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Number Needed to Screen

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1. Incidence of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and numbers needed to screen: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Incidence of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and numbers needed to screen: a systematic review. To investigate the incidence of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.In most countries, yearly or biennial screening intervals for diabetic retinopathy in people with Type 2 diabetes are recommended. Fewer screening sessions reduce the effort required of people with Type 2 diabetes and reduce healthcare costs.We conducted (...) and severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (R2), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (R3) or maculopathy (M1), collectively known as sight-threatening or referable diabetic retinopathy.A total of 17 studies were included. In people with Type 2 diabetes without or with only mild diabetic retinopathy at baseline, the average incidence rates of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy were ~1 per 100 person-years and ~8 per 100 person-years, respectively. The average numbers needed to screen to detect

2019 Diabetic Medicine

2. Immigrant screening for latent tuberculosis infection: numbers needed to test and treat, a Norwegian population-based cohort study. (PubMed)

Immigrant screening for latent tuberculosis infection: numbers needed to test and treat, a Norwegian population-based cohort study. To estimate the number needed to screen (NNS) and the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one tuberculosis (TB) case in the Norwegian immigrant latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening programme and to explore the effect of delay of LTBI treatment initiation.Population-based, prospective cohort study.Immigrants to Norway.Incident TB.We obtained aggregated (...) needed to monitor and evaluate NNS and NNT in countries implementing LTBI screening.© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

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2019 BMJ open

3. The Number of Screening Cycles Needed to Reduce Prostate Cancer Mortality in the Finnish Section of the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). (PubMed)

The Number of Screening Cycles Needed to Reduce Prostate Cancer Mortality in the Finnish Section of the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has shown a 21% reduction in prostate cancer mortality by PSA-based screening. The aim of the study is to evaluate screening effect on prostate cancer incidence and mortality in relation to number of screening rounds attended.Experimental Design: The participants (...) lung cancer and overall mortality were evaluated.Prostate cancer incidence was increased among screened men, but was not directly related to the number of screening rounds. Prostate cancer mortality was decreased in men screened twice or three times, but did not materially differ in those who did not attend the screening, and in men screened once compared with the control arm. The largest mortality reduction was in men screened three times [HR 0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09-0.33]. However

2018 Clinical Cancer Research

4. Development and validation of a search filter to identify equity-focused studies: reducing the number needed to screen. (PubMed)

Development and validation of a search filter to identify equity-focused studies: reducing the number needed to screen. Health inequalities, worse health associated with social and economic disadvantage, are reported by a minority of research articles. Locating these studies when conducting an equity-focused systematic review is challenging due to a deficit in standardised terminology, indexing, and lack of validated search filters. Current reporting guidelines recommend not applying filters (...) . Gold standard evaluation and validation sets were compiled. The filters were developed in MEDLINE, adapted for Embase and tested in both. We set a target of 0.90 sensitivity (95% CI; 0.84, 0.94) in retrieving 150 gold standard validation papers. We noted the reduction in the number needed to screen in a proposed equity-focused systematic review and the proportion of equity-focused reviews we assessed in the project that applied an equity filter to their search strategy.The specific terms strategy

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2018 BMC medical research methodology

5. Requesting the new Cervical Screening Test: what providers need to know

the changes There are several major changes to cervical screening practice in the renewed NCSP. Five-yearly routine Cervical Screening Tests (CSTs) are recommended for asymptomatic patients from 25 up to 74 years of age, with a previously normal screening history. Where HPV is not detected, patients aged 70–74 years are eligible to exit the program. Testing methodology and pathology MBS item numbers have changed. This means that pathology request forms need to be filled in differently from previously (...) Requesting the new Cervical Screening Test: what providers need to know Requesting the new Cervical Screening Test: what providers need to know - NPS MedicineWise Log In Menu Featured topics Professional development Publications An independent peer-reviewed journal providing critical commentary on drugs and therapeutics. Timely, independent, evidence-based information on new drugs and medical tests, and changes to the PBS and MBS. Featured topics Talk to a professional Information for consumers

2018 National Prescribing Service Limited (Australia)

6. Prevalence of Refractive Errors and Number Needed to Screen among Rural High School Children in Southern India: A Cross-sectional Study (PubMed)

