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100261. A quantitative study of calcium deposition in the aortic wall following Medtronic Freestyle compared with homograft aortic root replacement. A prospective randomized trial. (Abstract)

A quantitative study of calcium deposition in the aortic wall following Medtronic Freestyle compared with homograft aortic root replacement. A prospective randomized trial. Unstented aortic valve substitutes offer many of the theoretical advantages of homografts such as superior hemodynamic performance and enhanced durability, particularly when inserted as a root. Many of these depend on the maintained flexibility of the valve components. Calcification of the aortic wall may adversely affect (...) tool for the detection of calcium in the aortic wall of valve grafts. There is a low rate of calcification during the first 18 months in the Medtronic Freestyle valve, and this appears to be lower than that observed in homografts. Longer-term follow up of the aortic root in these patients is required. This is an ongoing study.

2000 The Journal of heart valve disease Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100262. Effect of region and dentin perfusion on bond strengths of resin-modified glass ionomer cements. (Abstract)

Effect of region and dentin perfusion on bond strengths of resin-modified glass ionomer cements. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that regional differences and pulpal pressure would significantly affect bond strengths of resin-modified glass ionomer cements to dentin.Twenty-six extracted caries-free human third molars were ground to expose middle dentin and were randomly divided into two groups for bonding: no pulpal pressure and pulpal pressure of 15cm H(2)O. Fuji II LC (...) and Fisher's PLSD at the 95% level of confidence.For Fuji II LC, bond strengths to the pulp horn regions were significantly lower than those to the other regions independent of pulpal pressure (p<0.05). On the other hand, regional bond strengths were not observed for Vitremer and Photac-fil Quick 0.05).Pulpal pressure had a stronger influence on bond strengths and failure modes of resin-modified glass ionomers than regional differences of the substrate.

2000 Journal of dentistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100263. Effects of intravenously administered yohimbine on antinociceptive, cardiorespiratory, and postural changes induced by epidural administration of detomidine hydrochloride solution to healthy mares. (Abstract)

rates, rectal temperature, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output were determined, and mares were observed for sweating and urination. Mean scores obtained for test and control groups were compared.Intravenously administered yohimbine significantly reduced mean scores of detomidine-induced perineal analgesia, head ptosis, changes in pelvic limb position, and sweating and diuresis; antagonized detomidine-induced decreases in heart rate and cardiac output; but did not affect detomidine-induced

1999 American journal of veterinary research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100264. Effects of midazolam on small bowel motility in humans. (Abstract)

observation of interdigestive motility, the volunteers were given a test meal and recording continued for another hour. Twenty-eight motility variables were compared.With midazolam the median motility index of phase III in the proximal duodenum was increased by 37% (P < 0.05), which was a consequence of both a longer duration (P < 0.01) and higher pressure amplitudes (P < 0.05), compared with placebo. A longer duration (9%) of phase III was also seen in the distal duodenum (P < 0.05). With midazolam (...) the duration of the migrating motor complex was shortened by 27% (P < 0. 05). No statistically significant difference was found for the number of episodes of phase III registered (P=0.09), or for the other 22 motility variables compared including the duodenal retroperistalsis in late phase III.Midazolam does affect some aspects of duodenal motility, especially in the proximal part, but phase III-related retroperistalsis is not affected.

2000 Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100265. Effects of the 5-HT3 antagonist cilansetron vs placebo on phasic sigmoid colonic motility in healthy man: a double-blind crossover trial. (Full text)

= 0.005), amplitude and duration of contractions and base-line pressure were not affected. The effects of the two cilansetron dosages did not differ. With cilansetron, stool tended to become firmer. No adverse effects were observed. Plasma levels were highest with 8 mg cilansetron.Cilansetron slightly augments meal-stimulated and markedly neostigmine-stimulated phasic motility of the sigmoid colon. When administered over 7 days, it tends to increase stool consistency and is well tolerated.

