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Observed Affect

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1. Negative affectivity and social inhibition are associated with increased cardiac readmission in patients with heart failure: A preliminary observation study. (Full text)

Negative affectivity and social inhibition are associated with increased cardiac readmission in patients with heart failure: A preliminary observation study. Type D personality was hypothesized to influence clinical and patient-centered outcomes patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between negative affectivity and social inhibition components of Type D personality and cardiac readmission in patients with heart failure.A prospective observational (...) study design was used. A total of 222 patients with heart failure were recruited from the department of cardiology in two regional hospitals in Taiwan. The 14-item Type D Scale-Taiwanese version was used to assess negative affectivity and social inhibition of the patients. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of both Z-score transformed and dichotomized negative affectivity and social inhibition with 6-month and 18-month cardiac readmissions.A total of 55 patients

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

2. Observation and Imitation of Social Emotions Are Essential for Improving Cognitive and Affective Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Observation and Imitation of Social Emotions Are Essential for Improving Cognitive and Affective Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis. People with schizophrenia often demonstrate deficits in theory of mind (ToM), which may be addressed via social cognition training that includes observation and imitation of social emotions. We examined the effect of observation and imitation on ToM and whether computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve ToM. Among 14 controlled trials, 264 (...) of 494 people with schizophrenia received treatment. Observation and imitation of social emotions improved cognitive (g = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.76) and affective ToM (g = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.73), versus treatment as usual or cognitive rehabilitation alone. CCT did not significantly enhance affective ToM (p = 0.42); however, cognitive ToM improvements without CCT (g = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.78-1.61) were superior to those with CCT (g = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.02-0.64; p < 0.01). Observation

2020 The Journal of nervous and mental disease

3. Hydromorphone Unit Dose Affects Intraoperative Dosing: An Observational Study. (Full text)

Hydromorphone Unit Dose Affects Intraoperative Dosing: An Observational Study. Although clinical factors related to intraoperative opioid administration have been described, there is little research evaluating whether administration is influenced by drug formulation and, specifically, the unit dose of the drug. The authors hypothesized that the unit dose of hydromorphone is an independent determinant of the quantity of hydromorphone administered to patients intraoperatively.This observational (...) (risk ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.11-1.98; P = 0.008).This observational study using an interrupted time series analysis demonstrates that unit dose of hydromorphone (2 mg vs. 1 mg) is an independent determinant of the quantity of hydromorphone administered to patients in the intraoperative period.

2020 Anesthesiology PubMed abstract

4. Observer-independent assessment of psoriasis affected area using machine learning. (Abstract)

Observer-independent assessment of psoriasis affected area using machine learning. Assessment of psoriasis severity is strongly observer-dependent and objective assessment tools are largely missing. The increasing number of patients receiving highly expensive therapies that are reimbursed only for moderate-to-severe psoriasis motivates the development of higher quality assessment tools.To establish an accurate and objective psoriasis assessment method based on segmenting images by machine (...) learning technology.In this retrospective, non-interventional, single-centered, interdisciplinary study of diagnostic accuracy 259 standardized photographs of Caucasian patients were assessed and typical psoriatic lesions were labelled. 203 of those were used to train and validate an assessment algorithm which was then tested on the remaining 56 photographs. The results of the algorithm assessment were compared with manually marked area, as well as with the affected area determined by trained

2019 Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

5. How unmeasured confounding in a competing risks setting can affect treatment effect estimates in observational studies. (Full text)

How unmeasured confounding in a competing risks setting can affect treatment effect estimates in observational studies. Analysis of competing risks is commonly achieved through a cause specific or a subdistribution framework using Cox or Fine & Gray models, respectively. The estimation of treatment effects in observational data is prone to unmeasured confounding which causes bias. There has been limited research into such biases in a competing risks framework.We designed simulations to examine (...) on the event-of-interest. The association between correlation and bias is reversed if the unmeasured confounder affects the competing event. These effects are reversed for the bias on the treatment effect of the competing event and are amplified when there are uneven treatment arms.The effect of unmeasured confounding on an event-of-interest or a competing event should not be overlooked in observational studies as strong correlations can lead to bias in treatment effect estimates and therefore cause

2019 BMC medical research methodology PubMed abstract

6. Does deprivation affect the demand for NHS Direct? Observational study of routine data from Wales. (Full text)

Does deprivation affect the demand for NHS Direct? Observational study of routine data from Wales. To estimate the effect of deprivation on the demand for calls to National Health Service Direct Wales (NHSDW) controlling for confounding factors.Study of routine data on over 400 000 calls to NHSDW using multiple regression to analyse the logarithms of ward-specific call rates across Wales by characteristics of call, patient and ward, notably the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation.810 electoral

2019 BMJ open PubMed abstract

7. Individual and organizational factors that affect implementation of evidence-based practices for children with autism in public schools: a cross-sectional observational study. (Full text)

Individual and organizational factors that affect implementation of evidence-based practices for children with autism in public schools: a cross-sectional observational study. Children with autism receive most of their intervention services in public schools, but implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for autism varies. Studies suggest that individual (attitudes) and organizational characteristics (implementation leadership and climate) may influence providers' use of EBPs (...) of the three EBPs.Attitudes toward EBPs may affect teachers' decisions to use EBPs; however, implementation leadership and climate did not predict EBP use. Future implementation efforts ought to consider the type of EBP and its fit within the context in terms of the EBP's similarities to and differences from existing practices and programs in the setting. Implementation strategies that target individual attitudes about EBPs may be warranted in public schools.

