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Observed Affect

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21. "Normal-appearing" scalp areas are also affected in lichen planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia: an observational histopathologic study of 40 patients. (Abstract)

"Normal-appearing" scalp areas are also affected in lichen planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia: an observational histopathologic study of 40 patients. Lichen planopilaris (LPP) and frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) are lymphocyte-mediated scarring alopecias which clinically affect primarily the anterior and mid-scalp. However, unaffected scalp areas have not yet been investigated in a systemic manner. In this study, we assessed histopathologic changes in affected and unaffected scalp (...) of histopathological inflammation, scalp symptoms and clinical lesions in the corresponding affected scalp areas. This preliminary study suggests that both diseases may be more generalized processes which affect the scalp and therefore need systemic or total scalp therapy.© 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2018 Experimental Dermatology

22. Observing dyspnoea in others elicits dyspnoea, negative affect, and brain responses. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Observing dyspnoea in others elicits dyspnoea, negative affect, and brain responses. Dyspnoea is usually caused by diagnosable cardiorespiratory mechanisms. However, frequently dyspnoea relates only weakly or not at all to cardiorespiratory functioning, suggesting that additional neuropsychosocial processes contribute to its experience. We tested whether the mere observation of dyspnoea in others constitutes such a process and would elicit dyspnoea, negative affect and increased brain responses (...) compared to control stimuli. This was paralleled by increased late positive potentials for dyspnoea-related pictures while respiratory variables did not change. Moreover, increased dyspnoea correlated modestly with higher levels of empathy in observers.The present results demonstrate that observing dyspnoea in others elicits mild-to-moderate dyspnoea, negative affect, and increased brain responses in the absence of respiratory changes. This vicarious dyspnoea has clinical relevance, as it might

2018 European Respiratory Journal

23. Concurrent Chemoradiation Affects the Clinical Outcome of Small Bowel Complications Following Pelvic Irradiation: Prospective Observational Study from a Regional Cancer Center Full Text available with Trip Pro

Concurrent Chemoradiation Affects the Clinical Outcome of Small Bowel Complications Following Pelvic Irradiation: Prospective Observational Study from a Regional Cancer Center Background To appraise the spectrum of small bowel complications following pelvic irradiation and to assess the clinical outcome and factors associated with adverse clinical outcome in these patients. Methods This descriptive clinical study was done for three years in a tertiary care center in South India. Patients (...) with respect to overall mortality, the requirement of surgery, and operative mortality. However patients who were operated and those who received CCRT had a significantly longer mean intensive care unit (ICU) stay (3.51 days vs. 0.68 days; p = 0.0001) as well as overall mean hospital stay (14.87 days vs. 5.58 days; p = 0.001) and an insignificant mortality rate (16% vs. 15%; p = 0.4085). Conclusion The present study observed that the patients who were operated and those who received CCRT had significantly

2018 Cureus

24. Insomnia, negative affect, and psychotic experiences: Modelling pathways over time in a clinical observational study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Insomnia, negative affect, and psychotic experiences: Modelling pathways over time in a clinical observational study Insomnia has been shown to contribute to the development of psychotic experiences, predominantly via increasing negative affect. However, the role of insomnia in the persistence of psychotic experiences is yet to be investigated in a clinical population. Furthermore, other plausible influences, such as psychotic experiences contributing to insomnia, remain to be evaluated (...) . This study tests the role of insomnia as a predictor of persistence of psychotic experiences versus other potential causal routes. Twenty-nine patients aged 18-30 with non-affective psychosis completed three assessments over three months of their insomnia, negative affect, and psychotic experiences. Mixed effect models allowed comparisons between hypothesis-based models (comprising insomnia as predictor, negative affect as mediator, and psychotic experiences as outcome) and oppositional models, where

