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Observed Affect

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61. Steroidal contraceptives and bone fractures in women: evidence from observational studies. (Abstract)

Steroidal contraceptives and bone fractures in women: evidence from observational studies. Age-related decline in bone mass increases the risk of skeletal fractures, especially those of the hip, spine, and wrist. Steroidal contraceptives have been associated with changes in bone mineral density in women. Whether such changes affect the risk of fractures later in life is unclear. Hormonal contraceptives are among the most effective and most widely-used contraceptives. Concern about fractures may (...) limit the use of these effective contraceptives. Observational studies can collect data on premenopausal contraceptive use as well as fracture incidence later in life.We systematically reviewed the evidence from observational studies of hormonal contraceptive use for contraception and the risk of fracture in women.Through June 2015, we searched for observational studies. The databases included PubMed, POPLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), LILACS, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web

2015 Cochrane

62. Medicare Spending and the Adequacy of Support With Daily Activities in Community-Living Older Adults With Disability: An Observational Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Medicare Spending and the Adequacy of Support With Daily Activities in Community-Living Older Adults With Disability: An Observational Study. Identifying factors that affect variation in health care spending among older adults with disability may reveal opportunities to better address their care needs while offsetting excess spending.To quantify differences in total Medicare spending among older adults with disability by whether they experience negative consequences due to inadequate support (...) ($2309 [CI, $208 to $4409]) and self-care ($3187 [CI, $432 to $5942]) disability. In the bottom-spending quartile, differences were observed for self-care only ($1460 [CI, $358 to $2561]). No differences were observed in the top quartile.This observational study could not establish causality.Inadequate support for mobility and self-care is associated with higher Medicare spending, especially in the middle and lower ends of the spending distribution. Better support for the care needs of older adults

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

63. Non-communicable diseases in decontamination workers in areas affected by the Fukushima nuclear disaster: a retrospective observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Non-communicable diseases in decontamination workers in areas affected by the Fukushima nuclear disaster: a retrospective observational study. To assess the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and whether NCDs were treated or not, among hospitalised decontamination workers who moved to radio-contaminated areas after Japan's 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster.We retrospectively extracted records of decontamination workers admitted to Minamisoma Municipal General

2016 BMJ open

64. Drug-related genetic polymorphisms affecting severe chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in breast cancer patients: A hospital-based observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Drug-related genetic polymorphisms affecting severe chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in breast cancer patients: A hospital-based observational study. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) is one of the major adverse events that necessitate chemotherapy dose reduction. This study aimed to evaluate the association between grade 4 neutropenia and genetic polymorphisms in breast cancer patients. In this genetic polymorphism association study, peripheral blood samples from 100 consecutive breast

2016 Medicine

65. Embedded-structure template for electronic records affects patient note quality and management for emergency head injury patients: An observational pre and post comparison quality improvement study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Embedded-structure template for electronic records affects patient note quality and management for emergency head injury patients: An observational pre and post comparison quality improvement study. Along with article-based checklists, structured template recording systems have been reported as useful to create more accurate clinical recording, but their contributions to the improvement of the quality of patient care have been controversial. An emergency department (ED) must manage many

2016 Medicine

66. Nursing Interactions With Intensive Care Unit Patients Affected by Sleep Deprivation: An Observational Study. (Abstract)

Nursing Interactions With Intensive Care Unit Patients Affected by Sleep Deprivation: An Observational Study. Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) often experience sleep deprivation due to different factors. Its consequences are damaging both physiologically and psychologically. This study focuses particularly on nursing interactions as the main factor involved in sleep deprivation issues.The aims of this study were to examine the frequency, pattern, and types of nocturnal care interactions (...) with patients in the respiratory and cardiology ICUs; analyze the relationship between these interactions and patients' variables (age, sex, recovery diagnosis, and acuity of care); and analyze the differences in patterns of nocturnal care interactions among the units.This is an observational retrospective study that analyzes the frequency, pattern, and types of nocturnal care interactions with patients between 7 PM and 6 AM recording data in the activity data sheets.Data consisted of 93 data assessment

2016 Dimensions of critical care nursing

67. Factors Affecting Access to Healthcare: An Observational Study of Children under 5 Years of Age Presenting to a Rural Gambian Primary Healthcare Centre Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors Affecting Access to Healthcare: An Observational Study of Children under 5 Years of Age Presenting to a Rural Gambian Primary Healthcare Centre Prompt access to primary healthcare before onset of severe illness is vital to improve morbidity and mortality rates. The Gambia has high rates of child mortality and research is needed to investigate contributing factors further. This study aimed to identify factors affecting access to primary healthcare for children <5 years (y) in rural

2016 PloS one

68. Factors affecting the normality of channel outputs of channelized model observers: an investigation using realistic myocardial perfusion SPECT images Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors affecting the normality of channel outputs of channelized model observers: an investigation using realistic myocardial perfusion SPECT images The channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) uses the first- and second-order statistics of channel outputs under both hypotheses to compute test statistics used in binary classification tasks. If these input data deviate from a multivariate normal (MVN) distribution, the classification performance will be suboptimal compared to an ideal observer

