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Observed Affect

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100261. Indication of linkage and genetic heterogeneity for asthma and atopy on chromosomes 8p and 12q in 107 French EGEA families. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Indication of linkage and genetic heterogeneity for asthma and atopy on chromosomes 8p and 12q in 107 French EGEA families. Using the sample of 107 families with at least two asthmatic siblings, as part of the EGEA study, we have investigated linkage to asthma (or atopy) and genetic heterogeneity according to the presence/absence of atopy (or asthma) using two approaches: (1) the triangle test statistic (TTS), which considers the identical by descent (IBD) distribution among affected sib-pairs (...) discordant for another associated phenotype (eg asthmatic sib-pairs discordant for atopy) and (2) the predivided sample test (PST), which compares the IBD distribution of marker alleles between affected sib-pairs concordant and discordant for the associated phenotype. Two regions, 8p and 12q, already reported to be linked to both asthma and atopy, were examined here. A total of 20 asthmatic sib-pairs discordant for atopy and 24 atopic pairs discordant for asthma were analyzed by both TTS and PST methods

2003 European Journal of Human Genetics

100262. Mutation analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene, and the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

variably associated with both the hereditary and the idiopathic form of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Our aim was to analyze the three genes in ACP patients. Mutational screening was performed in 45 unrelated ACP patients and 34 patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). No mutation of PRSS1 was found in ACP and ALD patients. Three mutations of CFTR were detected in four ACP patients with a prevalence (8.9%) not significantly different from that observed (3.0%) in ALD patients and from that expected (...) a "gene(s)-orphan" disease. The supposed genetic susceptibility to ACP relies on other yet unknown gene(s) which could affect the alcohol metabolism or modulate the pancreatic inflammatory response to alcohol abuse.

2003 European Journal of Human Genetics

100263. X-linked spermine synthase gene (SMS) defect: the first polyamine deficiency syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Nonetheless, little is known about the specific cellular functions of these compounds, and extensive laboratory investigations have failed to identify a heritable condition in humans in which polyamine synthesis is perturbed. We report the first polyamine deficiency syndrome caused by a defect in spermine synthase (SMS). The defect results from a splice mutation, and is associated with the Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS, OMIM_309583), an X-linked mental retardation disorder. The affected males have mild (...) -to-moderate mental retardation (MR), hypotonia, cerebellar circuitry dysfunction, facial asymmetry, thin habitus, osteoporosis, kyphoscoliosis, decreased activity of SMS, correspondingly low levels of intracellular spermine in lymphocytes and fibroblasts, and elevated spermidine/spermine ratios. The clinical features observed in SRS are consistent with cerebellar dysfunction and a defective functioning of red nucleus neurons, which, at least in rats, contain high levels of spermine. Additionally

2003 European Journal of Human Genetics

100264. Conceptualization of vulnerability models for schizophrenia: historical aspects. (Abstract)

influences. During the first half of the 20th century the idea of degeneration was abandoned and affective and schizophrenic disorders were conceived as different genetically caused diseases. Further research indicated that the propensity to develop a schizophrenic disorder may sometimes be caused by acquired etiological factors. In both cases it has been observed that this predisposition manifests itself as an overt illness only under the impact of environmental stress. This enhanced attempts

2002 American Journal of Medical Genetics

100265. Genetic linkage of region containing the CREB1 gene to depressive disorders in women from families with recurrent, early-onset, major depression. (Abstract)

significant evidence of linkage of unipolar Mood Disorders to a 451 Kb region of 2q33-34 flanked by D2S2321 and D2S2208 in these families. Increasing peak LOD scores were observed in both the single point and multipoint analyses for Mood Disorder phenotypes whose definitions embodied progressively less stringent severity criteria for inclusion in the affected group. The sex-dependent multipoint linkage analysis of any Major or Minor Mood Disorders produced LOD scores that reached 6.331 and 6.866 (...) at D2S2321 and D2S2208, respectively. Linkage of Mood Disorders to this region was observed exclusively among female affected relative pairs; no suggestion of linkage was observed when male affected relative pairs were analyzed. These observations imply that a sex-specific susceptibility gene in this region contributes to the vulnerability of women in these families to the development of unipolar Mood Disorders that ranged in severity from minor to severe at the time of clinical assessment. The region