Prevalence of Refractive Errors and Number Needed to Screen among Rural High School Children in Southern India: A Cross-sectional Study Avoidable blindness is mainly due to uncorrected refractive errors (URE). School Eye Screening (SES) can be used as an initiative to address this issue.To determine prevalence of URE and Number Needed to Screen (NNS) to find one child with low vision or blindness from URE among rural school children.A cross-sectional study was performed in 22 government schools (...) examination by a clinician.Of the 4739 children on rolls, 601 were absent; all 4138 (87.3%) who were present underwent screening; 2.3% (98) {95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.8 to 2.8} failed the screening test in at least one eye and were referred for examination. Only 28 (28.6%) of 98 children who were referred came for examination to the hospital. In the 2 of the 22 schools where the visual deficit was validated, there were no false positives. The prevalence of refractive error in these two schools

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2017 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

7. Cross-sectional study: Number needed to screen to detect adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer is higher in women than in similarly aged men

Cross-sectional study: Number needed to screen to detect adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer is higher in women than in similarly aged men Number needed to screen to detect adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer is higher in women than in similarly aged men | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use (...) cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Number needed to screen to detect adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer is higher in women than

2012 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

8. Number Needed to Screen

Number Needed to Screen Number Needed to Screen Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Number Needed to Screen Number Needed (...) to Screen Aka: Number Needed to Screen , Number Needed to Treat , Absolute Risk Reduction , Relative Risk Reduction From Related Chapters II. Definition: Event Rate (Event Probability) Event Rate: (Number Events) / (Number Total Patients) Calculate for both intervention and control groups III. Definition: Relative Risk (RR) RR = (Intervention Event Rate)/(Control Event Rate) IV. Definition: Relative Risk Reduction (RRR) Relative Risk Reduction or RRR = 1 - ( ) RRR = (Absolute Risk)/(Control Group Event

2018 FP Notebook

9. Number needed to treat – one way to frame harms vs. benefits: An update to our toolkit

on the related concepts of Number Needed to Harm (NNH) and Number Needed to Screen (NNS). You can find more tips for analyzing studies and health care claims in our section. You might also like Comments Please note , comments are no longer published through this website. All previously made comments are still archived and available for viewing through select posts. Comments are closed. × Our Comments Policy We welcome comments, which users can leave at the end of any of our systematic story reviews (...) Number needed to treat – one way to frame harms vs. benefits: An update to our toolkit Number needed to treat - one way to frame harms vs. benefits: An update to our toolkit - HealthNewsReview.org Note to our followers: Our nearly 13-year run of daily publication of new content on HealthNewsReview.org came to a close at the end of 2018. Publisher Gary Schwitzer and other contributors may post new articles periodically. But all of the 6,000+ articles we have published contain lessons to help you

2018 HealthNewsReview

10. Anorectal Manometry May Reduce the Number of Rectal Suction Biopsy Procedures Needed to Diagnose Hirschsprung's Disease. (PubMed)

Anorectal Manometry May Reduce the Number of Rectal Suction Biopsy Procedures Needed to Diagnose Hirschsprung's Disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether anorectal manometry (ARM), which is used to test the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR), is a safe alternative for reducing the number of invasive rectal suction biopsy (RSB) procedures needed to diagnose Hirschsprung disease (HD).Between 2010 and 2017, we prospectively collected the ARM results of 105 patients suspected of having (...) lower than that of RSB. After we modified the protocol the difference between the specificity of ARM and RSB was no longer statistically significant (74% vs 84%, respectively, P = 0.260). The negative predictive value of ARM was 100%, while their positive predictive value was significantly lower than that of RSB (56% vs 97%, P < 0.001).ARM is a viable screening tool for HD and, provided it is performed properly, it can be used to exclude HD with absolute certainty. By contrast, an absent rectoanal

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2018 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

11. We need better screening tools and outcome measures to develop meaningful predictions of post-surgical pain

We need better screening tools and outcome measures to develop meaningful predictions of post-surgical pain We need better screening tools and outcome measures to develop meaningful predictions of post-surgical pain - The BMJ ---> Patients undergoing elective surgery often attend a pre-assessment clinic where suitability for surgery is determined. Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to assess the quality of care delivered to NHS patients and to demonstrate health (...) post-operative pain one may also reduce the number of surgical interventions needed in this population. Additionally, pain has a significant emotional component that is not explored by currently used PROMs, despite a clear effect on the outcome from surgery. [1,3,5] One example of a PROM is the Manchester and Oxford Foot and Ankle Questionnaire (MOXFQ). This is endorsed by the British Foot and Ankle Society and is widely used in prospective research. [6] It is a 16-item self-assessment

