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Observed Affect

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1. Negative affectivity and social inhibition are associated with increased cardiac readmission in patients with heart failure: A preliminary observation study. (PubMed)

Negative affectivity and social inhibition are associated with increased cardiac readmission in patients with heart failure: A preliminary observation study. Type D personality was hypothesized to influence clinical and patient-centered outcomes patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between negative affectivity and social inhibition components of Type D personality and cardiac readmission in patients with heart failure.A prospective observational (...) study design was used. A total of 222 patients with heart failure were recruited from the department of cardiology in two regional hospitals in Taiwan. The 14-item Type D Scale-Taiwanese version was used to assess negative affectivity and social inhibition of the patients. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of both Z-score transformed and dichotomized negative affectivity and social inhibition with 6-month and 18-month cardiac readmissions.A total of 55 patients

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2019 PLoS ONE

2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients affected by breast ductal carcinoma in situ with and without microinvasion: Retrospective observational study. (PubMed)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients affected by breast ductal carcinoma in situ with and without microinvasion: Retrospective observational study. With the introduction of an organized mammographic screening, the incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has experienced an important increase. Our experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) among patients with DCIS is reviewed.We collected retrospective data on patients operated on their breasts for DCIS (pTis), DCIS

2019 Medicine

3. Morbidity and mortality in a population of patients affected by heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an observational study. (PubMed)

Morbidity and mortality in a population of patients affected by heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an observational study. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) often coexist. Moreover, elderly patients suffering from HF have a higher incidence of COPD, which further complicates their clinical condition. Indacaterol/glycopirronium has shown benefits in the treatment of COPD, with few cardiologic adverse effects. We evaluated the safety

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2019 BMC Cardiovascular Disorders

4. How does hard-to-reach status affect antiretroviral therapy adherence in the HIV-infected population? Results from a meta-analysis of observational studies. (PubMed)

How does hard-to-reach status affect antiretroviral therapy adherence in the HIV-infected population? Results from a meta-analysis of observational studies. Socially disadvantaged groups, such as drug users, sex workers and homeless individuals, are labelled as "hard-to-reach" (HTR) in public health and medical research. HIV disproportionately impacts these populations, but data on how the HTR status could affect antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV-positive people are limited (...) design, exposure measurement, adherence cut-off points, etc. Subgroup analyses revealed that the HTRs tend to be suboptimal adhering during a longer observational period.HIV treatment adherence is extremely negatively affected by HTR status. It is crucial to develop appropriate interventions to improve ART adherence and health outcomes among HTR people who are HIV-infected.

2019 BMC Public Health

5. Does deprivation affect the demand for NHS Direct? Observational study of routine data from Wales. (PubMed)

Does deprivation affect the demand for NHS Direct? Observational study of routine data from Wales. To estimate the effect of deprivation on the demand for calls to National Health Service Direct Wales (NHSDW) controlling for confounding factors.Study of routine data on over 400 000 calls to NHSDW using multiple regression to analyse the logarithms of ward-specific call rates across Wales by characteristics of call, patient and ward, notably the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation.810 electoral

2019 BMJ open

6. How unmeasured confounding in a competing risks setting can affect treatment effect estimates in observational studies. (PubMed)

How unmeasured confounding in a competing risks setting can affect treatment effect estimates in observational studies. Analysis of competing risks is commonly achieved through a cause specific or a subdistribution framework using Cox or Fine & Gray models, respectively. The estimation of treatment effects in observational data is prone to unmeasured confounding which causes bias. There has been limited research into such biases in a competing risks framework.We designed simulations to examine (...) on the event-of-interest. The association between correlation and bias is reversed if the unmeasured confounder affects the competing event. These effects are reversed for the bias on the treatment effect of the competing event and are amplified when there are uneven treatment arms.The effect of unmeasured confounding on an event-of-interest or a competing event should not be overlooked in observational studies as strong correlations can lead to bias in treatment effect estimates and therefore cause

2019 BMC medical research methodology

7. Observer-independent assessment of psoriasis affected area using machine learning. (PubMed)

Observer-independent assessment of psoriasis affected area using machine learning. Assessment of psoriasis severity is strongly observer-dependent and objective assessment tools are largely missing. The increasing number of patients receiving highly expensive therapies that are reimbursed only for moderate-to-severe psoriasis motivates the development of higher quality assessment tools.To establish an accurate and objective psoriasis assessment method based on segmenting images by machine (...) learning technology.In this retrospective, non-interventional, single-centered, interdisciplinary study of diagnostic accuracy 259 standardized photographs of Caucasian patients were assessed and typical psoriatic lesions were labelled. 203 of those were used to train and validate an assessment algorithm which was then tested on the remaining 56 photographs. The results of the algorithm assessment were compared with manually marked area, as well as with the affected area determined by trained

2019 Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

8. Extent and location of fixation affects the biomechanical stability of short- or long-segment pedicle screw technique with screwing of fractured vertebra for the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures: An observational study using finite element analy (PubMed)