2002 American Journal of Medical Genetics

100266. Infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis is associated with mutations in the alsin gene. Full Text available with Trip Pro

was compatible with long survival. Signs of lower motor-neuron involvement were never observed, whereas motor-evoked potentials and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a primitive, pure degeneration of the upper motor neurons. Genotyping and linkage analyses demonstrated that this infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis (IAHSP) is allelic to the condition previously reported as juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at the ALS2 locus on chromosome 2q33-35 (LOD score 6.66 at recombination (...) fraction 0). We analyzed ALS2, recently found mutated in consanguineous Arabic families presenting either an ALS2 phenotype or juvenile-onset primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), as a candidate gene. In 4 of the 10 families, we found abnormalities: three deletions and one splice-site mutation. All the mutations lead to a truncated alsin protein. In one case, the mutation affected both the short and the long alsin transcript. In the six remaining families, absence of cDNA ALS2 mutations suggests either

2002 American Journal of Human Genetics

100267. Family-based analysis using a dense single-nucleotide polymorphism-based map defines genetic variation at PSORS1, the major psoriasis-susceptibility locus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

these issues, we have pursued a high-resolution genetic characterization of the PSORS1 locus. We resequenced genomic segments along a 220-kb region at chromosome 6p21 and identified a total of 119 high-frequency SNPs. Using 59 SNPs (18 coding and 41 noncoding SNPs) whose position was representative of the overall marker distribution, we genotyped a data set of 171 independently ascertained parent-affected offspring trios. Family-based association analysis of this cohort highlighted two SNPs (n.7 and n.9 (...) ) respectively lying 7 and 4 kb proximal to HLA-C. These markers generated highly significant evidence of disease association (P<10-9), several orders of magnitude greater than the observed significance displayed by any other SNP that has previously been associated with disease susceptibility. This observation was replicated in a Gujarati Indian case/control data set. Haplotype-based analysis detected overtransmission of a cluster of chromosomes, which probably originated by ancestral mutation of a common

2002 American Journal of Human Genetics

100268. A genomewide screen for autism-spectrum disorders: evidence for a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 3q25-27. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 4.31 (Z(max )(dom)) for D3S3037, using infantile autism and AS as an affection status. Six markers flanking over a 5-cM region on 3q gave Z(max dom) >3, and a maximum parametric multipoint LOD score (MLS) of 4.81 was obtained in the vicinity of D3S3715 and D3S3037. Association, linkage disequilibrium, and haplotype analyses provided some evidence for shared ancestor alleles on this chromosomal region among affected individuals, especially in the regional subisolate (...) . Additional potential susceptibility loci with two-point LOD scores >2 were observed on chromosomes 1q21-22 and 7q. The region on 1q21-22 overlaps with the previously reported candidate region for infantile autism and schizophrenia, whereas the region on chromosome 7q provided evidence for linkage 58 cM distally from the previously described autism susceptibility locus (AUTS1).

2002 American Journal of Human Genetics

100269. Fine mapping of the IBD1 locus did not identify Crohn disease-associated NOD2 variants: implications for complex disease genetics. (Abstract)

analyses using 27 microsatellite markers encompassing the IBD1 susceptibility locus in 131 CD affected sibling pairs, and a simplex family cohort. No evidence for linkage was observed, and microsatellite markers close to NOD2 did not show association. However, significant association was confirmed in 294 CD trios for the NOD2 variants Arg702Trp and Leu1007fsinsC. Our fine mapping study of the IBD1 locus did not enable us to identify NOD2 as a CD gene, despite the presence of association with disease

2002 American Journal of Medical Genetics

100270. Hunting for a hypoglycemia gene: severe neonatal hypoglycemia in a consanguineous family. (Abstract)

Hunting for a hypoglycemia gene: severe neonatal hypoglycemia in a consanguineous family. Hypoglycemia is a dreaded complication in diabetes mellitus patients treated with insulin, but is also a symptom that is observed in many disorders. In some metabolic diseases of early infancy, low blood glucose is the major presentation and the condition can become life-threatening. Such cases are often attributed to inherited hyperinsulinism. Vidnes and Øyasaeter [1977: Pediatr Res 11:943-949] described (...) that the condition is autosomal recessive and that affected children are homozygous for a mutated allele. The four known genetic causes for inborn hyperinsulinism (mutations in the genes ABCC8, KCNJ11, GLUD1, and GCK) were excluded. Furthermore, we eliminated 13 candidate genes coding for transcription factors involved in pancreas development and differentiation. The analysis was also negative for the genes encoding insulin and glucagon, their receptors, and processing enzymes. The identification of a novel gene