2019 Implementation Science PubMed abstract

8. Morbidity and mortality in a population of patients affected by heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an observational study. (Full text)

Morbidity and mortality in a population of patients affected by heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an observational study. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) often coexist. Moreover, elderly patients suffering from HF have a higher incidence of COPD, which further complicates their clinical condition. Indacaterol/glycopirronium has shown benefits in the treatment of COPD, with few cardiologic adverse effects. We evaluated the safety

2019 BMC Cardiovascular Disorders PubMed abstract

9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients affected by breast ductal carcinoma in situ with and without microinvasion: Retrospective observational study. (Full text)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients affected by breast ductal carcinoma in situ with and without microinvasion: Retrospective observational study. With the introduction of an organized mammographic screening, the incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has experienced an important increase. Our experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) among patients with DCIS is reviewed.We collected retrospective data on patients operated on their breasts for DCIS (pTis), DCIS

2019 Medicine PubMed abstract

10. How does hard-to-reach status affect antiretroviral therapy adherence in the HIV-infected population? Results from a meta-analysis of observational studies. (Full text)

How does hard-to-reach status affect antiretroviral therapy adherence in the HIV-infected population? Results from a meta-analysis of observational studies. Socially disadvantaged groups, such as drug users, sex workers and homeless individuals, are labelled as "hard-to-reach" (HTR) in public health and medical research. HIV disproportionately impacts these populations, but data on how the HTR status could affect antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV-positive people are limited (...) design, exposure measurement, adherence cut-off points, etc. Subgroup analyses revealed that the HTRs tend to be suboptimal adhering during a longer observational period.HIV treatment adherence is extremely negatively affected by HTR status. It is crucial to develop appropriate interventions to improve ART adherence and health outcomes among HTR people who are HIV-infected.

2019 BMC Public Health PubMed abstract

11. Melatonin Affects Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults While Dual Tasking: A Randomized Observation Study. (Abstract)

Melatonin Affects Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults While Dual Tasking: A Randomized Observation Study. The effects of a single 3-mg dose of melatonin on the postural control and cognitive performance of community-dwelling older adults were documented. The testing involved stepping down while performing a cognitive task (a Stroop test). Thirty-four older adults were recruited. Immediately before and 1 hr after taking a dose of melatonin, they completed a single-leg standing (...) task after stepping down with and without a simultaneous Stroop test, and a double-leg standing task. The findings indicated a statistically significant increase in sway area under the dual-tasking condition after taking melatonin (p = .04) and the double-leg standing task (p = .018). However, cognitive performance per se was not affected by the melatonin. Melatonin impairs postural control in older adults but not cognitive performance.

2018 Journal of aging and physical activity Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12. Problems to affect long-term survival for breast cancer patients: An observational study of subsequent lung/bronchus malignancies. (Full text)

Problems to affect long-term survival for breast cancer patients: An observational study of subsequent lung/bronchus malignancies. The overall survival of breast cancer (BC) patients increased significantly for decades; however, their long-term survival was seriously impaired by subsequent malignancies. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors of subsequent lung / bronchus primary malignancies among BC survivors.A total of 535,941 BC female survivors diagnosed were identified by using (...) factor for lung/bronchus cancer. Even though BC patients had a favorite 5-year survival, their long-term survival was affected by subsequent malignancies, especially for lung/bronchus cancer with high mortality.Nearly 13% BC survivors suffered from subsequent malignancies. Increased risk was related to HER2/HR triple negative and advanced TNM stages. Radiotherapy and surgery were protective factors. Our findings may inform the subsequent cancer counseling of female BC survivors.

2018 Medicine PubMed abstract

13. The multidimensional representational space of observed socio-affective touch experiences (Full text)

The multidimensional representational space of observed socio-affective touch experiences Observed touch interactions provide useful information on how others communicate with the external world. Previous studies revealed shared neural circuits between the direct experience and the passive observation of simple touch, such as being stroked/slapped. Here, we investigate the complexity of the neural representations underlying the understanding of others' socio-affective touch interactions (...) , these results highlight the overall complexity and the individual modulation of the distributed neural representations underlying the processing of observed socio-affective touch.Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 NeuroImage PubMed abstract

14. Voluntarily controlled but not merely observed visual feedback affects postural sway (Full text)

Voluntarily controlled but not merely observed visual feedback affects postural sway Online stabilization of human standing posture utilizes multisensory afferences (e.g., vision). Whereas visual feedback of spontaneous postural sway can stabilize postural control especially when observers concentrate on their body and intend to minimize postural sway, the effect of intentional control of visual feedback on postural sway itself remains unclear. This study assessed quiet standing posture (...) increased postural sway only in the voluntary-control group. Furthermore, regardless of the instructions and feedback manipulations, the experienced sense of control over visual feedback positively correlated with the magnitude of postural sway. We suggest that voluntarily controlled, but not merely observed, visual feedback is incorporated into the feedback control system for posture and begins to affect postural sway.

