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Observed Affect

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100201. Albuterol and nedocromil sodium affect airway and leukocyte responses to allergen. (Abstract)

Albuterol and nedocromil sodium affect airway and leukocyte responses to allergen. We investigated the effects of inhaled nedocromil sodium and albuterol administered prior to allergen challenge in the late asthmatic response (LAR) and circulating cells in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. An additional control day (no allergen) was included to determine diurnal variation. On the control day no change in airway caliber occurred, but a diurnal increase in the numbers of all circulating (...) leukocytes except basophils was seen. Placebo premedication followed by allergen challenge caused both an early asthmatic response (EAR) and a late asthmatic response (LAR). Following allergen challenge after placebo the diurnal increase in eosinophils at 8 h was abolished, and elevated eosinophil and basophil counts were observed at 24 h. Nedocromil sodium attenuated both the EAR and the LAR, and it restored the eosinophil and basophil responses toward normal. Albuterol abolished the EAR and attenuated

1993 The American review of respiratory disease Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100202. Mortality in major affective disorder: relationship to subtype of depression. The Danish University Antidepressant Group. (Abstract)

Mortality in major affective disorder: relationship to subtype of depression. The Danish University Antidepressant Group. A total of 219 inpatients with a DSM-III diagnosis of major depression, 150 women and 69 men, were followed prospectively for 3-10 years and mortality was recorded. The patients were previous participants in psychopharmacological multicenter trials, which were carried out for the purpose of comparing the antidepressant effect of newer 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (...) with that of the tricyclic antidepressant drug, clomipramine. The study comprised patients with a total Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of > or = 18 and/or a Hamilton subscale score of > or = 9. Diagnostic classification according to the Newcastle I Scale in endogenous and nonendogenous depression was performed. The observed mortality was significantly greater than that expected. The increased mortality was essentially due to suicides and mainly found among women. Patients scored as nonendogenously depressed

1993 Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100203. Position of the vibroacoustic stimulator does not affect fetal response. (Abstract)

Position of the vibroacoustic stimulator does not affect fetal response. This study was designed to compare the fetal response to the vibroacoustic stimulation test when applied alternately over the fetal vertex or breech.Two hundred five patients with a nonreactive nonstress test after 10 minutes were prospectively randomized to receive the vibroacoustic stimulation test over the fetal vertex (n = 115) or the fetal breech (n = 90). Fetal heart rate reactivity was evaluated. Two patient subsets (...) were evaluated for fetal movement (n = 37) and the fetal startle response (n = 20) after the vibroacoustic stimulation test.Virtually identical fetal heart rate responses and increases in fetal movement were observed after vibroacoustic stimulation over the fetal vertex or breech. The fetal startle response was uniformly observed in both groups.Vibroacoustic stimulation over the fetal breech elicits an identical short-term fetal response compared with stimulation over the fetal vertex, potentially

1992 American journal of obstetrics and gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100204. [Does antihypertensive treatment with amlodipine or enalapril affect quality of life? A multicenter study in general practice]. (Abstract)

[Does antihypertensive treatment with amlodipine or enalapril affect quality of life? A multicenter study in general practice]. In this multicentre trial in general practice the effect of one year of therapy with amlodipine or enalapril on quality of life and blood pressure was studied in 461 hypertensive patients. Quality of life was evaluated by means of a questionnaire administered on five occasions during the study. A total of 125 questions were distributed between psychological general (...) well-being, own perception of health, social relations, sexual and cognitive functioning, and a combined index for frequency and intensity of symptoms. Both drugs were equally effective in reducing blood pressure, from 162/106 to 142/91 mm Hg, and had the same effect on quality of life. Neither of the drugs reduced quality of life, and in some of the variables a slight improvement (2-5%) was observed. The two compounds were tolerated equally well. Apart from class-typical effects (coughing

1993 Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100205. Fentanyl-induced muscle rigidity as affected by pretreatment with amantadine hydrochloride. (Abstract)

Fentanyl-induced muscle rigidity as affected by pretreatment with amantadine hydrochloride. To determine whether the degree of muscle rigidity in humans caused by the administration of high-dose fentanyl is affected by pretreatment with amantadine hydrochloride, a drug that stimulates the release of dopamine in the basal ganglia.Randomized, observer-blinded comparison of regimes.Inpatient surgery at a university-affiliated teaching hospital.Sixteen patients scheduled for elective surgery (...) clinically evaluated for the degree of muscle rigidity of the chest wall, abdomen, and extremities.A single observer, blinded to the technique, evaluated and recorded the degree of muscle rigidity present in the chest wall, abdomen, and upper extremities immediately after administration of the fentanyl and 3 minutes later. The observer was the same individual in all instances. In no case did the muscle rigidity compromise our ability to adequately oxygenate the patient.Muscle rigidity associated

