningness-eveningness tendencies). A total of 159

2003 Neuropsychopharmacology

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