2016 Journal of Medical Imaging

69. Do Case Rates Affect Physicians' Clinical Practice in Radiation Oncology?: An Observational Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Do Case Rates Affect Physicians' Clinical Practice in Radiation Oncology?: An Observational Study Case rate payments combined with utilization monitoring may have the potential to improve the quality of care by reducing over and under-treatment. Thus, a national managed care organization introduced case rate payments at one multi-site radiation oncology provider while maintaining only fee-for-service payments at others. This study examined whether the introduction of the payment method had (...) suggest that the introduction of case rate payments did not adversely affect the rate of guideline-based care at the provider examined. Additional research is needed to isolate the effect of the payment model and assess implications in other populations.

2016 PloS one

70. The Role of Cognitive and Affective Empathy in Spouses' Support Interactions: An Observational Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Role of Cognitive and Affective Empathy in Spouses' Support Interactions: An Observational Study The present study examined how support providers' empathic dispositions (dispositional perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) as well as their situational empathic reactions (interaction-based perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) relate to the provision of spousal support during observed support interactions. Forty-five committed couples provided (...) questionnaire data and participated in two ten-minute social support interactions designed to assess behaviors when partners are offering and soliciting social support. A video-review task was used to assess situational forms of perspective taking (e.g., empathic accuracy), empathic concern and personal distress. Data were analyzed by means of the multi-level Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Results revealed that providers scoring higher on affective empathy (i.e., dispositional empathic concern

2016 PloS one

71. Sperm Chromatin Immaturity Observed in Short Abstinence Ejaculates Affects DNA Integrity and Longevity In Vitro Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sperm Chromatin Immaturity Observed in Short Abstinence Ejaculates Affects DNA Integrity and Longevity In Vitro The influence of ejaculatory abstinence (EA) on semen parameters and subsequent reproductive outcome is still debatable; hence understanding the impact of EA on sperm structural and functional integrity may provide a valuable information on predicting successful clinical outcome.To understand the influence of EA on sperm chromatin maturity, integrity, longevity and global methylation (...) status.This experimental prospective study included 76 ejaculates from 19 healthy volunteers who provided ejaculates after observing 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of abstinence. Sperm chromatin maturity, DNA integrity and global methylation status were assessed in the neat ejaculate. Sperm motility, DNA integrity and longevity were assessed in the processed fraction of the fresh and frozen-thawed ejaculates to determine their association with the length of EA.Spermatozoa from 1 day ejaculatory abstinence (EA-1

2016 PloS one

72. Factors Affecting the Length of Stay of Patients in Emergency Department Observation Units at Teaching and Research Hospitals in Turkey Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors Affecting the Length of Stay of Patients in Emergency Department Observation Units at Teaching and Research Hospitals in Turkey This study aimed to determine the reasons for long stays in monitoring units and to propose a solution.The patients who were followed in monitoring units of emergency service and the factors affecting the length of their hospital stay were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic features, their initial complaint that lead to monitoring, diagnosis, their means (...) for 24 hours or more, 8 (53.3%) stayed because there wasn't enough space in intensive care units. The most prevalent complaint for admission to the emergency service was chest pain (25.5%), followed by dyspnea (21.9%) and tachycardia (11.6%).For real emergency conditions, monitoring units are necessary to follow patients closely and to perform immediate interventions. The fullness of the intensive care units primarily affects the emergency service and leads to long stays in emergency service

2016 Turkish journal of emergency medicine

73. Approach–avoidance of facial affect is moderated by the presence of an observer-irrelevant trigger Full Text available with Trip Pro

Approach–avoidance of facial affect is moderated by the presence of an observer-irrelevant trigger This study examined whether approach-avoidance related behaviour elicited by facial affect is moderated by the presence of an observer-irrelevant trigger that may influence the observer's attributions of the actor's emotion. Participants were shown happy, disgusted, and neutral facial expressions. Half of these were presented with a plausible trigger of the expression (a drink). Approach (...) -avoidance related behaviour was indexed explicitly through a questionnaire (measuring intentions) and implicitly through a manikin version of the affective Simon task (measuring automatic behavioural tendencies). In the absence of an observer-irrelevant trigger, participants expressed the intention to avoid disgusted and approach happy facial expressions. Participants also showed a stronger approach tendency towards happy than towards disgusted facial expressions. The presence of the observer-irrelevant

2016 Motivation and emotion

74. Overhydration Negatively Affects Quality of Life in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Evidence from a Prospective Observational Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Overhydration Negatively Affects Quality of Life in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Evidence from a Prospective Observational Study Backgound: This study evaluated whether the hydration status affected health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during 12 months in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.The hydration status and the HRQOL were examined at baseline and after 12 months using a bioimpedance spectroscopy and Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form, respectively in PD patients. Four hundred (...) was independently associated with higher PCS (β = 2.04, P< .001), MCS (β=1.02, P=0.002), and KDCS (β=1.06, P<0.001) at 12 months. The OH difference was independently associated with the PCS difference (β = -1.81, P<0.001), MCS difference (β=-0.92, P=0.01), and KDCS difference (β=-0.90, P=0.001).The hydration status was associated with HRQOL and increased hydration status negatively affected HRQOL after 12 months in PD patients.