2002 American Journal of Medical Genetics

100271. Fibular aplasia with ectrodactyly. (Abstract)

findings in 47 others identified from the literature or other sources. A key observation was that the sex ratio is biased toward males, especially in apparently sporadic cases. This male bias is largely explained by a lower penetrance rate in women. Both affected males and females had affected children, but the risk to offspring was higher when the mother carried the gene, in keeping with a mixed model for genetic susceptibility, i.e., the penetrance of the major predisposing gene is acting against

2002 American Journal of Medical Genetics

100272. Mutational analysis of the RNX gene in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. (Abstract)

a phenotype similar to CCHS. Based on this observation, we have carried out mutation screening of the RNX gene in a set of 13 patients affected with CCHS, 2 of whom showing association with Hirschsprung disease. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of the whole coding portion of the RNX gene and of 1,311 bp of 5' flanking region were performed. No sequence variant was identified, with the exception of a private nucleotide change at position -874 bp from the ATG codon (...) in two siblings affected with isolated CCHS. A functional test, performed by using the luciferase gene reporter system, has not shown any significant difference in the activity of the promoter region carrying this latter nucleotide change with respect to the wild-type allele. We conclude that RNX, and presumably its expression, are not altered in our index cases of CCHS.Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

2002 American Journal of Medical Genetics

100273. Three novel DNMT3B mutations in Japanese patients with ICF syndrome. (Abstract)

retardation. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes showed chromosomal abnormalities, including multiradial configurations and a stretching of the pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosomes 1 and 16. Hypomethylation of classical satellite 2 DNA was also observed. Mutation analyses of DNMT3B revealed three novel mutations: patient 1 from the first family was a compound heterozygote for a nonsense mutation (Q42Term) and a missense mutation (R832Q); patients 2 and 3 from the second family (...) were both homozygous for a missense mutation (S282P). The R832Q mutation occurred within the conserved methyltransferase domain, and thus may affect the enzyme activity directly. The S282P mutation, on the other hand, occurred close to the PWWP domain, which is presumably involved in protein-protein interaction. This is the first missense mutation mapped to the N-terminal half of the protein, suggesting that the region plays an important role in the regulation of the DNMT3B enzyme.Copyright 2002

2002 American Journal of Medical Genetics

100274. Pigmentary mosaicism of the hyperpigmented type in two half-brothers. (Abstract)

Pigmentary mosaicism of the hyperpigmented type in two half-brothers. Pigmentary mosaicism is a heterogeneous cutaneous phenotype that is often associated with extracutaneous anomalies. It is widely accepted that these phenotypes arise de novo as a result of a postzygotic mutation, leading to a mosaic status of the embryo. In the vast majority of cases, the occurrence of pigmentary mosaicism is sporadic. We report two paternal half-brothers affected with pigmentary mosaicism (...) as observed in patient 1. Paradominant transmission seems unlikely because this would likewise imply that the chromosomal mosaicism is an incidental finding.Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

2002 American Journal of Medical Genetics

100275. Association of ulcerative colitis with the inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility locus IBD2 in non-Jewish Caucasians and evidence of genetic heterogeneity among racial and ethnic populations with Crohn disease. (Abstract)

a notable difference in genotype distribution among Jewish Caucasian and African American patients affected with Crohn disease when compared with similarly affected non-Jewish Caucasians. Using Fisher exact test, statistically significant distribution differences were observed for D12S1022 and D12S83. These data indicate that there may be significant genetic heterogeneity between different ethnic and racial IBD populations or may simply reflect differences in marker allele frequencies among

2002 American Journal of Medical Genetics

100276. A dominantly inherited malformation syndrome with short stature, upper limb anomaly, minor craniofacial anomalies, and absence of TBX5 mutations: report of a Thai family. (Abstract)