2018 Psychiatry research

25. Extent and location of fixation affects the biomechanical stability of short- or long-segment pedicle screw technique with screwing of fractured vertebra for the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures: An observational study using finite element analy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Extent and location of fixation affects the biomechanical stability of short- or long-segment pedicle screw technique with screwing of fractured vertebra for the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures: An observational study using finite element analy Intermediate screw fixation at the fracture level has been widely accepted to treat thoracolumbar burst fractures, but no study has shown the effect of the extent and location of fixation. The effect of the extent and location of fixation (...) -L3, and M5-L2 (bilateral 5 monoaxial pedicle screw fixation from L2 to T10). Range of motion (ROM) and largest von Mises stress (LVMS) of the instrumentations were recorded and analyzed.No significant differences were observed in the mean ROM of all states of motion between the M3-L1 model and the other fixation models except for M5-L2. The LVMS of the pedicle screws and rods all occurred during flexion. The LVMS values of the pedicle screws were larger in the M3-L2 fixation model and M4-L3

2018 Medicine

26. How the Availability of Observation Status Affects Emergency Physician Decisionmaking. Full Text available with Trip Pro

How the Availability of Observation Status Affects Emergency Physician Decisionmaking. This study seeks to understand how emergency physicians decide to use observation services, and how placing a patient under observation influences physicians' subsequent decisionmaking.We conducted detailed semistructured interviews with 24 emergency physicians, including 10 from a hospital in the US Midwest, and 14 from 2 hospitals in central and northern England. Data were extracted from the interview (...) transcripts with open coding and analyzed with axial coding.We found that physicians used a mix of intuitive and analytic thinking in initial decisions to admit, observe, or discharge patients, depending on the physician's individual level of risk aversion. Placing patients under observation made some physicians more systematic, whereas others cautioned against overreliance on observation services in the face of uncertainty.Emergency physicians routinely make decisions in a highly resource-constrained

2018 Annals of Emergency Medicine

27. Variables Affecting Thigh Girth Measurement and Observer Reliability in Dogs Full Text available with Trip Pro

Variables Affecting Thigh Girth Measurement and Observer Reliability in Dogs Objective: The purpose of the study reported here was to describe variables affecting thigh girth measurements preoperatively and 2 weeks after surgical stabilization of the stifle and to examine inter- and intra-observer reliability. Animals: Ten hound-type dogs with experimental, unilateral, cranial cruciate ligament transection, and surgical stabilization. Procedures: Dogs were placed in lateral recumbency (...) measurements were made by two blinded individuals in triplicate, data were recorded for each set of measurements and the mean of the three measurements for each condition was used for analysis. Results: Thigh girth was significantly greater at the more proximal site of 50% TL (36.7 ± 2.6 cm) when compared to the 70% TL (31.7 ± 2.7 cm) (P = 0.001). Sedation did not significantly affect thigh girth at any stifle position at the 70% and 50% TL. Although there were no differences in thigh circumference between

2018 Frontiers in veterinary science

28. Observer bias

Observer bias Observer bias - Catalog of Bias Catalogue of Bias Navigate this website Observer bias The process of observing and recording information which includes systematic discrepancies from the truth. Table of Contents Background Observer bias is a type of detection bias that can affect assessment in observational and interventional studies. Parta’s gives the following definition: “Systematic difference between a true value and the value actually observed due to observer variation (...) the fairest test of an intervention. However, if any part of the data collection process involves observation, observer bias can affect the measurement in the study. Example Observer bias has been repeatedly been documented in studies of blood pressure. Clinicians measuring participants blood pressure using mercury sphygmomanometers have been , readings to the nearest whole number. Observer bias may also occur if the researcher has a , leading to arbitrary adjustments of the readings. Impact Hróbjartsson

2018 Catalogue of Bias

29. Evaluation of IL-12RB1, IL-12B, CXCR-3 and IL-17a expression in cases affected by a non-healing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis: an observational study design. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of IL-12RB1, IL-12B, CXCR-3 and IL-17a expression in cases affected by a non-healing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis: an observational study design. Seldom cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) may present as a lasting and active lesion(s), known as a non-healing form of CL (NHCL). Non-functional type 1 T helper (Th1) cells are assumed the most important factor in the outcome of the disease. The present study aims to assess some molecular defects that potentially contribute to Th1 impairment (...) in NHCL.This prospective observational study will be implemented among five groups. The first and second groups comprise patients afflicted with non-healing and healing forms of CL, respectively. The third group consists of those recovered participants who have scars as a result of CL. Those participants who have never lived or travelled to endemic areas of leishmaniasis will comprise the fourth group. The fifth group comprises participants living in hyperendemic areas for leishmaniasis, although none