1992 Journal of clinical anesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100206. Pretreatment with theophylline does not affect adenosine-induced thallium-201 myocardial imaging. (Abstract)

Pretreatment with theophylline does not affect adenosine-induced thallium-201 myocardial imaging. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of intravenous theophylline given before intravenous adenosine for thallium-201 imaging. Sixteen patients with known reversible thallium-201 defects were randomized to a double-blind crossover study of a 45-minute infusion of placebo or theophylline (given as the ethylenediamine salt, aminophylline, mean concentration 16.1 mg/L) before adenosine (...) similar following treatment with theophylline and placebo. The increase in heart rate observed during adenosine infusion was significantly reduced by theophylline pretreatment. Adenosine-induced symptoms (both cardiac and noncardiac) as well as ischemic electrocardiographic changes were significantly reduced after theophylline infusion (p < 0.05). In one patient, Mobitz type II heart block seen during adenosine infusion following placebo was absent with theophylline pretreatment. The size of adenosine

1993 American heart journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100207. In vivo administration of azithromycin affects lymphocyte activity in vitro. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vivo administration of azithromycin affects lymphocyte activity in vitro. A therapeutic dose of azithromycin was administered to test subjects and then the following lymphocyte functions were examined in vitro: proliferative lymphocyte response to stimulation with pokeweed mitogen, levels of immunoglobulins G, A, and M in serum, and the amount of the soluble interleukin 2 receptors in supernatants of mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and phorbol myristate acetate (...) of the lymphocyte function was not observed, which could represent valuable information. Likewise, no effect of azithromycin on levels of the immunoglobulins in serum was observed. The most marked effect of azithromycin on the lymphocyte function was demonstrated by an elevation in the amount of soluble interleukin 2 receptor production in mononuclear cell cultures. The lack of impairment or, perhaps, even a beneficial influence on the immunodefense system may be an important property of azithromycin

1993 Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100208. Physical state of meal affects gastric emptying, cholecystokinin release and satiety. (Abstract)

Physical state of meal affects gastric emptying, cholecystokinin release and satiety. To verify the influence of food consistency on satiety mechanisms we evaluated the effects of the same meal in solid-liquid (SM) and homogenized (HM) form on satiety sensation, gastric emptying rate and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentration. Eight healthy men, aged 21-28 (mean 24.5) years were given two meals (cooked vegetables 250 g, cheese 35 g, croutons 50 g and olive oil 25 g, total energy 2573 kJ (...) emptying rate and satiety sensation. Moreover, the relationship observed between antral area and fullness sensation confirms that antral distension plays a part in the regulation of eating behaviour.

1998 The British journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100209. Training affects myosin heavy chain phenotype in the trapezius muscle of women. (Abstract)

Training affects myosin heavy chain phenotype in the trapezius muscle of women. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether 10 weeks of three different types of training can alter the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition of the trapezius muscle. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to three training groups that performed strength (n=9), endurance (n=7) or coordination training (n=5). Pre and post biopsies were taken from the upper part of the descending trapezius muscle and were (...) period, myotubes and individual small-sized muscle fibres were observed in the strength and endurance trained groups. These structures were stained with the markers for early myogenesis (MyHC embryonic and neonatal). These data suggest that specific shifts in MyHC isoforms occur in the trapezius muscle following strength and endurance training. The presence of small-sized muscle fibres expressing the developmental isoforms of MyHC suggests that strength and endurance training induced the formation

1999 Histochemistry and cell biology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100210. Analysis of client characteristics that may affect early discontinuation of the TCu-380A IUD. (Abstract)

Analysis of client characteristics that may affect early discontinuation of the TCu-380A IUD. The purpose of this study was to analyze the reasons for early discontinuation of the TCu-380A IUD in women participating in a large multicenter trial. The study relates specific characteristics of the women at the time of TCu-380A insertion with specific 1-year reasons for discontinuation. A secondary analysis was performed on data obtained from 2748 women from sites in Africa, Asia, and Latin America (...) . By the end of the year, 321 discontinuations were observed. The gross cumulative 12-month life table rates of reasons for discontinuation were 13.3 for all reasons and 3.1, 4.5, and 4.3 for expulsion, removals for bleeding/pain, and personal reasons, respectively. Study site, age, and religion had a significant effect on early discontinuation. Women who had IUD insertions in the African centers had significantly higher expulsion rates than women from other centers. Women < 20 years old had significantly