2000 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

100266. Long-term effects of ursodeoxycholic acid in primary biliary cirrhosis: results of a double-blind controlled multicentric trial. UDCA-Cooperative Group from the Spanish Association for the Study of the Liver. (Abstract)

aminotransferase, and cholesterol levels, effects which were conspicuous after 3 months of treatment and remained similar during the follow-up. During the study 31 patients (10 receiving UDCA and 21 placebo) discontinued the trial because of noncompliance (n=11), voluntary withdrawal (n=19) or adverse effects (n=1). Treatment failure (death or liver transplantation) was observed in 17 patients receiving UDCA and in 11 patients receiving placebo. Times to death or liver transplantation and to clinical (...) complications were not significantly different in patients receiving UDCA or placebo. Histological analysis indicates that UDCA improved portal inflammation and prevented histological stage progression. By contrast, histological stage as well as ductular proliferation and ductopenia progressed in patients receiving placebo.Although UDCA treatment did not significantly affect time to death or liver transplantation and to clinical complications, the effects on both cholestasis and liver histology suggest

2000 Journal of hepatology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

100267. The effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral prednisolone. (Abstract)

, and hydroxyitraconazole were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography up to 47 h.Itraconazole increased the total area under the plasma prednisolone concentration-time curve by 24% (P < 0.001) and the elimination half-life of prednisolone by 29% (P < 0.001) compared with placebo. The peak plasma concentration and time to the peak of prednisolone were not affected by itraconazole. The mean morning plasma cortisol concentration, measured 23 h after the ingestion of prednisolone, during (...) the itraconazole phase was 73% of that during the placebo phase (P < 0.001).The observed minor interaction between itraconazole and oral prednisolone is probably of limited clinical significance. The susceptibility of prednisolone to interact with CYP3A4 inhibitors is considerably smaller than that of methylprednisolone, and itraconazole and probably also other inhibitors of CYP3A4 can be used concomitantly with prednisolone without marked changes in the effects of this corticosteroid.

2000 European journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100268. Persisting long-term benefit of genotype-guided treatment for HIV-infected patients failing HAART. The Viradapt Study: week 48 follow-up. (Abstract)

genotype-guided treatment changes. In the genotype arm, the mean drop in HIV RNA of 1.15 log10 copies/ml, obtained at month 6, persisted at months 9 and 12 (1.15 log10 copies/ml +/- 0.17). In the control arm, an additional drop in HIV RNA to 0.98 log10 +/- 0.22 copies/ml was observed by month 12. In control patients receiving open-label genotype, the percentage of patients with HIV-1 RNA levels below detection limit (200 copies/ml) rose from 14% at month 6 to 30.5% at month 12. This percentage (...) in patients in the control group who received open-label genotyping after the 6 months point. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of primary protease mutations, performance of genotype-guided treatment changes and PI plasma concentrations independently affected virological response.

2000 Antiviral therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100269. Asthma severity, psychophysiological indicators of arousal, and immune function in asthma patients undergoing biofeedback-assisted relaxation. (Abstract)

the potential to affect asthma morbidity. We conducted a small, randomized controlled study, examining the effects of biofeedback-assisted relaxation in 16 nonsmokers with nonsteroid-dependent mild asthma. Data were collected on asthma symptoms, pulmonary function, indicators of arousal, and cellular immune factors. The trained group evidenced a decrease in forehead muscle tension in comparison to the controls, but no changes in peripheral skin temperature. Decreases in asthma severity and bronchodilator (...) medication usage for the experimental group were observed. Pulmonary function testing revealed a significant difference between groups in FEV1/FVC at posttest, with the E group having a higher ratio than the controls. The cellular immune data showed no significant group differences in total white blood cell or lymphocyte counts, but decreases over time were observed. Significant differences were observed in the numbers of neutrophils and basophils in the trained group compared to controls, which supports

2000 Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100270. Effect of recombinant human platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase on allergen-induced asthmatic responses. (Abstract)

not significantly reduce either the early- or late-asthmatic response. Sputum eosinophil cell counts were not affected by treatment, but there was a trend toward a reduction in sputum neutrophils. No significant change in sputum ECP and tryptase was observed between rPAF-AH and placebo. Thus, at the dose studied, the unique anti-PAF agent rPAF-AH demonstrated no significant effect on the allergen-induced dual-phase asthmatic response.