2017 BMJ open

30. Outcome of day treatment for older adults with affective disorders: An observational pre-post design of two transdiagnostic approaches. (Abstract)

Outcome of day treatment for older adults with affective disorders: An observational pre-post design of two transdiagnostic approaches. First, to evaluate the outcome of 2 transdiagnostic day treatment programs. A 20-week psychotherapeutic day treatment (PDT) and an activating day treatment (ADT) program delivered in blocks of 4 weeks with a maximum of 24 weeks with respect to depression, anxiety, and hypochondriasis. Second, to explore the impact of cognitive impairment and personality (...) nor ADT. Cognitive impairment negatively interfered with the course of depressive symptoms among patients receiving PDT.Transdiagnostic day treatment is promising for older adults with affective disorders with high feasibility.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2017 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

31. Factors affecting seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery: an observational series. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors affecting seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery: an observational series. Surgical treatment can bring seizure remission in people with focal epilepsy but requires careful selection of candidates.To determine which preoperative factors are associated with postoperative seizure outcome.We audited seizure outcome of 693 adults who had resective epilepsy surgery between 1990 and 2010 and used survival analysis to detect preoperatively identifiable risk factors of poor seizure

2017 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

32. Aging and a genetic KIBRA polymorphism interactively affect feedback- and observation-based probabilistic classification learning. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Aging and a genetic KIBRA polymorphism interactively affect feedback- and observation-based probabilistic classification learning. Probabilistic category learning involves complex interactions between the hippocampus and striatum that may depend on whether acquisition occurs via feedback or observation. Little is known about how healthy aging affects these processes. We tested whether age-related behavioral differences in probabilistic category learning from feedback or observation depend (...) on a genetic factor known to influence individual differences in hippocampal function, the KIBRA gene (single nucleotide polymorphism rs17070145). Results showed comparable age-related performance impairments in observational as well as feedback-based learning. Moreover, genetic analyses indicated an age-related interactive effect of KIBRA on learning: among older adults, the beneficial T-allele was positively associated with learning from feedback, but negatively with learning from observation. In younger

2017 Neurobiology of Aging

33. The hypospadias classification affected the surgical outcomes of staged oral mucosa graft urethroplasty in hypospadias reoperation: An observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The hypospadias classification affected the surgical outcomes of staged oral mucosa graft urethroplasty in hypospadias reoperation: An observational study. The staged graft urethroplasty is a recommended technique for repairing complex hypospadias. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the outcomes of this technique in hypospadias patients undergoing reoperation and to analyze the underlying contributing factors including age, meatus location, and graft and suture type.We (...) graft urethroplasty is an effective technique in reoperative hypospadias repairs with reasonable complication risk. The hypospadias classification affects the surgical outcomes.Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

2017 Medicine

34. Factors affecting the course and severity of adult acne. Observational cohort study. (Abstract)

Factors affecting the course and severity of adult acne. Observational cohort study. To identify factors improving symptoms and shortening duration of AA.The observational cohort study was performed in 111 patients with AA (>25 y.o.) in 2015-2016. Clinical manifestation, previous treatments, environmental risk factors and features of juvenile acne affecting AA were assessed.The maximum severity of persistent acne was significantly lower after 25 years of age, as compared to adolescence (7.2 vs

2017 Journal of Dermatological Treatment

35. Continuous Intraoperative Epidural Infusions Affect Recovery Room Length Of Stay And Analgesic Requirements: A Single-Center Observational Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Continuous Intraoperative Epidural Infusions Affect Recovery Room Length Of Stay And Analgesic Requirements: A Single-Center Observational Study Continuous intraoperative epidural analgesia may improve post-operative pain control and decrease opioid requirements. We investigate the effect of epidural infusion initiation before or after arrival in the post-anesthesia care unit on recovery room duration and post-operative opioid use.We performed a retrospective chart review of abdominal, thoracic