2018 The BMJ Blog

12. We need better screening tools and outcome measures to develop meaningful predictions of post-surgical pain

We need better screening tools and outcome measures to develop meaningful predictions of post-surgical pain We need better screening tools and outcome measures to develop meaningful predictions of post-surgical pain - The BMJ ---> Patients undergoing elective surgery often attend a pre-assessment clinic where suitability for surgery is determined. Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) are increasingly used to assess the quality of care delivered to NHS patients and to demonstrate health (...) post-operative pain one may also reduce the number of surgical interventions needed in this population. Additionally, pain has a significant emotional component that is not explored by currently used PROMs, despite a clear effect on the outcome from surgery. [1,3,5] One example of a PROM is the Manchester and Oxford Foot and Ankle Questionnaire (MOXFQ). This is endorsed by the British Foot and Ankle Society and is widely used in prospective research. [6] It is a 16-item self-assessment

2018 The BMJ Blog

13. Cervical Cancer Screening and Incidence by Age: Unmet Needs Near and After the Stopping Age for Screening. (PubMed)

for hysterectomy status, did not decline until age ≥85 years. The proportion not recently screened increased with age, from 12.1% for women aged 41-45 years to 18.4% for women aged 61-65 years.Even among women within the recommended age range for routine screening, many are not up to date, and a substantial number of women approach the "stopping" age for cervical cancer screening without an adequate prior screening history. Efforts are needed to reach women who have not been adequately screened, including (...) Cervical Cancer Screening and Incidence by Age: Unmet Needs Near and After the Stopping Age for Screening. Leading professional organizations recommend cervical cancer screening for average-risk women aged 21-65 years. For average-risk women aged >65 years, routine screening may be discontinued if "adequate" screening with negative results is documented. Screening is recommended after age 65 years for women who do not meet adequate prior screening criteria or are at special risk.Authors

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2017 American journal of preventive medicine

14. Strategies to minimize false positives and interpret novel microdeletions based on maternal copy-number variants in 87,000 noninvasive prenatal screens (PubMed)

Strategies to minimize false positives and interpret novel microdeletions based on maternal copy-number variants in 87,000 noninvasive prenatal screens Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) of common aneuploidies using cell-free DNA from maternal plasma is part of routine prenatal care and is widely used in both high-risk and low-risk patient populations. High specificity is needed for clinically acceptable positive predictive values. Maternal copy-number variants (mCNVs) have been reported (...) as a source of false-positive aneuploidy results that compromises specificity.We surveyed the mCNV landscape in 87,255 patients undergoing NIPS. We evaluated both previously reported and novel algorithmic strategies for mitigating the effects of mCNVs on the screen's specificity. Further, we analyzed the frequency, length, and positional distribution of CNVs in our large dataset to investigate the curation of novel fetal microdeletions, which can be identified by NIPS but are challenging to interpret

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2018 BMC medical genomics

15. Is there an optimum number needed to retrieve to justify inclusion of a database in a systematic review search? (PubMed)

Is there an optimum number needed to retrieve to justify inclusion of a database in a systematic review search? To determine whether calculation of a 'Number Needed to Retrieve' (NNTR) is possible and desirable as a means of evaluating the utility of a database for systematic review.To determine an overall NNTR, eight systematic reviews were tracked to determine how many abstracts were retrieved compared to the number of articles meeting the inclusion criteria. An NNTR was calculated for each (...) offers a proof of concept of 'NNTR'. While the eight review NNTRs varied widely, all were consistent with the range initially reported by Booth. Included articles consistently appeared in multiple databases, suggesting that duplicate abstracts should be screened first as these are likely to include highly relevant, high-quality results.© 2017 Health Libraries Group.