2000 American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100271. Haemodynamic, neurohumoral and exercise effects of losartan vs. captopril in chronic heart failure: results of an ELITE trial substudy. Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly. (Abstract)

Haemodynamic, neurohumoral and exercise effects of losartan vs. captopril in chronic heart failure: results of an ELITE trial substudy. Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly. The AT1 receptor antagonists differ from the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors by achieving a more complete blockade of angiotensin II's actions and by not affecting bradykinin metabolism. There is little information on whether this causes clinically significant differences in haemodynamics, neurohormones (...) artery blood flow by 38.1% at 12 weeks (P = 0.02). There were no substantial differences between losartan and captopril, and no changes occurred in neurohormones or exercise capacity.No substantial differences were observed between losartan and captopril on central or regional haemodynamics, neurohormones or exercise capacity in elderly patients with stable symptomatic heart failure.

1999 European journal of heart failure Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100272. Clinical efficacy of heparin-bonded bypass circuits related to cytokine responses in children. (Abstract)

cytokines were measured before, during, and after CPB, and postoperative status was determined by examining the respiratory index, blood loss, and the post- and preoperative body weight percent ratio.Significant differences in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 patterns were observed during and after CPB between the two groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). All cytokines measured were significantly lower in the heparin-bonded group just after CPB (p < 0.05 (...) ). There were no differences in duration of intubation, intensive care unit or hospital stay, or postoperative blood loss, but the respiratory index 3 hours after CPB and body weight percent ratio 24 and 48 hours after CPB were significantly reduced in the bonded group (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively).Our findings suggest that heparin bonding of the bypass circuits affects early postoperative status and reduces cytokine responses in pediatric cardiac surgery.

2000 The Annals of thoracic surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100273. Fentanyl augments block of sympathetic responses to skin incision during sevoflurane anaesthesia in children. (Abstract)

Fentanyl augments block of sympathetic responses to skin incision during sevoflurane anaesthesia in children. We studied 61 healthy ASA 1 patients (aged 2-6 yr) to determine if fentanyl affects the minimum alveolar concentration which blocks adrenergic responses to skin incision (MAC-BAR) in 50% of children in the presence of 60% nitrous oxide. Patients were allocated randomly to one of three fentanyl groups to receive 0, 2 or 4 micrograms kg-1. Patients also received sevoflurane (...) by addition of fentanyl 2 and 4 micrograms kg-1, respectively. A ceiling effect was not observed and there was a significant difference between the 2 and 4 micrograms kg-1 groups.

2000 British Journal of Anaesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100274. Regional and racial differences in response to antihypertensive medication use in a randomized controlled trial of men with hypertension in the United States. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. (Abstract)

to achieve treatment success with atenolol (P = .02) or prazosin (P = .03) and more likely with diltiazem (P = .05). There was a trend for blacks residing inside the Stroke Belt to have a lower treatment success rate than other race-region groups when treated with captopril (P = .07). Many regional and racial differences in diet, lifestyle, and other characteristics were observed. After adjustment for these characteristics by regression analysis, the effect of residing inside the Stroke Belt remained (...) for captopril (P = .01) and clonidine (P = .01) and approached significance for hydrochlorothiazide (P = .10).Hypertension in patients residing inside the Stroke Belt responded less to the use of several antihypertensive medications and important differences were shown in a number of characteristics that may affect the control of blood pressure, compared with patients residing outside the Stroke Belt.

2000 Archives of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100275. Influence of botulinum toxin site of injections on healing rate in patients with chronic anal fissure. (Abstract)

Influence of botulinum toxin site of injections on healing rate in patients with chronic anal fissure. Botulinum toxin induces healing in patients with idiopathic anal fissure.Fifty patients affected by posterior anal fissure were treated with 20 units of botulinum toxin, injection in the internal anal sphincter on each side of the posterior midline (group I) or on each side of the anterior midline (group II).At 2 months evaluation, a healing scar was observed in 15 patients of group I

2000 American journal of surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100276. Lack of a pharmacokinetic interaction between lansoprazole or pantoprazole and theophylline. (Abstract)

changes in the steady-state theophylline maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (Tmax), minimum plasma concentration (Cmin), area under the plasma concentration-time curve over the 12-h dosing interval (AUC0-12), or apparent total oral clearance (CL/F) were observed within the two treatment groups when theophylline was administered alone or in combination with lansoprazole or pantoprazole. In addition, no significant differences in the changes of steady-state theophylline pharmacokinetics (...) from day 4 to day 11 were noted between the two treatment groups. Treatment with theophylline in combination with either lansoprazole or pantoprazole was well tolerated. All adverse events were transient and rated mild to moderate in severity.Co-administration of either lansoprazole or pantoprazole in healthy subjects does not significantly affect the steady-state pharmacokinetics of theophylline at the therapeutic doses tested.