2017 Journal of anesthesia

36. Observing Third-Party Attentional Relationships Affects Infants' Gaze Following: An Eye-Tracking Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Observing Third-Party Attentional Relationships Affects Infants' Gaze Following: An Eye-Tracking Study Not only responding to direct social actions toward themselves, infants also pay attention to relevant information from third-party interactions. However, it is unclear whether and how infants recognize the structure of these interactions. The current study aimed to investigate how infants' observation of third-party attentional relationships influence their subsequent gaze following. Nine (...) -month-old, 1-year-old, and 1.5-year-old infants (N = 72, 37 girls) observed video clips in which a female actor gazed at one of two toys after she and her partner either silently faced each other (face-to-face condition) or looked in opposite directions (back-to-back condition). An eye tracker was used to record the infants' looking behavior (e.g., looking time, looking frequency). The analyses revealed that younger infants followed the actor's gaze toward the target object in both conditions

2017 Frontiers in psychology

37. Expertise Affects Inter-Observer Agreement at Peripheral Locations within a Brain Tumor Full Text available with Trip Pro

Expertise Affects Inter-Observer Agreement at Peripheral Locations within a Brain Tumor Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a crucial tool for clinical brain tumor detection and delineation. Since the process of gross tumor volume delineation resides with clinicians, a better understanding of how they perform this task is required if improvements in life expectancy are to be made. Novice-expert comparison studies have been used to examine the effect of expertise on abnormality detection (...) was also observed. The implications of these results for the training undertaken by early career radiologists and current practices in hospitals are discussed.

2017 Frontiers in psychology

38. An observational descriptive survey of rosacea in the Chinese population: clinical features based on the affected locations Full Text available with Trip Pro

An observational descriptive survey of rosacea in the Chinese population: clinical features based on the affected locations There is currently no study that has evaluated the differences in epidemiological and clinical characteristics among rosacea patients according to different facial sites.Clinical and demographic data were obtained from 586 rosacea patients. The patients were divided into four groups based on the main sites involved with the rosacea lesions (full-face, cheeks, nose (...) %) on the nose.Significant differences in clinical features were observed among rosacea patients with lesions at four different sites. The lesion localization of each group was relatively stable and barely transferred to other locations.

2017 PeerJ

39. The Validation of Macro and Micro Observations of Parent–Child Dynamics Using the Relationship Affect Coding System in Early Childhood Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Validation of Macro and Micro Observations of Parent–Child Dynamics Using the Relationship Affect Coding System in Early Childhood This study examined the validity of micro social observations and macro ratings of parent-child interaction in early to middle childhood. Seven hundred and thirty-one families representing multiple ethnic groups were recruited and screened as at risk in the context of Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) Nutritional Supplement service settings. Families were (...) randomly assigned to the Family Checkup (FCU) intervention or the control condition at age 2 and videotaped in structured interactions in the home at ages 2, 3, 4, and 5. Parent-child interaction videotapes were micro-coded using the Relationship Affect Coding System (RACS) that captures the duration of two mutual dyadic states: positive engagement and coercion. Macro ratings of parenting skills were collected after coding the videotapes to assess parent use of positive behavior support and limit

2017 Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

40. Current desires of conspecific observers affect cache-protection strategies in California scrub-jays and Eurasian jays Full Text available with Trip Pro

Current desires of conspecific observers affect cache-protection strategies in California scrub-jays and Eurasian jays Many corvid species accurately remember the locations where they have seen others cache food, allowing them to pilfer these caches efficiently once the cachers have left the scene [1]. To protect their caches, corvids employ a suite of different cache-protection strategies that limit the observers' visual or acoustic access to the cache site [2,3]. In cases where an observer's (...) sensory access cannot be reduced it has been suggested that cachers might be able to minimise the risk of pilfering if they avoid caching food the observer is most motivated to pilfer [4]. In the wild, corvids have been reported to pilfer others' caches as soon as possible after the caching event [5], such that the cacher might benefit from adjusting its caching behaviour according to the observer's current desire. In the current study, observers pilfered according to their current desire

2017 Current Biology

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