Extent and location of fixation affects the biomechanical stability of short- or long-segment pedicle screw technique with screwing of fractured vertebra for the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures: An observational study using finite element analy Intermediate screw fixation at the fracture level has been widely accepted to treat thoracolumbar burst fractures, but no study has shown the effect of the extent and location of fixation. The effect of the extent and location of fixation (...) -L3, and M5-L2 (bilateral 5 monoaxial pedicle screw fixation from L2 to T10). Range of motion (ROM) and largest von Mises stress (LVMS) of the instrumentations were recorded and analyzed.No significant differences were observed in the mean ROM of all states of motion between the M3-L1 model and the other fixation models except for M5-L2. The LVMS of the pedicle screws and rods all occurred during flexion. The LVMS values of the pedicle screws were larger in the M3-L2 fixation model and M4-L3

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2018 Medicine

9. How the Availability of Observation Status Affects Emergency Physician Decisionmaking. (PubMed)

How the Availability of Observation Status Affects Emergency Physician Decisionmaking. This study seeks to understand how emergency physicians decide to use observation services, and how placing a patient under observation influences physicians' subsequent decisionmaking.We conducted detailed semistructured interviews with 24 emergency physicians, including 10 from a hospital in the US Midwest, and 14 from 2 hospitals in central and northern England. Data were extracted from the interview (...) transcripts with open coding and analyzed with axial coding.We found that physicians used a mix of intuitive and analytic thinking in initial decisions to admit, observe, or discharge patients, depending on the physician's individual level of risk aversion. Placing patients under observation made some physicians more systematic, whereas others cautioned against overreliance on observation services in the face of uncertainty.Emergency physicians routinely make decisions in a highly resource-constrained

2018 Annals of Emergency Medicine

10. Observing dyspnoea in others elicits dyspnoea, negative affect, and brain responses. (PubMed)

Observing dyspnoea in others elicits dyspnoea, negative affect, and brain responses. Dyspnoea is usually caused by diagnosable cardiorespiratory mechanisms. However, frequently dyspnoea relates only weakly or not at all to cardiorespiratory functioning, suggesting that additional neuropsychosocial processes contribute to its experience. We tested whether the mere observation of dyspnoea in others constitutes such a process and would elicit dyspnoea, negative affect and increased brain responses (...) compared to control stimuli. This was paralleled by increased late positive potentials for dyspnoea-related pictures while respiratory variables did not change. Moreover, increased dyspnoea correlated modestly with higher levels of empathy in observers.The present results demonstrate that observing dyspnoea in others elicits mild-to-moderate dyspnoea, negative affect, and increased brain responses in the absence of respiratory changes. This vicarious dyspnoea has clinical relevance, as it might

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2018 European Respiratory Journal

11. Voluntarily controlled but not merely observed visual feedback affects postural sway (PubMed)

Voluntarily controlled but not merely observed visual feedback affects postural sway Online stabilization of human standing posture utilizes multisensory afferences (e.g., vision). Whereas visual feedback of spontaneous postural sway can stabilize postural control especially when observers concentrate on their body and intend to minimize postural sway, the effect of intentional control of visual feedback on postural sway itself remains unclear. This study assessed quiet standing posture (...) increased postural sway only in the voluntary-control group. Furthermore, regardless of the instructions and feedback manipulations, the experienced sense of control over visual feedback positively correlated with the magnitude of postural sway. We suggest that voluntarily controlled, but not merely observed, visual feedback is incorporated into the feedback control system for posture and begins to affect postural sway.

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2018 PeerJ

12. Does observability affect prosociality? (PubMed)

Does observability affect prosociality? The observation of behaviour is a key theoretical parameter underlying a number of models of prosociality. However, the empirical findings showing the effect of observability on prosociality are mixed. In this meta-analysis, we explore the boundary conditions that may account for this variability, by exploring key theoretical and methodological moderators of this link. We identified 117 papers yielding 134 study level effects (total n = 788 164) and found (...) a small but statistically significant, positive association between observability and prosociality (r = 0.141, 95% confidence interval = 0.106, 0.175). Moderator analysis showed that observability produced stronger effects on prosociality: (i) in the presence of passive observers (i.e. people whose role was to only observe participants) versus perceptions of being watched, (ii) when participants' decisions were consequential (versus non-consequential), (iii) when the studies were performed

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2018 Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

13. Observing Others’ Gaze Direction Affects Infants’ Preference for Looking at Gazing- or Gazed-at Faces (PubMed)

Observing Others’ Gaze Direction Affects Infants’ Preference for Looking at Gazing- or Gazed-at Faces Eye gaze is an important signal in social interactions, and it plays an important role to understand what others looking in joint attention (JA) situations. JA has been examined in situations involving two people gazing at objects; however, ecologically, infants observe not only faces that gaze at objects but also those that gaze at other people. Here, we examined how eye gaze directed (...) toward another face affect face preferences in infants. A total of 19 children were observed during a JA situation and a no-JA situation. In the JA situation, an adult face in the central position of the screen shifted her gaze to look at another adult face at a lateral position on the screen. However, during the no JA situation, the central face shifted her eye gaze away from the adult face presented on the screen. At test, for the centrally presented faces, infant looking times were longer at faces