1999 Contraception Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100211. Can knitting structure affect dilation of polyester bifurcated prostheses? A randomized study with the use of helical computed tomography scanning. (Abstract)

Can knitting structure affect dilation of polyester bifurcated prostheses? A randomized study with the use of helical computed tomography scanning. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the postoperative dilation of two types of knitted polyester arterial prostheses with the use of helical computed tomographic scanning.Thirty-four patients who underwent aortoiliac or aortofemoral bifurcation grafting were randomized to receive a collagen-sealed warp-knitted polyester graft (n = 16 (...) in graft dilation was observed at 3 and 6 months. Despite the wide range of values among patients with the same graft type, at each time interval, the Köper-knitted grafts dilated significantly less than the warp-knitted grafts (P <. 05).In this randomized study, helical computed tomographic scanning was an accurate technique with which to assess graft dilation. For a 6-month follow-up interval, the Köper-knitted polyester structure dilated less than the warp-knitted structure. Longer-term serial scans

2000 Journal of vascular surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100212. Spatial and temporal summation of sensory and affective dimensions of deep somatic pain. (Abstract)

/ widespread musculoskeletal pain, both scores were significantly different (sensory: P < 0.001, s.; affective: P = 0.041, s.). Time in and spread of pain influenced the perceptual correlates of pain to a significant degree. The major increase in the sensory dimension occurred from 'no pain' to 'acute pain'. Affective scores showed the most significant increases from acute to tonic pain, particularly with greater spatial involvement. The significant increases in sensory scores observed when contrasting (...) Spatial and temporal summation of sensory and affective dimensions of deep somatic pain. There is considerable evidence in support of differential information processing of the sensory-discriminative and motivational-affective meanings of pain. The purpose of this work was to examine whether temporal (acute, tonic, persistent) and spatial (local, regional, widespread) aspects of deep somatic pain influence the sensory and affective dimensions of pain. Acute pain consisted of a short bout

1999 Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100213. Serotonin hypothesis of winter depression: behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of the 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist ipsapirone in patients with seasonal affective disorder and healthy control subjects. (Abstract)

Serotonin hypothesis of winter depression: behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of the 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist ipsapirone in patients with seasonal affective disorder and healthy control subjects. Winter depressions in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) are associated with central serotonergic (5-HT) dysfunction. SAD patients demonstrate rather specific, state-dependent, abnormal increases in 'activation-euphoria' ratings following intravenous infusion of the 5-HT receptor agonist (...) responses. There were significant drug x order effects on baseline 'anxiety' scores, ACTH and cortisol concentrations, such that subjects were significantly more stressed (higher 'anxiety', ACTH and cortisol) prior to their first challenge compared with their second. In conclusion, post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors appear to function normally in SAD. The previously observed m-CPP-induced behavioral abnormality may be mediated by either 5-HT2C or 5-HT7 receptors.

1999 Psychiatry research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100214. Do the components of heat and moisture exchanger filters affect their humidifying efficacy and the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia? (Abstract)

Do the components of heat and moisture exchanger filters affect their humidifying efficacy and the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia? To compare the efficiency of two heat and moisture exchange filters (HMEFs) of different compositions of the humidifying capacity and the rate of bronchial colonization and ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).Prospective, randomized study.ICU of a university hospital.All patients who required mechanical ventilation for 24 (...) secretions and the presence of blood and viscosity, as evaluated by semiquantitative scales, were similar in both groups. One episode of tracheal tube occlusion was observed with the Humid-Vent Filter Light HMEF and none with the other HMEF (NS). Tracheal colonization was observed at a rate of 91% with the Humid-Vent Filter Light and 97% with the Clear ThermAl (NS). The rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was similar in both groups (35%). Bacteria responsible for tracheal colonization and pneumonia

1999 Critical care medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100215. Functional biochemical and nutrient indices in frail elderly people are partly affected by dietary supplements but not by exercise. Full Text available with Trip Pro

glutathione reductase-alpha to 39% for 25-hydroxy vitamin D and 42% for vitamin B-12. These were corrected after 17 wk in the two groups receiving the nutrient-dense foods, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control or exercise group. Biochemical and hematologic indicators at baseline were within the reference ranges (mean albumin, 46 g/L; prealbumin, 0.25 g/L; hemoglobin, 8.6 mmol/L) and were not affected by any of the interventions. The long-term protective effects of nutrient (...) Functional biochemical and nutrient indices in frail elderly people are partly affected by dietary supplements but not by exercise. A decline in dietary intake due to inactivity and, consequently, development of a suboptimal nutritional status is a major problem in frail elderly people. However, benefits of micronutrient supplementation, all-round physical exercise or a combination of both on functional biochemical and hematologic indicators of nutritional and health status in frail elderly