2018 PeerJ PubMed abstract

15. Domain-specific physical activity and affective wellbeing among adolescents: an observational study of the moderating roles of autonomous and controlled motivation (Full text)

Domain-specific physical activity and affective wellbeing among adolescents: an observational study of the moderating roles of autonomous and controlled motivation Abundant evidence demonstrates a relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing. However, the strength of the relationship is not consistent. Factors contributing to variation in the strength of association are not well understood and, therefore, it remains difficult to optimize physical activity to ensure the strongest (...) possible relationship with mental health. Self-determination theory suggests that more autonomously motivated behaviors lead to better mental health outcomes, when compared to more controlled behaviors. Therefore, we examined whether autonomous and controlled motivation moderated the relationships between physical activity and affective wellbeing within two domains (i.e., leisure-time and active travel).Between February and April 2014, adolescents (N = 1632, M age = 12.94 years, SD = 0.54, 55% male

2018 The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity PubMed abstract

16. How early media exposure may affect cognitive function: A review of results from observations in humans and experiments in mice (Full text)

How early media exposure may affect cognitive function: A review of results from observations in humans and experiments in mice Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now among the most commonly diagnosed chronic psychological dysfunctions of childhood. By varying estimates, it has increased by 30% in the past 20 years. Environmental factors that might explain this increase have been explored. One such factor may be audiovisual media exposure during early childhood. Observational (...) studies in humans have linked exposure to fast-paced television in the first 3 years of life with subsequent attentional deficits in later childhood. Although longitudinal and well controlled, the observational nature of these studies precludes definitive conclusions regarding a causal relationship. As experimental studies in humans are neither ethical nor practical, mouse models of excessive sensory stimulation (ESS) during childhood, akin to the enrichment studies that have previously shown benefits

2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PubMed abstract

17. Observing Others’ Gaze Direction Affects Infants’ Preference for Looking at Gazing- or Gazed-at Faces (Full text)

Observing Others’ Gaze Direction Affects Infants’ Preference for Looking at Gazing- or Gazed-at Faces Eye gaze is an important signal in social interactions, and it plays an important role to understand what others looking in joint attention (JA) situations. JA has been examined in situations involving two people gazing at objects; however, ecologically, infants observe not only faces that gaze at objects but also those that gaze at other people. Here, we examined how eye gaze directed (...) toward another face affect face preferences in infants. A total of 19 children were observed during a JA situation and a no-JA situation. In the JA situation, an adult face in the central position of the screen shifted her gaze to look at another adult face at a lateral position on the screen. However, during the no JA situation, the central face shifted her eye gaze away from the adult face presented on the screen. At test, for the centrally presented faces, infant looking times were longer at faces

2018 Frontiers in psychology PubMed abstract

18. An Individual’s Connection to Nature Can Affect Perceived Restorativeness of Natural Environments. Some Observations about Biophilia (Full text)

An Individual’s Connection to Nature Can Affect Perceived Restorativeness of Natural Environments. Some Observations about Biophilia This study investigates the relationship between the level to which a person feels connected to Nature and that person's ability to perceive the restorative value of a natural environment. We assume that perceived restorativeness may depend on an individual's connection to Nature and this relationship may also vary with the biophilic quality of the environment

2018 Behavioral Sciences PubMed abstract

19. Factors Affecting the Effective Management of Acute Stroke: A Prospective Observational Study (Full text)

Factors Affecting the Effective Management of Acute Stroke: A Prospective Observational Study Stroke, characterized by sudden loss of cerebral function, is among one of the leading cause of death and disability world over. The newer treatment modalities have changed the landscape of stroke treatment but are very much time bound.To characterize pre-hospital and in-hospital factors affecting acute stroke management thus defining lacunae in stroke management.A prospective observational study

2018 Indian journal of critical care medicine : peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine PubMed abstract

20. Non-Verbal Cognitive Abilities in Children and Adolescents Affected by Migraine and Tension-Type Headache: An Observational Study Using the Leiter-3 (Full text)

Non-Verbal Cognitive Abilities in Children and Adolescents Affected by Migraine and Tension-Type Headache: An Observational Study Using the Leiter-3 Headache is one of the most common neurological disorders in developmental age. Several studies investigated the relationship between headache and emotional/behavioral problems. We studied non-verbal cognitive abilities, including non-verbal memory and attention skills, in order to evaluate the impact of primary headache on these domains (...) . The latest version of the cognitive battery Leiter International Performance Scale - Third Edition (Leiter-3), a non-verbal test, was administered to 35 children and adolescents affected by migraine or tension-type headache and to 23 healthy subjects. We found that frequency of attacks and headache disability (evaluated with the Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Score Questionnaire) significantly correlate with non-verbal memory and sustained attention skills. However, we found that headache

2018 Frontiers in neurology PubMed abstract

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