2016 International journal of medical sciences

75. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from (...) the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced

2016 PloS one

76. Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients under Directly Observed Treatment Short Course and Factors Affecting Outcome in Southern Ethiopia: A Five-Year Retrospective Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients under Directly Observed Treatment Short Course and Factors Affecting Outcome in Southern Ethiopia: A Five-Year Retrospective Study Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health and socio-economic issues in the 21st century globally. Assessment of TB treatment outcomes, and monitoring and evaluation of its risk factors in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) are among the major indicators of the performance of a national TB control (...) . Tuberculosis type, age, residence and year of treatment were significantly associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome. The risk of unsuccessful outcome was significantly higher among TB patients from rural areas (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21-2.20) compared to their urban counterparts. Unsuccessful treatment outcome was also observed in PTB- patients (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.26-2.50) and EPTB (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.28-3.37) compared to the PTB+ patients. In conclusion, it appears that DOTS have improved

2016 PloS one

77. Does increased duration of consultant presence affect length of hospital stay for unplanned admissions in acute paediatrics?: an observational before-and-after analysis using administrative healthcare data. (Abstract)

Does increased duration of consultant presence affect length of hospital stay for unplanned admissions in acute paediatrics?: an observational before-and-after analysis using administrative healthcare data. This study aims to review whether implementation of increased duration of consultant presence is associated with reduction in length of hospital stay (LoS) in children with an unplanned admission to hospital. METHOD DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS/OUTCOME MEASURES: An observational

2016 Archives of Disease in Childhood

78. Hypotonic fluid reduce serum sodium compared to isotonic fluids during anesthesia induction in pediatric patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery-type of infusion affects blood electrolytes and glucose: an observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hypotonic fluid reduce serum sodium compared to isotonic fluids during anesthesia induction in pediatric patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery-type of infusion affects blood electrolytes and glucose: an observational study. Reportedly, administration of hypotonic fluids containing 30.8-74 mEq/L sodium with 5 % glucose may lead to serious hyponatremia or hyperglycemia. In Japan, hypotonic fluids containing 90 mEq/L sodium with 2.6 % glucose are commonly used. We compared blood electrolyte

2016 BMC Pediatrics

79. How does closed system vitrification of human oocytes affect the clinical outcome? A prospective, observational, cohort, noninferiority trial in an oocyte donation program. Full Text available with Trip Pro

How does closed system vitrification of human oocytes affect the clinical outcome? A prospective, observational, cohort, noninferiority trial in an oocyte donation program. To evaluate whether is possible to vitrify oocytes in an aseptic (hermetically closed) fashion and maintain clinical results comparable with those of fresh oocytes.Prospective, observational, cohort, noninferiority trial.Private in vitro fertilization center.One hundred eighty-four recipients of donated vitrified (...) oocytes.Closed system vitrification.Pregnancy rate per cycle and clinical pregnancy rate per cycle.No statistically significant differences were observed between two groups regarding the pregnancy rate per cycle (63.1% vs. 60.9%) or the clinical pregnancy rate per cycle (55.4% vs. 58.7%). Biochemical pregnancy rate was statistically significantly higher in the fresh group (7.6% vs. 2.2%). The mean number of embryos transferred was similar (2.0 ± 0.0 vs. 1.97 ± 0.3). Concerning embryologic data, there were

2016 Fertility and Sterility

80. Measurement of the Quality of Facial Lesion Reconstruction With Observer-Graded Affect Display. (Abstract)

Measurement of the Quality of Facial Lesion Reconstruction With Observer-Graded Affect Display. The impact of facial reconstructive surgery on improving affect display for patients with facial lesions is incompletely understood.To measure the impact of surgically reconstructing facial lesions on observer graded affect display.This was a prospective randomized controlled experiment at an academic tertiary referral center; 120 naïve observers completed one of 4 surveys of 20 images of faces.A (...) total of 80 different images of faces were used: 32 faces with lesions preoperatively and postoperatively, and 16 normal faces. The 32 lesion faces were categorized into 4 categories of lesion with 8 faces in each category: small peripheral, small central, large peripheral, and large central. Participants viewed 20 images of faces: 8 preoperative, 8 postoperative, and 4 normal. Observers rated faces by selecting all terms that applied from 8 affects of the Derogatis Affects Balance Scale (DABS

2016 JAMA facial plastic surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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