1999 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100216. How does a change in the administration method affect the reliability of the COOP/WONCA Charts? World Organization of National Colleges, Academies and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians. (Abstract)

or administration method would affect the results.We carried out a cross-sectional test-retest study on 487 Chinese adult patients attending a family medicine clinic in Hong Kong. The COOP/WONCA Charts were administered by the same interviewer, two different interviewers or self-completion and interviewer administration, on test and retest. The random, inter-observer and inter-method variances were compared with the inter-subject variance. The reliability coefficient of each COOP/WONCA Chart was calculated (...) How does a change in the administration method affect the reliability of the COOP/WONCA Charts? World Organization of National Colleges, Academies and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians. An interviewer is often needed to administer the COOP/WONCA Charts to Chinese patients, and this may affect the reliability of results.We aimed to find out the reliability of the COOP/WONCA Charts administered by an interviewer, and whether a change in the interviewer

1999 Family Practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100217. Dietary changes favorably affect bone remodeling in older adults. (Abstract)

Dietary changes favorably affect bone remodeling in older adults. To determine whether dietary counseling to increase milk intake could produce useful changes in the calcium economy and what, if any, other nutrition-related changes might be produced.Randomized, open trial.Two hundred four healthy men and women, aged 55 to 85 years, who habitually consumed fewer than 1.5 servings of dairy foods per day. Six academic health centers in the United States.Subjects were instructed to consume 3 (...) changes in the control group. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase level (a bone formation marker) fell by approximately 9% in both groups. Serum level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) rose by 10% in the milk group (P < .001), and the level of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) fell slightly (1.9%) in the milk group and rose significantly (7.9%) in the control group (P < .05).The changes observed in the calcium economy through consumption of food sources of calcium are similar

1999 Journal of the American Dietetic Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100218. Does short-term treatment with modafinil affect blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea? (Abstract)

Does short-term treatment with modafinil affect blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea? To investigate the effects of modafinil, a central nonamphetamine awakening substance, on blood pressure and heart rate in hypersomnolent patients with obstructive sleep apnea.This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed over 2 days and 3 nights in a single-center study of hospitalized patients from a referred care center. Twenty-six otherwise healthy men (...) observed. Longterm studies that include subjects with hypertension are necessary to investigate the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular effects of modafinil.

1999 Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100219. Interferon-alpha before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in chronic myelogenous leukemia does not affect outcome adversely, provided it is discontinued at least 90 days before the procedure. (Abstract)

Interferon-alpha before allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in chronic myelogenous leukemia does not affect outcome adversely, provided it is discontinued at least 90 days before the procedure. The influence of interferon-alpha (IFN) pretreatment on the outcome after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is controversial. One goal of the German randomized CML Studies I and II, which compare IFN +/- chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone (...) , was the analysis of whether treatment with IFN as compared to chemotherapy had an influence on the outcome after BMT. One hundred ninety-seven (23%) of 856 Ph/bcr-abl-positive CML patients were transplanted. One hundred fifty-two patients transplanted in first chronic phase were analyzed: 86 had received IFN, 46 hydroxyurea, and 20 busulfan. Forty-eight patients (32%) had received transplants from unrelated donors. Median observation time after BMT was 4.7 (0.7 to 13.5) years. IFN and chemotherapy cohorts were

1999 Blood Controlled trial quality: uncertain

100220. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of oral penicillin, diethylcarbamazine or local treatment of the affected limb in preventing acute adenolymphangitis in lymphoedema caused by brugian filariasis. (Abstract)

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of oral penicillin, diethylcarbamazine or local treatment of the affected limb in preventing acute adenolymphangitis in lymphoedema caused by brugian filariasis. Acute attacks of adenolymphangitis (ADL) contribute significantly to the morbidity seen in cases of filarial lymphoedema. Such cases are now being treated with multiple courses of the antifilarial drug diethylcarbamazine (DEC), either alone or in combination with antibiotics (...) seems to play the most important role in the prevention of ADL attacks. Additional benefit may accrue from local or systemic antibiotic use in those with high grades of oedema, but antifilarials have no place in the prevention of ADL attacks in an individual patient. These observations should help in the rational management and prevention of ADL attacks in filarial lymphoedema, so that the progression of the disease may be halted and morbidity reduced.

1999 Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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