2000 Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100277. Growth hormone (GH) effects on bone and collagen turnover in healthy adults and its potential as a marker of GH abuse in sports: a double blind, placebo-controlled study. The GH-2000 Study Group. (Full text)

12.2 + 2.9 to 14.6 +/- 3.6 UG/L; P < 0.02), whereas levels of C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen and type I collagen telopeptide declined after day 42 and were no longer significantly above baseline on day 84 (from 3.9 +/- 1.2 to 5.1 +/-1.5 microg/L and from 174 +/- 60 to 173 +/- 53 microg/L, respectively). Gender-related differences were observed in the study; females were less responsive than males to GH administration with respect to procollagen type III and type I collagen telopeptide (...) (P < 0.001). In conclusion, exogenous GH administration affects the biochemical parameters of bone and collagen turnover in a dose- and gender-dependent manner. As GH-induced modifications of most markers, in particular procollagen type III and osteocalcin, persist after GH withdrawal, they may be suitable markers for detecting GH abuse.

2000 The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

100278. Effects of dietary vitamin E on the quality of table eggs enriched with n-3 long-chain fatty acids. (Full text)

-tocopheryl acetate (0, 50, 100, and 200 ppm), whereas the diets of the other groups were supplemented with 3% of fish oil and the same doses of vitamin E. The performances of the hens and egg weights were not affected either by the type of lipid supplement or by the vitamin level. The treatment with fish oil caused a dramatic increase (P < 0.01) of all n-3 fatty acids of the yolk, particularly EPA (19.53 vs. 0.74 mg/egg) and DHA (143.70 vs. 43.66 mg/egg), and an appreciable decrease of arachidonic acid (...) (25.54 vs. 67.72 mg/egg). The different levels of dietary vitamin E slightly affected the fatty acid composition of the yolk. Yolk alpha-tocopherol increased linearly as dietary dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate increased (P < 0.01) from the control level of 90.93 microg/g of yolk to 313.84 microg/g of yolk when 200 ppm were added to the hen diets. Twenty-eight days of storage at room temperature (20 to 25 C) did not alter the yolk fatty acid profile, and, moreover, the levels of vitamin E remained still

2000 Poultry science Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

100279. Cetirizine inhibits bradykinin-induced cutaneous wheal and flare in atopic and healthy subjects. (Abstract)

Cetirizine inhibits bradykinin-induced cutaneous wheal and flare in atopic and healthy subjects. Kinins are vasoactive mediators involved in allergic reactions. When applied on the skin or in the nose, bradykinin (BK) elicits inflammation that is poorly affected by previous H1-blockade. The aim of this study was to compare the possible effect of cetirizine (an H1-antagonist) on wheal and flare responses to BK, histamine, and compound 48/80 in atopic and healthy subjects.In a randomized, double (...) , and 48/80 induced wheal and flare reactions in all placebo-treated subjects. Histamine elicited larger wheal and flare reactions than BK and 48/80. IDT with BK induced four- to sixfold larger wheal and flare reaction than PT. No differences in BK-induced wheal and flare were observed between atopic and healthy subjects. In atopic subjects, cetirizine induced a significant reduction of flare reactions after the BK test (80% for IDT, and 94% for PT [P < 0.01]). Moreover, cetirizine reduced

2000 Allergy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100280. Effects of erythropoietin on platelet reactivity and thrombopoiesis in humans. (Abstract)

by a 50% increase in soluble P-selectin in plasma. Plasma E-selectin levels increased in a dose-dependent fashion by more than 100% during EPO treatment, indicating substantial activation of endothelial cells. A 10% to 20% increase in platelet counts was observed in both EPO groups on day 5. In the placebo group, platelets increased only several days after the first phlebotomy. The increase in platelet counts was not reflected by changes in the amounts of reticulated platelets or circulating (...) progenitor cells. In summary, we found that EPO markedly enhances endothelial activation and platelet reactivity, which may adversely affect patients at cardiovascular risk. However, the increased platelet reactivity could be exploited in patients with platelet dysfunction. (Blood. 2000;95:2983-2989)

2000 Blood Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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