A dominantly inherited malformation syndrome with short stature, upper limb anomaly, minor craniofacial anomalies, and absence of TBX5 mutations: report of a Thai family. We report on a Thai family with dominantly inherited malformation syndrome with upper limb anomalies, short stature, quadricuspid aortic valve, and minor craniofacial anomalies. The affected individuals comprised a mildly affected mother, a moderately affected daughter, and a most severely affected son. The daughter and son (...) and resembled what is observed in many families with Holt-Oram syndrome. Moreover, the son showed quadricuspid aortic valve with mild aortic regurgitation. However, the present family did not show any mutation of the TBX5 gene, a disease-causing gene of Holt-Oram syndrome. The present family deserves further investigation on other genes that play a role in the development of the upper limbs, particularly of radial rays.Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

2002 American Journal of Medical Genetics

100277. Heparan sulfate core proteins in cell-cell signaling. (Abstract)

Heparan sulfate core proteins in cell-cell signaling. Heparan sulfate (HS) binds numerous extracellular ligands, including cell-cell signaling molecules and their signal-transducing receptors. Ligand binding sites in HS have specific sulfation patterns; and several observations suggest that the HS sulfation pattern is the same for every HS chain that a cell synthesizes, regardless of the core protein to which it is attached. Nonetheless, virtually every Drosophila, zebrafish, Xenopus, and mouse (...) that lacks a specific HS core protein has a mutant phenotype, even though other HS core proteins are expressed in the affected cells. Genetic manipulation of HS core protein genes is beginning to indicate that HS core proteins have functional specificities that are required during distinct stages of development.

2003 Annual Review of Genetics

100278. Evidence for population growth in humans is confounded by fine-scale population structure. (Abstract)

Evidence for population growth in humans is confounded by fine-scale population structure. Although many studies have reported human polymorphism data, there has been no analysis of the effect of sampling design on the patterns of variability recovered. Here, we consider which factors affect a summary of the allele-frequency spectrum. The most important variable to emerge from our analysis is the number of ethnicities sampled: studies that sequence individuals from more ethnicities recover more (...) rare alleles. These observations are consistent with fine-scale geographic differentiation as well as population growth. They suggest that the geographic sampling strategy should be considered carefully, especially when the aim is to infer the demographic history of humans.

2002 Trends in Genetics

100279. Clinical and genetic studies of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

genetic testing. Our observation also indicated that the second hit (of Knudson's two hit theory) in some BHD related tumours is in the form of somatic mutation rather than LOH. In a large French family in which eight affected subjects carry the c.1733delC mutation, a phenocopy who has multiple episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax was identified. A total of five mutation carriers (aged between 37 to 66) did not have any evidence of BHD features, suggesting either reduced penetrance or late age (...) of onset of the disease. In addition, six out of eight affected subjects who have positive germline mutation have confirmed neoplastic colonic polyps, indicating that colorectal neoplasia is an associated feature of BHD in some families. Our studies have observed several interesting genetic features in BHD: (1) the poly (C) tract in exon 11 as a mutational hot spot; (2) the existence of phenocopy; (3) reduced penetrance or late age of onset of disease; (4) association with colorectal neoplasia in some

2002 Journal of Medical Genetics

100280. The mitochondrial DNA G13513A MELAS mutation in the NADH dehydrogenase 5 gene is a frequent cause of Leigh-like syndrome with isolated complex I deficiency. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with complex I deficiency and a peculiar MRI aspect distinct from typical Leigh syndrome. Brain MRI consistently showed a specific involvement of the substantia nigra and medulla oblongata sparing the basal ganglia. Variable degrees of heteroplasmy were found in all tissues tested and a high percentage of mutant mtDNA was observed in muscle. The asymptomatic mothers presented low levels of mutant mtDNA in blood leucocytes. This mutation, which affects an evolutionary conserved amino acid (D393N), has been (...) previously reported in adult patients with MELAS or LHON/MELAS syndromes, emphasising the clinical heterogeneity of mitochondrial DNA mutations. Since the G13513A mutation was found in 21% of our patients with Leigh syndrome and complex I deficiency (3/14), it appears that this mutation represents a frequent cause of Leigh-like syndrome, which should be systematically tested for molecular diagnosis in affected children and for genetic counselling in their maternal relatives.

2003 Journal of Medical Genetics

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