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2018 Frontiers in psychology

14. The multidimensional representational space of observed socio-affective touch experiences (PubMed)

The multidimensional representational space of observed socio-affective touch experiences Observed touch interactions provide useful information on how others communicate with the external world. Previous studies revealed shared neural circuits between the direct experience and the passive observation of simple touch, such as being stroked/slapped. Here, we investigate the complexity of the neural representations underlying the understanding of others' socio-affective touch interactions (...) , these results highlight the overall complexity and the individual modulation of the distributed neural representations underlying the processing of observed socio-affective touch.Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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2018 NeuroImage

15. How early media exposure may affect cognitive function: A review of results from observations in humans and experiments in mice (PubMed)

How early media exposure may affect cognitive function: A review of results from observations in humans and experiments in mice Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now among the most commonly diagnosed chronic psychological dysfunctions of childhood. By varying estimates, it has increased by 30% in the past 20 years. Environmental factors that might explain this increase have been explored. One such factor may be audiovisual media exposure during early childhood. Observational (...) studies in humans have linked exposure to fast-paced television in the first 3 years of life with subsequent attentional deficits in later childhood. Although longitudinal and well controlled, the observational nature of these studies precludes definitive conclusions regarding a causal relationship. As experimental studies in humans are neither ethical nor practical, mouse models of excessive sensory stimulation (ESS) during childhood, akin to the enrichment studies that have previously shown benefits

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2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

16. Insomnia, negative affect, and psychotic experiences: Modelling pathways over time in a clinical observational study (PubMed)

Insomnia, negative affect, and psychotic experiences: Modelling pathways over time in a clinical observational study Insomnia has been shown to contribute to the development of psychotic experiences, predominantly via increasing negative affect. However, the role of insomnia in the persistence of psychotic experiences is yet to be investigated in a clinical population. Furthermore, other plausible influences, such as psychotic experiences contributing to insomnia, remain to be evaluated (...) . This study tests the role of insomnia as a predictor of persistence of psychotic experiences versus other potential causal routes. Twenty-nine patients aged 18-30 with non-affective psychosis completed three assessments over three months of their insomnia, negative affect, and psychotic experiences. Mixed effect models allowed comparisons between hypothesis-based models (comprising insomnia as predictor, negative affect as mediator, and psychotic experiences as outcome) and oppositional models, where

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2018 Psychiatry research

17. Domain-specific physical activity and affective wellbeing among adolescents: an observational study of the moderating roles of autonomous and controlled motivation (PubMed)

Domain-specific physical activity and affective wellbeing among adolescents: an observational study of the moderating roles of autonomous and controlled motivation Abundant evidence demonstrates a relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing. However, the strength of the relationship is not consistent. Factors contributing to variation in the strength of association are not well understood and, therefore, it remains difficult to optimize physical activity to ensure the strongest (...) possible relationship with mental health. Self-determination theory suggests that more autonomously motivated behaviors lead to better mental health outcomes, when compared to more controlled behaviors. Therefore, we examined whether autonomous and controlled motivation moderated the relationships between physical activity and affective wellbeing within two domains (i.e., leisure-time and active travel).Between February and April 2014, adolescents (N = 1632, M age = 12.94 years, SD = 0.54, 55% male

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2018 The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity

18. "Normal-appearing" scalp areas are also affected in lichen planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia: an observational histopathologic study of 40 patients. (PubMed)

"Normal-appearing" scalp areas are also affected in lichen planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia: an observational histopathologic study of 40 patients. Lichen planopilaris (LPP) and frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) are lymphocyte-mediated scarring alopecias which clinically affect primarily the anterior and mid-scalp. However, unaffected scalp areas have not yet been investigated in a systemic manner. In this study, we assessed histopathologic changes in affected and unaffected scalp (...) of histopathological inflammation, scalp symptoms and clinical lesions in the corresponding affected scalp areas. This preliminary study suggests that both diseases may be more generalized processes which affect the scalp and therefore need systemic or total scalp therapy.© 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2018 Experimental Dermatology

19. An Individual’s Connection to Nature Can Affect Perceived Restorativeness of Natural Environments. Some Observations about Biophilia (PubMed)

An Individual’s Connection to Nature Can Affect Perceived Restorativeness of Natural Environments. Some Observations about Biophilia This study investigates the relationship between the level to which a person feels connected to Nature and that person's ability to perceive the restorative value of a natural environment. We assume that perceived restorativeness may depend on an individual's connection to Nature and this relationship may also vary with the biophilic quality of the environment

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2018 Behavioral Sciences

20. Factors Affecting the Effective Management of Acute Stroke: A Prospective Observational Study (PubMed)

Factors Affecting the Effective Management of Acute Stroke: A Prospective Observational Study Stroke, characterized by sudden loss of cerebral function, is among one of the leading cause of death and disability world over. The newer treatment modalities have changed the landscape of stroke treatment but are very much time bound.To characterize pre-hospital and in-hospital factors affecting acute stroke management thus defining lacunae in stroke management.A prospective observational study

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2018 Indian journal of critical care medicine : peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine

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