2017 Health Information and Libraries Journal

16. Number needed to treat (NNT) in clinical literature: an appraisal. (PubMed)

Number needed to treat (NNT) in clinical literature: an appraisal. The number needed to treat (NNT) is an absolute effect measure that has been used to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medical interventions. Several methods can be used to calculate NNTs, and they should be applied depending on the different study characteristics, such as the design and type of variable used to measure outcomes. Whether or not the most recommended methods have been applied to calculate NNTs in studies (...) published in the medical literature is yet to be determined. The aim of this study is to assess whether the methods used to calculate NNTs in studies published in medical journals are in line with basic methodological recommendations.The top 25 high-impact factor journals in the "General and/or Internal Medicine" category were screened to identify studies assessing pharmacological interventions and reporting NNTs. Studies were categorized according to their design and the type of variables. NNTs were

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2017 BMC Medicine

17. Do we need more screening for sleep apnea?

Do we need more screening for sleep apnea? Screening for sleep apnea: Do we really need more? Note to our followers: Our nearly 13-year run of daily publication of new content on HealthNewsReview.org came to a close at the end of 2018. Publisher Gary Schwitzer and other contributors may post new articles periodically. But all of the 6,000+ articles we have published contain lessons to help you improve your critical thinking about health care interventions. And those will be still be alive (...) on the site for a couple of years. 6093 Posts Menu January 30, 2017 Do we need more screening for sleep apnea? Posted By Categories Tags , , , Michael Joyce is a writer & producer with HealthNewsReview.org. He tweets as @mlmjoyce Here we go again. To screen or not to screen, that is the question. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPTF), in a published in last week’s Journal of the American Medical Association, says there is not enough evidence to weigh the benefits and risks of screening

2017 HealthNewsReview

18. Methods to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV

). At the end of 2016, PHAC estimated that 86% of all people in Canada living with HIV were aware of their status (1). Additionally, estimating the burden of HIV is important as this number informs resource allocation such as treatment needs (2, 4, 9) and intervention approaches, such as screening strategies (9) and testing practices (2). Evidently, estimating the prevalence of HIV and the proportion of individuals who remain undiagnosed is beneficial. However, this number may be the most challenging stage (...) to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in need of antiretroviral therapy. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource]. 2015;10(3):e0121992. Public Health Agency of Canada. Summary: Estimates of HIV incidence, prevalence and proportion undiagnosed in Canada, 2014. 2016. Available from: Accessed December 11, 2018. Johnson AS, Song R, Hall HI. Estimated HIV incidence, prevalence, and undiagnosed infections in US states and Washington, DC, 2010–2014. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

19. Cancer Survivors ? Who are they, what are their needs, and how can medical providers meet these needs?

, and this figure is estimated to encroach on 20 million by 2026 (2). Notably, 47% of cancer survivors are 70 years or older, and 5% are younger than 40. With ongoing advancements in cancer screening, diagnostics, and therapies these numbers are expected to increase at an exceptional rate ( Table 1 ). The 2005 Institute of Medicine report, “From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor: Lost in Transition,” emphasized that a lack of definitive guidance exists on what constitutes best practices in caring for survivors (...) to screening for such a toxic effect. This may be a function of knowledge and training, but also related to not being guided or communicated through the oncologist. Though such a skillset is in the realm of the oncologist, it needs to be shared with all providers. Raising awareness to transfer this knowledge to general practitioners is imperative to detecting patients at risk for such late toxicity. Beyond awareness, the development of standardized criteria within a survivorship clinic to implement

2017 Clinical Correlations

20. Number of Screening Rounds and Postscreening Prostate Cancer Incidence: Results from the Finnish Section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Study. (PubMed)

Number of Screening Rounds and Postscreening Prostate Cancer Incidence: Results from the Finnish Section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Study. The multicenter European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer has shown a 21% reduction in prostate cancer (PC) mortality by prostate-specific antigen-based screening, with substantial overdiagnosis. In the present study, we analyzed the incidence of PC after screening in relation to the number of screening (...) rounds attended in the Finnish section of the trial.To evaluate the possible reduction in PC incidence following completed screening cycles in relation to the number of screening rounds attended.The participants in the screening arm of the Finnish screening trial (29 298 men) were divided into subgroups of men who had participated at one, two, or three screening rounds. A reference group was formed of the 43 151 men in the control arm by selecting age-matched controls for each subgroup

2016 European Urology

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